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MO SW-PBS Mini-Module This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic.

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Presentation on theme: "MO SW-PBS Mini-Module This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic."— Presentation transcript:

1 MO SW-PBS Mini-Module This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic. Notes have been written to assist with the presentation. More information is available in the Classroom chapter of the MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the topic. Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if you have presented in previous mini-modules. Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions Good luck! Delete this slide before beginning your session. This is a note to school staff to help you understand what the MO SW-PBS Mini-Modules are and how they connect to the MO SW-PBS Team Workbook.

2 Handouts Three handouts are needed to complete this module:
Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers Encouraging Expected Behavior Fact Sheet

3 Note to Presenter This Mini-Module on Encouraging Expected Behavior May Be Presented as a whole (approximately 1.5 hours) OR Divided into 2 sessions 1. Introduction to Encouraging, Adult Attention and Positive Feedback 2. Tangible Reinforcement and Menu of Reinforcers Outcomes: Understand the importance and impact of both contingent and non-contingent attention on student behavior and classroom climate. Use preferred adult behaviors to build relationships and positive classroom climate and effectively interact with students when talking about behavior. Demonstrate positive feedback that specifically describes behavior and uses rationales. Outcomes: Develop a tangible reinforcement system to enhance your use of positive feedback. Develop and implement an effective menu or continuum of positive reinforcement that serves to motivate all students.

4 Effective Classroom Practices
Note to Presenter: Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if you have presented in previous mini-modules. Today we are going to focus on practices that have been found to be effective in the classroom.

5 At the end of the session, you will be able to…
Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Explain to others the power of positive and proactive strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning environment. Understand and be able to demonstrate methods to encourage expected behavior. These are the outcomes or things you will know or be able to do as a result of learning about Effective Classroom Practices. MO SW-PBS

6 “When teachers know and use positive and preventative management strategies, many of the commonly reported minor classroom behaviors can be avoided.” Scheuermann & Hall “Effective classroom management is a key component of effective instruction, regardless of grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.” Sprick, et. al These quotes give us insight about some of the reasons it is so important to learn and perfect effective classroom practices. Read first quote. This reminds us that the effective classroom practices are positive and preventative which help us avoid many minor classroom behaviors. Read second quote. Sprick tells us effective classroom management is an important component of effective instruction for all teachers, regardless of grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum. Unfortunately many of our college classes did not prepare us in effective classroom practices. MO SW-PBS

7 Typical School Day 17% Direct Instruction 33% Seatwork 20% Transitions 30% Discipline & Other Non-Instructional Activities Note to Presenter: See page 324 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of academic learning time. When the amount of time spent in various classroom activities was researched only 17% was spent in instruction and 33% in seatwork. Transitions take 20% of the school day. The typical elementary classroom loses 7-10 minutes each transition from one subject to another; with a typical day including at least 10 transitions, 70 minutes are lost each day; almost one day per week lost to transitions alone. Unfortunately discipline and other non-instructional activities such as taking attendance, announcements, etc, accounted for 30% of the school day. Think about your typical day and the time you spend in various activities. How does it compare to these statistics? Why is this information relevant to us? (discipline takes away from time to teach academic curriculum) Conclusion: We want to implement effective classroom practices to prevent and decrease interruptions caused by discipline problems and increase the amount of time we have to teach. Cotton, 1995; Walberg, 1988 MO SW-PBS 324

8 Academic Learning Time
There is no doubt that academic learning time–the amount of time that students are actively, successfully, and productively engaged in learning–is a strong determinant of achievement. Note to Presenter: See page 324 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of academic learning time. The Effective Classroom Practices have been identified to increase the likelihood of appropriate behavior and decrease problem behavior while increasing academic learning time. It only makes sense that the amount of time students are engaged in learning will positively impact achievement. MO SW-PBS

9 Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated time that actually results in teaching. Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time students are actively engaged in learning. Note to Presenter: See page 324 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of these two aspects of academic learning time. Academic Learning Time can be divided into Instructional Time which is what we have been talking about. Instructional time is the allocated time that actually results in teaching. Engaged Time is the amount of instructional time that students are actively engaged in learning. MO SW-PBS

10 Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–diminished by unclear procedures, disruptive student behavior, disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc. Classroom Expectations Classroom Procedures & Routines Encouraging Expected Behavior Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior Note to Presenter: See page 324 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of these two aspects of academic learning time. Information on Supporting Instructional Time Through Expectations, Teaching, Encouraging and Correcting is on pages 327 – 329. Instructional Time, the time we have to teach, is diminished if we have unclear procedures, disruptive student behavior, disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc. There are four Effective Classroom Practices to help us gain more instructional time to teach: MO SW-PBS

11 Academic Learning Time
Engaged Time–diminished by inactive supervision, limited opportunities for students to respond, poor task selection, etc. Active Supervision Opportunities to Respond Activity Sequencing & Choice Task Difficulty Note to Presenter: See page 324 in the MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of these two aspects of academic learning time. More Information is on pages Engaged Time which is amount of instructional time when students are actively engaged in learning, is diminished if we have ineffective strategies such as inactive supervision, limited opportunities for students to respond, poor task selection, etc. There are four Effective Classroom Practices that positively impact engaged time. MO SW-PBS

12 Three Levels of Implementation
A Continuum of Support for All Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Note to Presenter: See page 15 of the MO SW-PBS Team Workbook for further explanation of Three Levels of Implementation. One of the important points to understand about Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support is that schools design systems to meet the unique behavioral needs of every students through three broad levels of implementation. We implement similar systems for academics in our school. The triangle represents all students in our school. At Tier One we teach our core academic curriculum to all students. For behavior we develop a common language and focus for all students, staff and families. The Tier One strategies such as teaching social skills, encouraging students who meet our expectations, etc. are designed to be implemented consistently and efficiently across all school settings by all staff. If we do a good job of teaching our academic core curriculum and teaching social skills we will meet the learning and behavioral needs of about 80% of our students. The effective classroom practices we are addressing today are Tier One strategies we want to ensure are being implemented effectively in every classroom in our school. We know there are students who do not respond to Tier One academic and behavioral strategies. These student they need more opportunities to learn, individualized or intensive strategies for them to be success academically and behaviorally. Right now we are focusing on Tier One strategies to help prevent some students from needing more intense support. Tier One All students Preventive, proactive Tier One All settings, all students Preventive, proactive MO SW-PBS 15

13 Effective Classroom Practices
Classroom Expectations Classroom Procedures & Routines Encouraging Expected Behavior Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior Active Supervision Opportunities to Respond Activity Sequencing & Choice Task Difficulty Note to presenter: The notes below are based on a school that has already addressed the first four effective classroom practices in non-classroom settings such as the hallway, cafeteria, etc. Edit the notes to be relevant to what your school has implemented at this point in time. Here are the Effective Classroom Practices we are going to focus on. The first four may be familiar to us because as a school we have implemented these in nonclassroom settings, like the cafeteria, halls, etc. We have determined our expectations (safe, respectful, responsible, etc) and we have taught procedures and routines in our cafeteria, hallways, etc. We have already set up a schoolwide to encourage expected behavior (examples: Pride tickets, Bulldog Bucks). We have also worked on being consistent with ways to discourage inappropriate behavior. Effective Classroom Practices 5-8 are strategies we have not focused on as a whole school before. MO SW-PBS 324

14 Discussion: Academic Learning Time
Discuss with a partner: What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted learning time? What do we currently do to ensure engaged time (e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task, responding frequently, and producing quality work matched to their ability)? 5 minutes discussion; 2-3 minutes of sharing by volunteers. MO SW-PBS 325

15 Effective classroom managers are known, not by what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by what they do to set their classroom up for academic success and to prevent problems from occurring. The good news is that we have the ability to set all our students up for academic success and to prevent behavior problems from occurring. Any questions before we continue? MO SW-PBS 324

16 References Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary: 1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing. Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and learning. Educational Leadership 45(6), These are the references for the introduction of Effective Classroom Practices.

17 Encouraging Expected Behavior in the Classroom
Our topic today is encouraging expected behavior MO SW-PBS

18 Effective Classroom Practices
Classroom Expectations Classroom Procedures & Routines Encouraging Expected Behavior Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior Active Supervision Opportunities to Respond Activity Sequencing & Choice Task Difficulty Here is the list of research-based effective classroom practices. Today we are going to focus on Encouraging Expected Behavior

19 At the end of the session, you will be able to…
Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Understand the importance and impact of both contingent and non-contingent attention on student behavior and classroom climate. Use preferred adult behaviors to build relationships and positive classroom climate and effectively interact with students when talking about behavior. Demonstrate positive feedback that specifically describes behavior and uses rationales. These are the outcomes or things you will know or be able to do as a result of learning about Encouraging Expected Behavior. MO SW-PBS

20 Introduction to Encouraging, Adult Attention and Positive Feedback
Now we are going to talk about creating a menu of reinforcers that will serve to motivate all students. Who remembers the definition of reinforcement? Reinforcement is a consequence that happens after a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will occur again in the future. It is an important concept as we discuss ways to encourage students as they learn new social and academic skills. 148

21 Introduction to Encouraging
Clarifying and teaching classroom expectations alone are not sufficient. Similar to encouraging academic behavior. Motivates students as they are initially learning expected behavior, and maintains them as students become more fluent with use. Essential to changing student behavior and creating a positive school environment. Note to Presenter: The next two slides summarize the content on pages of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Encouraging students to display expected classroom behavior is important because…. Clarifying and teaching classroom expectations alone are not sufficient: We must also encourage student use of those behaviors. To help students continue to use the classroom expectations we have established, we followed the desired behavior with consequences that are reinforcing. Similar to encouraging academic behavior: To help students learn academic skills, we all use a variety of ways to encourage students from smiles for the correct answer, positive comments when we grade papers, etc. Motivates students as they are initially learning expected behavior, and maintains them as students become more fluent with use: We know how important it is to encourage students who are starting to learn new academic skills. The same is true with social behavior. Encouraging helps students when they are learning our classroom expectations and helps students maintain use of classroom expectations over time. Encouragement is essential to changing student behavior and creating a positive school environment MO SW-PBS 148

22 Terminology Acknowledgment Encouragement Recognition Reinforcement
Reward Positive Feedback Praise Teacher Approval Note to Presenter: Definitions for some of the more common terms associated with encouraging are on page 149 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. The intent of this slides is to clarify that although these terms have different definitions, we will use them interchangeably throughout this presentation. The most correct terms that will be used consistently are “reinforcement” and “positive feedback.” MO SW-PBS 149

23 Consequences: Making Adult Attention Contingent on Performance of Desired Behaviors
A–B–C Antecedent Behavior Consequence Conditions or circumstances that alter the probability of a behavior occurring. An observable act. What the student does. The actions or reactions to the antecedents. The resulting event or outcome that occurs immediately following the behavior. Impacts future occurrence of the behavior. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 149 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. One of the researched tenets that is basic to schoolwide positive behavior support is that a positive consequence will positively impact the future occurrence of the behavior. In other words, if we give a positive comment or activity after a behavior we are increasing the likelihood the behavior will take place again in the future. If we thank students for raising their hand in a group discussion, we are highlighting that they did what we expect them to do and increase the likelihood students will raise their hand in the future. MO SW-PBS

24 Activity: Encouraging Expected Behavior
Think and Share Appoint a recorder for the whole group. Take one minute and individually think of ways you and your school reinforce academic behavior. Now, think of ways you and your school recognize social behavior. What do you notice? Approximately 15 minutes. Set up the chart paper with the heading “Encouraging Academic Behavior” on the top left side of your chart paper. Write “Encouraging Social Behavior” on the top right side of the chart paper. Record ideas from participants first on the left side then the right. What do participants notice about the list? Which list has more items on it? We also give lots of ribbons, trophies, etc for excellent athletic and musical performance, don’t we? Conclusion: We are accustomed to encouraging students for academic behavior and we want to be sure we give adequate attention for social behavior we expect in our classrooms. Leave work on display for review by others. MO SW-PBS 150

25 Four Topics Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent
Effective Positive Feedback Tangible reinforcement system Menu or continuum of reinforcement This is an organizational slide that identifies topics to be addressed. We are first going to address the first two topics. MO SW-PBS

26 The Power of Adult Attention
Our first topic is The Power of Adult Attention 150

27 Adult Attention Two types of adult attention: Non-contingent
Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 150 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. This is an introduction slide with more detail in upcoming slides. We are going to talk about two different type of adult attention. MO SW-PBS

28 Adult Attention Two types of adult attention:
Non-contingent–attention provided regardless of student performance Greetings, proximity, smiles, conversations, jobs, etc. Contingent. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 150 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Non-contingent attention is attention provided regardless of how the student performs. Provides time and attention that is not tied to performance. Helps fulfill students’ need to be noticed and valued. Sufficient non-contingent attention may decrease frequency of attention-seeking misbehavior. Provides role-model of positive social interactions. Antecedents that help establish positive relationships between staff and students and set the stage for students to display desired academic and behavioral expectations and receive correction when needed. MO SW-PBS

29 Non-Contingent Attention
As teachers report that positive student-teacher relationships increase, the number of suspensions students receive decrease. As students report an increase in positive emotional quality in the student-teacher relationship, the number of behavior referrals received decrease and the amount of time on-task increases. Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007 Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 150 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Here are some of the positive effects of Non-Contingent Attention…decreased suspensions and behavior referrals and increase time on-task. MO SW-PBS

30 Adult Attention Two types of adult attention: Non-contingent
Contingent–provided based upon student performance of an identified expectation or behavior Praise, positive feedback, reinforcement, tangible item. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 150 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. With Contingent attention, the student must perform the expected behavior before the teacher responds with attention. Contingent attention has been proven to: Increases academic performance (Good, et al. 1981). Increases on-task behavior (Sutherland, Wehby, & Copeland, 2000) Increases likelihood students will continue to use the desired behavior in the future. Helps students to discern correct or “right” responses from incorrect or “wrong.” MO SW-PBS 151

31 Low Rates of Teacher Attention
Average teacher fails to take advantage of the power of attention. Approval statements for academic responses far outweigh those for social behavior. Highest rates of attention for social behavior occur in 2nd grade and decrease dramatically after that. Teachers respond more frequently to inappropriate social behavior than to appropriate social behavior. This attention inadvertently maintains or increases the misbehavior. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 152 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Many of you may be sitting here thinking, “I already give kids non-contingent and contingent attention.” But research has shown us that the average teacher fails to take advantage of the power of attention. Research has shown that teachers positively respond to student academic performance much more frequently than student social behavior. Typical teacher approval statements for academic responses far outweighed those for social behavior across all grade levels, with highest rates for each type of approval occurring in second grade and tapering off dramatically after that. In all grade levels, teachers re­sponded to correct academic perfor­mance (20.36 per hour average) more frequently than disapprovals (7.56 per hour average). On the other hand, statements of disapproval for social behavior (19.20 per hour) were always more frequent than approvals (1.52 per hour). Again, the good new is we can change this to help us improve the learning environment and teach and support student use of important social skills…which are important life skills. We will talk more about the effective ratio of teacher attention to positive student behavior in a little bit. MO SW-PBS 152

32 Preferred Adult Behaviors
Behaviors that impact student affect, compliance, and learning: Proximity–communicate privately at 20” with individual students; communication across the room reserved for information intended for entire group only Listening–pause, attend thoughtfully to the student Eye Contact–communicate at eye level; look student in the eye when instructing or directing; hold eye contact briefly for compliance Pleasant Voice–use calm pleasant voice when talking with, praising, and correcting students Smiles–pleasant facial expression and frequent smiles Touch–appropriate brief nurturing touch Use of Student’s Name–begin interactions with student name and use frequently during interactions Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 153 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Teach, give examples and model each of these behaviors. Related to teacher attention is the student-teacher relationship and preferred adult behaviors. There is a growing body of research that indicates academic achievement and stu­dents’ behavior are both influenced by the quality of teacher-student relationship (Jones & Jones, 1998 and Algozzine, Wang, & Violette, 2010). These behaviors may relate to their vision of discipline for their school done earlier. They are observable indicators of the status of relationship-building in a school. MO SW-PBS 153

33 Activity: Adult Attention & Preferred Behaviors
Think-Pair-Share Pair up with someone you have not yet worked with. Think about: 1) the preferred behaviors you appreciate someone using with you 2) how you give attention to students and the preferred behaviors you regularly use and 3) the preferred behaviors you could improve. Share with your partner. Approximately 15 minutes; 1-2 minutes of personal think time. 5 minutes to share with partner and 5 minutes to discuss. MO SW-PBS

34 Positive Feedback Now we are going to talk about a specific type of contingent attention, positive feedback. 154

35 Positive Feedback Verbal reinforcement; a form of social reinforcement that provides information on successful behavior while reinforcing or increasing the likelihood that behavior will be repeated. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 149 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. This is the definition of positive feedback. The term verbal praise is often used interchangeably with positive feedback. 149

36 Positive Feedback Essential to change and sustain behavior.
Recognizes successes or efforts at tasks that are difficult for the child. While general praise contributes to a pleasant classroom, it is insufficient to build and sustain desired behavior. Students need clear specific feedback on classroom expectations and behaviors. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 154 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Essential to change and sustain behavior: The important point about positive feedback is the all people need positive feedback about their performance of a skill or behavior to learn the behavior. For example, if we ask a student “What is 4 + 4?” and the student says, “8” we give the student positive feedback to help the student know his answer was correct. That’s how s/he will learn that = 8. Recognizes effort or successes at tasks that are difficult for the child: If we give students positive feedback for their effort when tasks are difficult, it will encourage students to persist. Sometimes we need to give positive feedback when students display expected behavior for a short time. While general praise contributes to a pleasant classroom, it is insufficient to build and sustain desired behavior: “Good job” is a phrase we hear staff say to students but general praise needs to be more specific to help students learn academic and social behavior. Students need clear specific feedback on classroom expectations. MO SW-PBS 154

37 Effective Positive Feedback
Specifically describe the behavior: Explicitly define what was done that you want to continue. Like a video-tape replay. Expressed using the words of classroom expectations. “When I said it was time to begin, you cleared off your desk, got your materials out immediately, and began working quickly.” Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 154 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. These are 3 things to keep in mind to make positive feedback effective to change behavior. First, teachers need to specifically describe the behavior. This helps students understand the exact behavior you want the student to continue. Think of a video-tape replay, we need to spimple decribe what we saw the student do and tie it to classroom expectations. Here is an example.

38 Effective Positive Feedback
Provide a rationale: Explain the reason why the behavior is important. Teach the benefits of the behavior and the impact it has on them and others. Typically includes stating the classroom expectation and what the student might expect could happen if they use the appropriate behavior. “Getting started right away shows cooperation, and you will likely have less homework.” Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 154 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Here are more examples of rationale statements, “When you raise your hand, your are more likely to be called on and get to share your ideas.” “When you raise your hand during independent seatwork, the teacher will be eager to help you right away.” “When your follow directions immediately you are more likely to get your work done quickly and can do something you like.” “When you accept correction without arguing, you can learn from your mistakes and avoid having to redo your work in the future.” The second important thing to remember is that to make positive feedback effective is to provide a rationale which means explaining the reason why the behavior is important. This helps teach the benefits of the behavior and how it impacts them or others. See how this can help students become more intrinsically motivated? If you include the classroom expectation, it provides consistent language for our kids. Here’s an example.

39 Effective Positive Feedback
Can include a positive consequence: Positive feedback alone may be sufficiently reinforcing. When behavior requires a great deal of effort, pairing verbal feedback with tangible or activity reinforcement may be helpful. When using a positive consequence, always pair with specific positive feedback. Promote ownership; student “earns,” teachers do not “give.” “Because you got started so quickly, you have earned a Cardinal Card.” Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 154 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Model multiple consequences; vary to include simple consequences other than a tangible item (e.g., help pass out the papers, be line leader, no homework, etc.). Be sure to stress that students EARN and teachers do not GIVE. Finally, to make positive feedback effective, we can include a positive consequence, which can be a tangible item or activity that students find reinforcing. Again this can help students become intrinsically motivated because they have earned the feedback through their behavior.

40 Putting It All Together
“When I said it was time to begin, you cleared off your desk, got your materials out immediately, and began working quickly. Getting started right away shows cooperation, and you will likely have less homework. Because you got started so quickly, you have earned a Cardinal Card.” This is putting together the example feedback we just shared. This may seem lengthy and awkward at first but with practice it will become more natural. See how specific this feedback is? There should be no doubt the student is told exactly what they did and why it was important.

41 More Examples “Dolly, you stopped and took some time to think about your decision and then walked away from Sam. That wasn’t easy, but it can help to avoid an argument.” “Hey Pedro, thanks for throwing your trash away. That shows cooperation and respect for our classroom. You earned a Bee ticket to add to our class hive. We are getting close to our goals!” “Jasmine, thanks for being on time to class. That’s important at school and when you are on the job.” Here are a few more examples that are a specific description of the behavior and provide a rationale. Ask participants if they have any questions.

42 Sincere and Appropriate Feedback
Use a genuine, warm, sincere response that is appropriate for the situation and the individual. Use a variety of phrases, showing spontaneity and credibility. Find own style to communicate sincere care and concern. “Super job walking quietly in your group! That shows respect to everyone. Thank you.” “Wow! What a great job of accepting correction. You looked right at me, said ‘okay,’ and didn’t argue or complain. When you do that you show respect and you can learn and avoid mistakes in the future. Why don’t you be the first to leave class today.” Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 155 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. You may be thinking that this sounds phony and contrived. It is important that we each find a way to give our positive feedback in a sincere way that is appropriate for the age of our students. MO SW-PBS 155

43 Positive Feedback: Considerations
Use Positive Feedback: Contingently–only when students demonstrate the desired behavior. Immediately–best when it closely follows the behavior; allow for clear connection between the behavior and the feedback. Frequently when trying to build a new behavior. Intermittently once the skill or behavior has been learned to maintain the behavior. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Here are some final considerations to make positive feedback effective. Contingently. Since students “earn” positive feedback and consequences, it is provided only when they have demonstrated the desired behavior. Immediately. Positive feedback is best when it follows closely to the be­havior so that students can connect what they did with the feedback they are receiving. The younger the stu­dent, the more important this is. Frequently when trying to build a new behavior. When students are learning new skills, provide feedback on a continuous schedule. This means that every time the student displays the desired behavior, they receive positive feedback. Unpredictably or Intermittently to maintain behavior. Once the skill or behavior has been learned, you can shift to use of general praise and occa­sional use of positive feedback. This intermittent use of positive feedback helps to maintain the behavior. We must be careful not to omit all positive feedback as students may not sustain the skills that they have learned. MO SW-PBS 155

44 4:1 Ratio Establishes a predictable, positive environment
Appropriate behavior receives more attention than inappropriate. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page of the SW-PBS Team Workbook 4:1 Ratio. Another important point in building positive school-wide and classroom environments is to ensure that appropriate behavior receives much more attention (at a higher ratio) than inappropriate behavior. Reavis, Jenson, Kukic & Morgan (1993) recommend a ratio of 4:1; four comments in response to desired student behavior to one response to student misbehavior. Interactions with students are considered positive or negative based on the behavior of the student at the time the attention is given, not the demeanor of the teacher. Remember when we talked about how teachers don’t take advantage of the use of positive feedback? A goal of 4:1 helps us all take advantage of this powerful and effective tool we have. It’s free too! MO SW-PBS 155

45 Activity: Role Play Practice to Give Effective Positive Feedback
Find a partner that you have not yet worked with. One becomes the “teacher,” one the “student.” Role-play scenes on top of handout. Change roles and repeat. Be aware of the preferred adult behaviors along with your words. When you are comfortable with these, role-play delivering positive feedback spontaneously, using your own scenes and your classroom’s expectations and specific behaviors. Select a scene to model for the group. This activity will take approximately 15 minutes for role-play and modeling with the large group. Handout is entitled Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback. Instruct participants to practice the three example at the top of the handout. MO SW-PBS 156

46 Benefits of Positive Feedback
“When we focus our praise on positive actions, we support a sense of competence and autonomy that helps students develop real self-esteem.” Davis, 2007 Note to Presenter: This quote is on page 155 and more information about the benefits of positive feedback is available on page 157 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. In summary, positive feedback: Helps adults and student focus on positive social behaviors and actions. It is the most powerful behavior change tool teachers have in their repertoire. Increases likelihood students will use the recognized behaviors and skills in the future. Decreases inappropriate behavior, and reduces the need for correction. Enhances self-esteem and helps build internal locus of control. MO SW-PBS 155

47 Activity: Personal Reflection
Think of a time in your classroom that is challenging because students do not follow the classroom expectations or procedures. Describe the specific activity and misbehavior you see and hear. Write the specific classroom expectation or procedure you want the students to follow. Write the Effective Positive Feedback you will say when students follow the specific classroom expectation or procedure. Write the specific day and time you are going to give the Effective Positive Feedback. Use bottom part of Handout entitled Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback to do this activity. Before participants begin their work, show example on next slide. Give 5 minutes to reflect and plan. MO SW-PBS

48 Activity: Personal Reflection Example
Challenging Activity and Misbehavior: Beginning of class students walk around, talk out Specific classroom expectation or procedure: Sit in seat, read warm-up activity on Smart Board, begin to work on warm-up activity with voices off. Effective Positive Feedback you will say: “Thanks for getting to work right away with your voice off. That helps you focus and take responsibility for your learning.” Write the specific day and time you are going to give the Effective Positive Feedback. Tomorrow, first hour! Use bottom part of Handout entitled Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback to do this activity. Give 5 minutes to reflect and plan. MO SW-PBS

49 Conclusion In the long, run encouraging saves times
When we encourage students with positive feedback, we teach what we want them to do Positive feedback provides opportunities for building relationships (which is important in drop out prevention) In conclusion….make points on the slide.

50 Your Challenge Choose a consistent 5 – 10 minute time period each day during the next two weeks to practice giving effective positive feedback. Notice any changes in student behavior? How did it feel? Prepare to report back Give participants this challenge.

51 Tangible Reinforcers and A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers
Note to Presenter: Start by asking teachers to report how they did on the challenge they were given to improve their use of effective positive feedback. Now we are going to talk about tangible reinforcers and how to create a menu of classroom reinforcers. 158

52 Tangible Reinforcers “I have not worked with a school that has been able to give enough feedback to students to maintain positive behavior without using a tangible item, like a Pride Ticket. The tangible helps staff remember to give recognition to students.” ~ Tim Lewis, PBIS National Center Co-Director A quote from Dr Lewis, University of Missouri-Columbia. MO SW-PBS

53 Four Topics Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent
Effective Positive Feedback Tangible reinforcement system Menu or continuum of reinforcement This is an organizational slide that identifies topics to be addressed. MO SW-PBS

54 Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Develop a tangible reinforcement system to enhance your use of positive feedback. Develop and implement an effective menu or continuum of positive reinforcement that serves to motivate students. These are the outcomes or things you will know or be able to do as a result of learning about Effective Classroom Practices. MO SW-PBS

55 Tangible Reinforcers:
Help teachers be accountable for recognizing student behavior and providing specific positive feedback. Give a sign to students–both those receiving and those watching. Build a sense of community through group and class goals. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. Just as we have our (insert the name of your schoolwide tangible item) for our entire school to help us remember to give kids high rates of specific positive feedback when they meet our schoolwide expectations, we encourage you to use tangible reinforcers in your classroom. Tangible reinforcers have these benefits (share slide and give examples) . MO SW-PBS

56 Tangible Reinforcers–Continued
Enhance staff-student relationships. Offer a gross measure of the frequency of positive feedback being provided; can help guide teachers to increase use of positive feedback. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. More benefits of tangible reinforcers. MO SW-PBS

57 Classroom Tangible System…
… a hallmark of SW-PBS Here are some examples.

58 “Pod” (Table) Points FINISH NOTES
Here is an example of “Pod” (table, small group) points students earn for following directions, cleaning up their table, working together and pushing in their chairs when they leave their “pod”. This is a group contingency since all students must follow the expectations for them to earn a “pod” point. When students

59 Class Goal P = A = R = K = When students follow expectations, teacher makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class earns 25 marks after each letter, they walk to the neighborhood park for recess. Share additional ideas you have experienced. Ask participants to share how they have used tangible reinforcement to encourage student behavior. MO SW-PBS

60 Class Goal T = A = L = K = When students follow expectations, teacher makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class earns 25 marks after each letter, they have free time to talk with classmates. Share additional ideas you have experienced. The same idea could be used with older students. Ask participants to share how they have used tangible reinforcement to encourage student behavior. MO SW-PBS

61 Creative Ways to Use “Tickets”
Set class or school goals. Write name on ticket and drop in raffle box. Competition between groups, rows, etc. Chart and graph tickets earned. Marbles in a jar Display tickets outside classroom door. Make a line of tickets to go around the room. Share additional ideas you have experienced. MO SW-PBS 158

62 “Using a reward system is not the same as bribing a student to behave appropriately. A bribe is some-thing offered or given a person in a position of trust to influence or corrupt that person’s views or con-duct. SW-PBS acknowledges and rewards students for following school-wide (and classroom) expectations and rules. Appropriate behavior is acknowledged after it occurs. Rewards are earned, not offered as payoff in exchange for good behavior.” Florida PBS Read this quote. MO SW-PBS 159

63 Discussion: Tangible Reinforcement
With a partner, discuss the difference between bribery and tangible reinforcers. Discuss any concerns about using tangible reinforcement in the classroom. Give participants 5 – 10 minutes to discuss tangible reinforcement. Remember when we talked about all the tangible items we give kids for athletics, music, visual arts, academics, etc.? Why is it we proudly display those honors but have difficulty when talking about recognizing social behavior? If participants bring up a concern about tangible reinforcement that you do not feel comfortable or confident to answer, tell them you will take their question to the regional SW-PBS consultant to be answered. MO SW-PBS

64 A Menu of Reinforcers Now we are going to talk about creating a menu of reinforcers that will serve to motivate all students. Who remembers the definition of reinforcement? Reinforcement is a consequence that happens after a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will occur again in the future. It is an important concept as we discuss ways to encourage students as they learn new social and academic skills. 162

65 What is a Menu of Reinforcers?
A variety of types of reinforcers (activities or privileges, social attention, tangible items) A variety of schedules for earning (continuous or intermittent) Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 162 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. MO SW-PBS

66 Why a Menu of Reinforcement?
Not all students are reinforced by the same things or in the same ways. Some students desire or seek social attention. Others do not like or avoid social attention. Include social attention, activities, and tangible items to appeal to all student needs. Students learning new behaviors need a continuous schedule of reinforcement. Students who have demonstrated mastery respond to an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. Note to Presenter: More information is available on page 162 of the SW-PBS Team Workbook. The primary reason it is important to provide a menu or variety of reinforcers when they follow classroom expectations and behaviors is that not all students are reinforced by the same things or the same ways. For example, I am very reinforced by (give a personal example) while my friend is not reinforced by that at all. Is there anyone here who is not reinforced by chocolate? We need to also remember that some students seek social attention…we know those kids who are always talking with their friends and wanting us to engage with them. Then we have those students who do not like social attention and they actively avoid it. Those are the kids who would rather be by themselves, may appear shy or those who don’t like attention put on them. One is not good and the other bad. It just is what it is and we need to use these preferences to reinforce students as they learn social and academic skills. We need to include social attention, activities and tangible items to appeal to all students. Another reason it is important to create a menu of reinforcement in the classroom is that students need continuous reinforcement of new behaviors to learn them. When a students has mastered a skills then we can provide reinforcement on an intermittent schedule….every once in a while when the student performs the expected behavior. If we do not provide a menu our reinforcement may become “stale” and boring. We need to provide options and keep our reinforcement interesting. Have participants read through the examples of activities/privileges, social attention, and tangible items on pages MO SW-PBS

67 Activity: Menu of Reinforcers
Review the sample reinforcers on the handout. Circle those reinforcers you currently use. Star those reinforcers you will commit to using. Discuss your list with a partner. Do each of you have reinforcers in all categories and for seekers and avoiders? Use Handout entitled A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers to do this activity. Give 5 minutes to complete and share. MO SW-PBS

68 Four Topics Related to Encouraging Expected Classroom Behavior
Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent Effective Positive Feedback Tangible reinforcement system Menu or continuum of reinforcement These are the topics we have addressed related to encouraging expected classroom behavior. You should now feel confident in the many ways to encourage students to follow the classroom expectations and behaviors you have defined. MO SW-PBS

69 Questions MO SW-PBS Ask participants if they have questions.
If they ask a question that you do not know, assure them you will call your regional PBIS consultant and get an answer. Refer participants to the handout entitled Encouraging Expected Behavior Fact Sheet. MO SW-PBS

70 References Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A.S. (2010). Reexamining the Relationship Between Academic Achievement and Social Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 13(1), 3-16. Decker, D.M., Dona, D.P., & Christenson, S.L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African American students: The importance of student–teacher relationships for student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology 45, 83–109 Good, C.E., Eller, B.F., Spangler, R.S., & Stone, J.E. (1981). The effect of an operant intervention program on attending and other academic behavior with emotionally disturbed children. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 9(1), Jones, V.F., & Jones, L.S. (1995). Comprehensive classroom management. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Lane, K.L., Kalberg, J.R. & Menzies, H.M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford. Reavis, Jenson, Kukic & Morgan (1993).  Utah's BEST project:  Behavioral and educational strategies for teachers. Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City, UT. Sutherland, K.S., Wehby, J.H. & Copeland, S.R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavior Disorders, 8, 2-8. Here are the references for this session. If more references are requested, refer participants to the References and Resources section in the SW-PBS Team Workbook.

71 For More Information Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support websitehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/effective-class-practice The Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support initiative has a wonderful website which is a great resource for all of us. There is more information about effective classroom practices at this address.


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