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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earths Environmental Systems AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 32
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objectives: Define the terms negative feedback loop and positive feedback loop. Describe the nature of environmental systems.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative Feedback Loop: A feedback loop in which output of one type acts as input that moves the system in the opposite direction. The input and output essentially neutralize each others effects, stabilizing the system. Positive Feedback Loop: A feedback loop in which output of one type acts as input that moves the system in the same direction. The input and output drive the system further toward one extreme or another. Define the terms negative feedback loop and positive feedback loop.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Describe the nature of environmental systems. Earths natural systems are complex, so environmental scientists often take a holistic approach to studying environmental systems. Systems are networks of interacting components that generally involve feedback loops, show dynamic equilibrium and result in emergent properties. Negative feedback stabilizes systems, whereas positive feedback destabilizes systems. Positive feedback often results from human disturbance if natural systems. Because environmental systems interact and overlap, ones delineation of systems depends on the questions in which one is interested. Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting from nutrient pollution in the Mississippi River, illustrates how systems are interrelated.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earths environmental systems Our planets environment consists of complex networks of interlinked systems -Matter and molecules -Organisms, populations, interacting species -Nonliving entities (rocks, air, water, etc.) A systems approaches assesses questions holistically -Helping address complex, multifaceted issues -But systems can show behavior that is hard to understand and predict
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems show several defining properties System = a network of relationships among parts, elements, or components -They interact with and influence one another -They exchange energy, matter, or information Systems receive inputs of energy, matter, or information -They process these inputs and produce outputs Feedback loop = a circular process in which a systems output serves as input to that same system Negative and positive feedback loops do not mean bad and good
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative feedback loop Negative feedback loop = output from a system moving in one direction acts as input -That moves the system in the other direction Input and output neutralize one another -Stabilizes the system -Example: predator – prey interactions Most systems in nature
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Negative feedback
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback loop Positive feedback loop = instead of stabilizing a system, it drives it further toward one extreme or another -Exponential growth in human population, erosion, melting sea ice Rare in nature -But is common in natural systems altered by humans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Positive feedback
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems are active Dynamic equilibrium = system processes move in opposing directions -Balancing their effects Homeostasis = a system maintains constant (stable) internal conditions Emergent properties = system characteristics are not evident in the components alone -The whole is more than the sum of the parts It is hard to fully understand systems; they connect to other systems and do not have sharp boundaries
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental systems interact Environmental entities: complex, interacting systems For example, river systems consist of hundreds of smaller tributary subsystems -Impacted by farms, cities, fields, etc. Solving environmental problems means considering all appropriate components in the system of interest
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Case: The Gulf of Mexicos Dead Zone The Gulf of Mexico brings in a billion pounds/year of shrimp, fish, and shellfish Gulf dead zone = a region of water so depleted of oxygen -That marine organisms are killed or driven away Hypoxia = low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water -From fertilizer, fossil fuel emissions, runoff, sewage
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eutrophication: a systems perspective Fertilizer from Midwestern farms adds nutrients to the Mississippi River, which causes… -Phytoplankton to grow, then… -Bacteria eat dead phytoplankton and wastes -Explosions of bacteria deplete oxygen, causing… -Fish and other aquatic organisms to suffocate Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus include: -Agricultural sources, nitrogen-fixing crops -Livestock manure, sewage treatment plants, street runoff, industrial and vehicle emissions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eutrophication The process of nutrient over-enrichment leads to: -Blooms of algae -Increased production of organic matter -Decomposition and hypoxia
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems are perceived in various ways Categorizing environmental systems helps make Earths dazzling complexity comprehensible For example, the Earth consists of structural spheres -Lithosphere = rock and sediment -Atmosphere = the air surrounding our planet -Hydrosphere = liquid, solid or vapor water -Biosphere = the planets living organisms and the abiotic (nonliving) portions of the environment Boundaries overlap, so the systems interact
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 33 Earth’s Environmental Systems.
Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology. Photosynthesis.
SA Populations of Lynx and Hare in Ontario. Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology.
Environmental Systems: Matter, Energy, and Ecosystems Chapter 2 College Environmental Science.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 5 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan.
Chapter 7: Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology
Please sign in at the front.. Please be aware that you will be put into a team: 1, 2, 3, or 4, so please go ahead and break yourselves up into these teams.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystems AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 33.
Chapter 5 Topics Systems concepts Ecosystems Matter and energy Spatial patterns Services Biogeochemical cycles Water Carbon Nitrogen.
Chapter 7 – Ecosystem Ecology. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 7.1 Ecosystem Ecology and Biogeochemistry Biosphere –All organisms and nonliving environment.
Life on Earth depends upon one–way flow of high–quality energy from sun & cycling of crucial elements.
Equilibria. Equilibrium Equilibrium describes the average condition of a system, as measured through one of its elements or attributes, over.
Quiz 1.Outline the concept and characteristics of systems. 2.Give some examples of systems from the following subject areas: a)Biology b)Environmental.
Ecosystems Ecosystem: all organisms and non-living entities occurring and interacting in a particular area – Animals, plants, water, soil, nutrients, etc.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ecosystems Ecosystem = all organisms and nonliving entities that occur.
Review of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles.
1.1 SUSTAINABILITY (Pages 7-20) Homework: Page 20 # 1, 3, 4, 5ab, 7 Key Concepts: (Page 20)
Earth Systems and Cycles. n Approaches to studying earth science: –Reductionist –Holistic.
Earth as a System Section 2 Section 2: Energy in the Earth System Preview Objectives Earth-System Science Earth’s Four Spheres Earth’s Energy Budget Cycles.
CHAPTER 1 Nutrient Cycles and Energy Flow In this chapter, you will: explain that life depends on recycled matter describe the processes of photosynthesis.
©MathScience Innovation Center Our Backyard Waterways : Eutrophication Presented by: Rachel Martin Day 2.
Nutrient Cycles. Nutrients circulate through ecosystems Matter is continually circulated in ecosystems Nutrient (biogeochemical) cycles – the movement.
Chapter 2. Ecology Biosphere Biotic Factor Abiotic Factor Population Biological Community Ecosystem Biome Habitat Niche Predation.
3 Earth’s Environmental Systems CHAPTER. The Gulf of Mexico’s Dead Zone Nutrient-rich runoff causes plankton blooms and hypoxia—low oxygen levels—in the.
Matter is recycled (it changes form, but never leaves) Energy is not recycled.
Types of Water Pollution Sewage Disease-causing agents Sediment pollution Inorganic plant and algal nutrients Organic compounds Inorganic chemicals Thermal.
Chapter 3 Environmental Systems: Chemistry, Energy, and Ecosystems.
Ecology The scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment The scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
Cycling of Matter Energy for life flows in one way – from the source (sun or chemical)
Introduction to Earth Systems Science. A system can be defined as: a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole For example: The cardiovascular.
Chapter 5 Notes Environmental Science. Objectives Describe the short-term and long-term process of the carbon cycle. Identify one way that humans.
Monthly Follow-Up Session #1 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy and Dynamics Kelly Orlando
What organism is important in cycling of nutrients? Agenda for Friday Jan 9 th 1.Quiz 2.Cycles Notes.
Learning Objectives: to understand where organisms are able to survive on Earth to understand what an ecosystem is and what factors affect ecosystems.
Characteristics of Phosphorus an essential nutrient for plants and animals in the form of ions PO 4 3- and HPO 4 2- part of DNA and RNA-molecules part.
Science 20 Unit D: Changes in Living Systems. The Biosphere of Life.
Biogeochemical Cycles Chapter 2. Ecosystems provide vital services All life on Earth (including humans) depends on healthy, functioning ecosystems Ecosystem.
Dissolved Oxygen Pollution Types.
MODIFIED BY J.SHANNON The Coast: Dead Zones. Dead zones are regions in fresh and marine aquatic environments in which dissolved oxygen concentrations.
The Biosphere. Chapter 3 Outline 3-1: What is Ecology? –Interactions and Interdependence –Levels of Organization –Ecological Methods 3-2: Energy Flow.
All about “Dead Zones”. Zones of Oxygen Depletion.
How do Earth’s systems interact? Specifically within the: Water cycle, Rock cycle, Carbon cycle, and Phosphorus cycle Earth Systems and Interactions carbon.
3 Earth’s Environmental Systems CHAPTER. Lesson 3.2 Systems in Environmental Science Positive feedback loops can help erosion turn a fertile field to.
State Standards Hydrology. Explain the structure of the Hydrosphere Water distribution on Earth Local river basin and water availability.
Biosphere- consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water and the atmosphere. The biosphere extends.
ECOSYSTEMS. Ecosystems Ecosystem = all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and interact in a particular area at the same time – Includes abiotic.
Chapter 1 Studying the State of Our Earth. What do you think? What is the difference between environmental science and environmentalism?
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