Presentation on theme: "Catherine Striley, PhD, MSW, MPE Research Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry."— Presentation transcript:
Catherine Striley, PhD, MSW, MPE Research Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry
Introduction Mentoring may be one of the most effective learning techniques Mentors can help the mentee use the experiential learning process, encourage peer-to-peer learning, and can provide helpful feedback Helpful feedback is given using a positive, open style Shows respect, interest, clear desire to help The content of helpful feedback is specific, descriptiveI messages
Learning Roles of the Mentor Advising Sharing knowledge Tutoring on performance, Being the master to the apprentice, Providing information and opportunities, and Modeling appropriate scientific behavior (National Academy of Sciences 1997) The other mentoring roles are more supportive and relational But, these roles are part of what makes the learning effective, so dont forget them!
Effective Learning: Review Systematic review of the literature conducted by Steinert et al. Medical Teacher 2006, 28,60:497-526 Use experimental learning Experience, reflect, theorize, experiment (Kolb, 1984) Provide feedback Use effective peer and colleague relationships Use a diversity of methods to intervene
Effective Learning Mentoring is a learner-centered process (Zachary 2000) Allows the mentee to learn through observation, action, reflection and dialogue (Schon 1987) Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Learning by action, then reflection Holistic Requires the learner take responsibility and accountability Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner, New York: Basic Books Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Experiential Learning Kolb. D. A. and Fry, R. (1975) 'Toward an applied theory of experiential learning; in C. Cooper (ed.) Theories of Group Process, London: John Wiley.
Effective Mentoring Setting clear expectations, Regularly assessing their students understanding, Fostering independence, and Asking colleagues for advice when confronted with a challenge in mentoring (Pfund et al. 2006).
Start with an Agreement/Plan I Association of American Medical Colleges Compact http://www.aamc.org/research/postdoccompact/postdocco mpact.pdf http://www.aamc.org/research/postdoccompact/postdocco mpact.pdf Expectations of the mentor Develop the skills needed to promote the career of the mentee. Mutually agreed upon set of expectations and goals are in place at the outset Relationship based on trust and mutual respect.
Start with an Agreement/Plan II Expectations of the mentor Promote all ethical standards for conducting research Provide sufficient opportunities to acquire the skills necessary to become an expert Provide guidance and mentoring, and will seek the assistance of other faculty and departmental/institutional resources when necessary Encourage networking and interaction with fellow scientists Ensure appropriate credit Assist in exploring appropriate career options Commit to being a supportive colleague as they transition
Agreement/Plan Gives Assessment Tool Regular, periodic assessment of where the person is Really providing the opportunity for them to assess, reflect, and set new goals
Encourage Peer-to-Peer Learning Writing groups Mentoring groups Lab-based groups Brown-bags
Exercise1 Milton comes into your office and asks if you have time to meet with him. He then reveals that an article he submitted has been rejected for publication, and tells you that he thinks the comments were personal and hateful. He believes that he should turn the article around to another journal immediately because the reviewers werent fair. What would you want Milton to learn from this experience? How can you facilitate Milton learning this lesson?
What Kind of Feedback do You Give? Feedback diagnostic test http://www.mgt- online.com/begin/giving_receiving_feedback/section1 /sect1a.phtml
Ineffective/Negative Delivery Attacking Indirect Insensitive Disrespectful Judgmental Too general Poor timing. Impulsive OUCH! Selfish OUCH! http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/growth/feedback.html
Effective/Positive Delivery Supportive Direct Sensitive Considerate Descriptive Specific Healthy timing Thoughtful Impulsive Helpful http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/growth/feedback.html
Negative/Closed Style Defensive Attacking Denies Devalues Invulnerable Rationalizes Patronizing Superficial GIVER AND RECEIVED CAN BE CLOSED http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/growth/feedback.html
Exercise 2 Describe a time when you gave up pursuing some activity or goal. Did any negative feedback influence your decision? Describe a time when you wanted to give up, but didnt. Did anyone give you helpful feedback? Did anyone encourage you? What did this look like? Sound like?
Positive/Open Style Open and vulnerable Responsive and accepting Respectful Engaged Thoughtful Interested Adapted from http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/growth/feedback.html
Exercise 3 You are in the final stage of a grant application due tomorrow and expect Angini, your mentee, to have the background section completed. You believe you provided clear instruction to her and helped get her started. Angini brings you the section in bullet form, but the points are tangential and do not help build the case for your proposal. Dividing into pairs, one of you play the role of Angini, the other the mentor.
Summary Mentoring itself can be an effective learning technique, using the experiential learning process, providing feedback, and encouraging peer-to-peer learning Helpful feedback is given using a positive, open style Helpful feedback is always supportive and respectful, even while it is challenging Attacking a person, rather than an issue, is a sure way to ruin a relationship
More Information Lots of wonderful resources are available! The Elements of Mentoring by W. Brad Johnson and Charles R. Ridley Effective Coaching: Lessons from the Coachs Coach by Myles Downey The Mentors Guide: Facilitating Effective Learning Relationships by Lois J. Zachary Power Mentoring by Ellen Ensher and Susan Murphy Mentoring: How to Develop Successful Mentor Behaviors by Gordon F. Shea