Presentation on theme: "MO SW-PBS Mini-Module This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic."— Presentation transcript:
MO SW-PBS Mini-Module This mini-module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic. Notes have been written to assist with the presentation. More information is available in the Classroom chapter of the 2012-13 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the topic. Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if you have presented in previous mini-modules. Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions Good luck! Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Handouts Three handouts are needed to complete this module: – Role Play Examples of Positive Feedback – A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers – Encouraging Expected Behavior Fact Sheet
Note to Presenter This Mini-Module on Encouraging Expected Behavior May Be Presented as a whole (approximately 1.5 hours) OR Divided into 2 sessions 1. Introduction to Encouraging, Adult Attention and Positive Feedback Outcomes: Understand the importance and impact of both contingent and non-contingent attention on student behavior and classroom climate. Use preferred adult behaviors to build relationships and positive classroom climate and effectively interact with students when talking about behavior. Demonstrate positive feedback that specifically describes behavior and uses rationales. 2. Tangible Reinforcement and Menu of Reinforcers Outcomes: Develop a tangible reinforcement system to enhance your use of positive feedback. Develop and implement an effective menu or continuum of positive reinforcement that serves to motivate all students.
Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Explain to others the power of positive and proactive strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning environment. Understand and be able to demonstrate methods to encourage expected behavior. MO SW-PBS
When teachers know and use positive and preventative management strategies, many of the commonly reported minor classroom behaviors can be avoided. Scheuermann & Hall Effective classroom management is a key component of effective instruction, regardless of grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum. Sprick, et. al MO SW-PBS
Typical School Day 17%Direct Instruction 33%Seatwork 20%Transitions 30%Discipline & Other Non-Instructional Activities MO SW-PBS Cotton, 1995; Walberg, 1988 324
Academic Learning Time There is no doubt that academic learning time–the amount of time that students are actively, successfully, and productively engaged in learning–is a strong determinant of achievement. MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated time that actually results in teaching. Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time students are actively engaged in learning. MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time Instructional Time–diminished by unclear procedures, disruptive student behavior, disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc. – Classroom Expectations – Classroom Procedures & Routines – Encouraging Expected Behavior – Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time Engaged Time–diminished by inactive supervision, limited opportunities for students to respond, poor task selection, etc. – Active Supervision – Opportunities to Respond – Activity Sequencing & Choice – Task Difficulty MO SW-PBS
Three Levels of Implementation A Continuum of Support for All Tier One All students Preventive, proactiv e Tier One All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems MO SW-PBS 15
Discussion: Academic Learning Time Discuss with a partner: What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted learning time? What do we currently do to ensure engaged time (e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task, responding frequently, and producing quality work matched to their ability)? MO SW-PBS 325
Effective classroom managers are known, not by what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by what they do to set their classroom up for academic success and to prevent problems from occurring. MO SW-PBS 324
References Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary: 1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing. Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and learning. Educational Leadership 45(6), 76-85.
Encouraging Expected Behavior in the Classroom MO SW-PBS
Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Understand the importance and impact of both contingent and non-contingent attention on student behavior and classroom climate. Use preferred adult behaviors to build relationships and positive classroom climate and effectively interact with students when talking about behavior. Demonstrate positive feedback that specifically describes behavior and uses rationales. MO SW-PBS
Introduction to Encouraging, Adult Attention and Positive Feedback 148
MO SW-PBS Introduction to Encouraging Clarifying and teaching classroom expectations alone are not sufficient. Similar to encouraging academic behavior. Motivates students as they are initially learning expected behavior, and maintains them as students become more fluent with use. Essential to changing student behavior and creating a positive school environment. 148
Consequences: Making Adult Attention Contingent on Performance of Desired Behaviors A–B–CA–B–C A–B–CA–B–C AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Conditions or circumstances that alter the probability of a behavior occurring. An observable act. What the student does. The actions or reactions to the antecedents. The resulting event or outcome that occurs immediately following the behavior. Impacts future occurrence of the behavior. MO SW-PBS
Activity: Encouraging Expected Behavior Think and Share Appoint a recorder for the whole group. Take one minute and individually think of ways you and your school reinforce academic behavior. Now, think of ways you and your school recognize social behavior. What do you notice? 150
Four Topics 1.Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent 2.Effective Positive Feedback 3.Tangible reinforcement system 4.Menu or continuum of reinforcement MO SW-PBS
Adult Attention Two types of adult attention: 1.Non-contingent 2.Contingent MO SW-PBS
Adult Attention Two types of adult attention: 1.Non-contingent–attention provided regardless of student performance Greetings, proximity, smiles, conversations, jobs, etc. 2.Contingent. MO SW-PBS
Non-Contingent Attention As teachers report that positive student-teacher relationships increase, the number of suspensions students receive decrease. As students report an increase in positive emotional quality in the student-teacher relationship, the number of behavior referrals received decrease and the amount of time on-task increases. Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007 MO SW-PBS
Adult Attention Two types of adult attention: 1.Non-contingent 2.Contingent–provided based upon student performance of an identified expectation or behavior Praise, positive feedback, reinforcement, tangible item. MO SW-PBS 151
MO SW-PBS Low Rates of Teacher Attention Average teacher fails to take advantage of the power of attention. Approval statements for academic responses far outweigh those for social behavior. Highest rates of attention for social behavior occur in 2 nd grade and decrease dramatically after that. Teachers respond more frequently to inappropriate social behavior than to appropriate social behavior. This attention inadvertently maintains or increases the misbehavior. 152
MO SW-PBS Preferred Adult Behaviors Behaviors that impact student affect, compliance, and learning: Proximity–communicate privately at 20 with individual students; communication across the room reserved for information intended for entire group only Listening–pause, attend thoughtfully to the student Eye Contact–communicate at eye level; look student in the eye when instructing or directing; hold eye contact briefly for compliance Pleasant Voice–use calm pleasant voice when talking with, praising, and correcting students Smiles–pleasant facial expression and frequent smiles Touch–appropriate brief nurturing touch Use of Students Name–begin interactions with student name and use frequently during interactions 153
Activity: Adult Attention & Preferred Behaviors Think-Pair-Share Pair up with someone you have not yet worked with. Think about: 1) the preferred behaviors you appreciate someone using with you 2) how you give attention to students and the preferred behaviors you regularly use and 3) the preferred behaviors you could improve. Share with your partner. MO SW-PBS
Positive Feedback Verbal reinforcement; a form of social reinforcement that provides information on successful behavior while reinforcing or increasing the likelihood that behavior will be repeated. 149
Positive Feedback Essential to change and sustain behavior. Recognizes successes or efforts at tasks that are difficult for the child. While general praise contributes to a pleasant classroom, it is insufficient to build and sustain desired behavior. Students need clear specific feedback on classroom expectations and behaviors. MO SW-PBS 154
Effective Positive Feedback 1.Specifically describe the behavior: Explicitly define what was done that you want to continue. Like a video-tape replay. Expressed using the words of classroom expectations. When I said it was time to begin, you cleared off your desk, got your materials out immediately, and began working quickly.
Effective Positive Feedback 2.Provide a rationale: Explain the reason why the behavior is important. Teach the benefits of the behavior and the impact it has on them and others. Typically includes stating the classroom expectation and what the student might expect could happen if they use the appropriate behavior. Getting started right away shows cooperation, and you will likely have less homework.
Effective Positive Feedback 3.Can include a positive consequence: Positive feedback alone may be sufficiently reinforcing. When behavior requires a great deal of effort, pairing verbal feedback with tangible or activity reinforcement may be helpful. When using a positive consequence, always pair with specific positive feedback. Promote ownership; student earns, teachers do not give. Because you got started so quickly, you have earned a Cardinal Card.
Putting It All Together When I said it was time to begin, you cleared off your desk, got your materials out immediately, and began working quickly. Getting started right away shows cooperation, and you will likely have less homework. Because you got started so quickly, you have earned a Cardinal Card.
More Examples Dolly, you stopped and took some time to think about your decision and then walked away from Sam. That wasnt easy, but it can help to avoid an argument. Hey Pedro, thanks for throwing your trash away. That shows cooperation and respect for our classroom. You earned a Bee ticket to add to our class hive. We are getting close to our goals! Jasmine, thanks for being on time to class. Thats important at school and when you are on the job.
MO SW-PBS Sincere and Appropriate Feedback Use a genuine, warm, sincere response that is appropriate for the situation and the individual. Use a variety of phrases, showing spontaneity and credibility. Find own style to communicate sincere care and concern. Super job walking quietly in your group! That shows respect to everyone. Thank you. Wow! What a great job of accepting correction. You looked right at me, said okay, and didnt argue or complain. When you do that you show respect and you can learn and avoid mistakes in the future. Why dont you be the first to leave class today. 155
MO SW-PBS Positive Feedback: Considerations Use Positive Feedback: Contingently– only when students demonstrate the desired behavior. Immediately– best when it closely follows the behavior; allow for clear connection between the behavior and the feedback. Frequently when trying to build a new behavior. Intermittently once the skill or behavior has been learned to maintain the behavior. 155
MO SW-PBS 4:1 Ratio E stablishes a predictable, positive environment Appropriate behavior receives more attention than inappropriate. 155
MO SW-PBS Activity: Role Play Practice to Give Effective Positive Feedback Practice Find a partner that you have not yet worked with. One becomes the teacher, one the student. Role-play scenes on top of handout. Change roles and repeat. Be aware of the preferred adult behaviors along with your words. When you are comfortable with these, role-play delivering positive feedback spontaneously, using your own scenes and your classrooms expectations and specific behaviors. Select a scene to model for the group. 156
Benefits of Positive Feedback When we focus our praise on positive actions, we support a sense of competence and autonomy that helps students develop real self- esteem. Davis, 2007 MO SW-PBS 155
MO SW-PBS Activity: Personal Reflection Think of a time in your classroom that is challenging because students do not follow the classroom expectations or procedures. Describe the specific activity and misbehavior you see and hear. Write the specific classroom expectation or procedure you want the students to follow. Write the Effective Positive Feedback you will say when students follow the specific classroom expectation or procedure. Write the specific day and time you are going to give the Effective Positive Feedback.
MO SW-PBS Activity: Personal Reflection Example Challenging Activity and Misbehavior: Beginning of class students walk around, talk out Specific classroom expectation or procedure: Sit in seat, read warm-up activity on Smart Board, begin to work on warm-up activity with voices off. Effective Positive Feedback you will say: Thanks for getting to work right away with your voice off. That helps you focus and take responsibility for your learning. Write the specific day and time you are going to give the Effective Positive Feedback. Tomorrow, first hour!
Conclusion In the long, run encouraging saves times When we encourage students with positive feedback, we teach what we want them to do Positive feedback provides opportunities for building relationships (which is important in drop out prevention)
Your Challenge Choose a consistent 5 – 10 minute time period each day during the next two weeks to practice giving effective positive feedback. Notice any changes in student behavior? How did it feel? Prepare to report back
Tangible Reinforcers and A Menu of Classroom Reinforcers 158
Tangible Reinforcers I have not worked with a school that has been able to give enough feedback to students to maintain positive behavior without using a tangible item, like a Pride Ticket. The tangible helps staff remember to give recognition to students. ~ Tim Lewis, PBIS National Center Co-Director MO SW-PBS
Four Topics 1.Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent 2.Effective Positive Feedback 3.Tangible reinforcement system 4.Menu or continuum of reinforcement MO SW-PBS
Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Develop a tangible reinforcement system to enhance your use of positive feedback. Develop and implement an effective menu or continuum of positive reinforcement that serves to motivate students. MO SW-PBS
Tangible Reinforcers: Help teachers be accountable for recognizing student behavior and providing specific positive feedback. Give a sign to students–both those receiving and those watching. Build a sense of community through group and class goals. MO SW-PBS
Tangible Reinforcers– Continued Enhance staff-student relationships. Offer a gross measure of the frequency of positive feedback being provided; can help guide teachers to increase use of positive feedback. MO SW-PBS
Classroom Tangible System… … a hallmark of SW-PBS
Class Goal P = A = R = K = When students follow expectations, teacher makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class earns 25 marks after each letter, they walk to the neighborhood park for recess. MO SW-PBS
Class Goal T = A = L = K = When students follow expectations, teacher makes a tally mark beside a letter. When class earns 25 marks after each letter, they have free time to talk with classmates. MO SW-PBS
Creative Ways to Use Tickets Set class or school goals. Write name on ticket and drop in raffle box. Competition between groups, rows, etc. Chart and graph tickets earned. Marbles in a jar Display tickets outside classroom door. Make a line of tickets to go around the room. MO SW-PBS 158
MO SW-PBS Using a reward system is not the same as bribing a student to behave appropriately. A bribe is some- thing offered or given a person in a position of trust to influence or corrupt that persons views or con- duct. SW-PBS acknowledges and rewards students for following school-wide (and classroom) expectations and rules. Appropriate behavior is acknowledged after it occurs. Rewards are earned, not offered as payoff in exchange for good behavior. Florida PBS 159
Discussion: Tangible Reinforcement With a partner, discuss the difference between bribery and tangible reinforcers. Discuss any concerns about using tangible reinforcement in the classroom. MO SW-PBS
What is a Menu of Reinforcers? A variety of types of reinforcers (activities or privileges, social attention, tangible items) A variety of schedules for earning (continuous or intermittent) MO SW-PBS
Why a Menu of Reinforcement? Not all students are reinforced by the same things or in the same ways. Some students desire or seek social attention. Others do not like or avoid social attention. Include social attention, activities, and tangible items to appeal to all student needs. Students learning new behaviors need a continuous schedule of reinforcement. Students who have demonstrated mastery respond to an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. MO SW-PBS
Activity: Menu of Reinforcers Review the sample reinforcers on the handout. Circle those reinforcers you currently use. Star those reinforcers you will commit to using. Discuss your list with a partner. Do each of you have reinforcers in all categories and for seekers and avoiders?
Four Topics Related to Encouraging Expected Classroom Behavior 1.Adult attention–non-contingent and contingent 2.Effective Positive Feedback 3.Tangible reinforcement system 4.Menu or continuum of reinforcement MO SW-PBS
References Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A.S. (2010). Reexamining the Relationship Between Academic Achievement and Social Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 13(1), 3-16. Decker, D.M., Dona, D.P., & Christenson, S.L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African American students: The importance of student–teacher relationships for student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology 45, 83–109 Good, C.E., Eller, B.F., Spangler, R.S., & Stone, J.E. (1981). The effect of an operant intervention program on attending and other academic behavior with emotionally disturbed children. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 9(1), 25-33. Jones, V.F., & Jones, L.S. (1995). Comprehensive classroom management. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Lane, K.L., Kalberg, J.R. & Menzies, H.M. (2009). Developing schoolwide programs to prevent and manage problem behaviors: A step-by-step approach. New York: Guilford. Reavis, Jenson, Kukic & Morgan (1993). Utah's BEST project: Behavioral and educational strategies for teachers. Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City, UT. Sutherland, K.S., Wehby, J.H. & Copeland, S.R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavior Disorders, 8, 2-8.
For More Information Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support websitehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/eff ective-class-practicehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/eff ective-class-practice