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Human Systems Function and Interactions

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Presentation on theme: "Human Systems Function and Interactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Systems Function and Interactions
There are 11 organ systems in humans

2 Nervous System - coordinates the body’s response to changes in internal and external environments
Contains brain, spinal cord, and nerves It is the fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Neurons – nerve cells

3 Neurotransmitters help messages go from neuron to neuron
Two parts – peripheral which has sensory and motor neurons that sends messages to and from sense organs, muscles and other organs; central – includes brain and spinal cord which is the control center of body

4 Integumentary System – acts as a barrier against infection and injury; helps regulate body temperature Consists of the hair, skin, and nails. Forms the external body covering; protects deeper tissues from injury synthesizes vitamin D; and is the site of cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, ect.) and sweat and oil glands

5 Skin - largest organ in the body
Outermost layer – epidermis (contains keratin and melanin); has nonliving cells Underneath layer – dermis; has living cells and blood vessels; also has sweat and oil glands

6 Respiratory System – provides for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Contains the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Diaphragm helps move air into and out of lungs Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli


8 Digestive System – converts food into simpler substances the body can use
Contains the mouth, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to the body cells; indigestible food is eliminated as feces Begins in the mouth Most chemical digestion occurs in small intestine Water absorbed in the large intestine (colon) Food passes through the system in 12 to 24 hours


10 Excretory System – eliminates wastes and helps maintain homeostasis
Contains the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood Where liquid waste is eliminated Three organs in the body are specialized for excretion: lungs, skin and kidney Major organ of excretion is the kidney


12 Skeletal System – supports the body and helps protect internal organs; allows movement; stores minerals and makes red blood cells Consists of bones and joints provides a framework the muscles to use to cause movement Place where red blood cells made Where bones connect there are joints (5 kinds – ball and socket (shoulder); pivot (neck); hinge – finger, elbow, knee); gliding (wrists and ankles); saddle (thumb) Ligaments – hold bones together Tendons – attach muscle to bone


14 Muscular System – works with skeleton to provide voluntary movement; helps circulate blood and move food allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat 3 types of muscles – smooth (blood vessels and digestive organs); cardiac – (heart); skeletal (attached to bones)


16 Circulatory System – brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; removes wastes; helps fight infection; helps regulate body temperature

17 Contains the heart and blood vessels
The blood vessels of the cardiovascular system transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes; the heart pumps blood Heart pumps blood throughout body through blood vessels Heart has 4 chambers: blood flows from right atrium(upper chamber) to right ventricle (lower chamber) to left atrium to left ventricle Arteries – carry blood away from the heart Veins – carries blood back to the heart Capillaries – tiny vessels that allow the exchange of materials between blood and other parts of the body Red blood cells – carry oxygen helped by hemoglobin 2 loops: pulmonary circulation – blood goes to lungs where it is oxygenated; systemic circulation blood goes throughout body


19 Endocrine System – controls growth, development and metabolism; helps maintain homeostasis
Hormones – substances secreted by cells to regulate the activity of other body cells Endocrine glands – secrete hormones directly into the blood


21 Reproductive System – produces egg and sperm
Includes the penis, testes, ductus deference and prostate gland in the males, and the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina in the female The overall function of the reproductive system is to produce offspring In females, helps nurture and protect developing embryo


23 Immune System – protects the body from disease
Lymphatic structures also collect fluid lost from blood vessels and returns it to the circulatory system The lymphatic system contains the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus The lymphatic system picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood and houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity


25 To function properly, it must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue Pathogens are microscopic organisms that can harm the body Nonspecific defenses do not trigger specific pathogens (skin and mucus membranes) Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer


27 Human Systems, Homeostasis and Feedback Inhibition

28 Every cell in your body is both an independent unit and an interdependent part of a larger community (the entire organism) The broadest levels of organization within multicellular organisms are cells, tissues, organ, and organ systems The eleven organ systems of the human body work together to maintain homeostasis in the body as a whole

29 There are four types of tissue in the human body:

30 2 kinds of gland in the human body
Epithelial – glands and tissues that cover internal and external body surfaces Glands are structures that make and secrete a particular product (ex. sweat, tears, hormones) 2 kinds of gland in the human body Exocrine glands- release substances into ducts (ex. sweat, tears, digestive juices) Endocrine glands – release substance into bloodstream that target cells in another part of the body (ex. hormones)

31 Connective – provide support for the body and connects its parts
Nervous – transmits nerve impulses throughout the body Muscle – along with the bones enables a body to move

32 Homeostasis is the process where the body keeps internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external conditions Your body has the ability to regulate literally trillions of cells in nearly constant activity, and keep everything in your body running smoothly. Nearly every organ system plays a role in maintaining a constant internal environment

33 Communication within the body is essential for maintaining homeostasis
Communication is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems. The nervous system uses electrical impulses delivered by nerves to communicate, and the endocrine system uses blood borne hormones

34 A nonliving example of this is the heating system of a house
When the temperature drops below a set point the thermostat turns the furnace on and then when the temperature rises above the set point the furnace turns off The furnace only runs when needed – this is an example of feedback inhibition


36 Feedback inhibition (negative feedback) – a process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus Systems controlled by feedback inhibition are generally fully automated and very stable Feedback inhibition is what biological systems (like the human body) use to achieve homeostasis

37 The cellular environment responds to feedback from its own activities by switching on and off as needed The part of the brain that works like a thermostat to regulate and maintain a stable body temperature is the hypothalamus The hypothalamus does this by sending chemical messages that either speed up or slow down cellular activity

38 The body must also regulate the levels of glucose and glycogen in the blood


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