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ICT Efficacy and Efficiency for Academic Writing

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Presentation on theme: "ICT Efficacy and Efficiency for Academic Writing"— Presentation transcript:

1 ICT Efficacy and Efficiency for Academic Writing
William S. Warner, Ph.D. William S. Warner

2 Information and Communication Technology
Combine audio, visual and written feedback Compare efficacy and efficiency Assess instructor and student response Of all the factors that make a difference to student outcomes, the power of feedback is paramount.... Hattie, J.C (2009) Visible Learning William S. Warner


4 Fronter-based 13 Assignments 2-3 Days for Feedback William S. Warner

5 Efficiency vs. Efficacy
IMPACT TIME William S. Warner

6 Pilot Project Evaluation
Efficacy – 29 Students Efficiency – 5 TAs 10-30 seconds/comment 1-2 comments/paragraph Too soon to judge Technical snags Time-consuming Appealing idea Unhelpful % Helpful Written Tutor Fronter Rubric Audio

7 Relative to Fronter comments
Disagree % Agree audio is more… efficient effective More suite for encouraging than editing William S. Warner

8 Hard Copy Preferred Final 3 papers – with rubric TAs Students
Spot more errors Rubric provides equitable quality-control Ease of evaluation: 4X4 matrix Students Written comments qualified detail Rubric quantified standards: points Targets strengths and weaknesses William S. Warner

9 Rubric 0-1 2 3 4 IDEAS Score X 2: _________ (out of 8) STYLE
* Did not argue a debatable issue * No evidence * No counter argument and rebuttal * No insight: an “information dump” or opinion piece *Argued a somewhat debatable issue *Significance of issue not clear *Attempted to reason claims * Logic sometimes faulty * Supporting evidence weak * Weak counter argument and rebuttal * Shows limited insight *Argued a debatable issue *Justify issue’s significance * Adequately reasoned most claims *Logic generally sound * Supporting evidence adequate but not always linked to thesis *Adequate counter argument and rebuttal *Demonstrates insight *Argued a highly controversial issue or opposed conventional thinking *Compelling justification of issue * Persuasively reasoned all claims * Logical * Supporting evidence strong and directly linked to thesis * Insightful counter argument and strong, convincing rebuttal * Demonstrates original insight IDEAS Score X 2: _________ (out of 8) *No clear sense of beginning, middle, end *Supporting details are insufficient *No paragraph topics *Contains introduction, body and conclusion, but not always distinct *Supporting details are often illogically sequenced * Some paragraph topics not visible * Distinct introduction, body and conclusion *Supporting details usually sequenced logically * Each paragraph has a clear topic * Introduction moves reader in three steps, followed by a distinct body, and a conclusion that does not merely repeat the body *Supporting details logically sequenced * Each paragraph has a clear topi ORGANIZATION Score: _________ (out of 4) * Incoherent: most sentences not clear * Not cohesive: no transitions between paragraphs and sentences * Thesis not visible * Topic sentences lacking * Excessive nominalization * Excessive passive voice * Excessive 1st person or metawriting * Excessively abstract * Excessive jargon or slang * Contractions (e.g. don’t) * Excessive “to be” verb * Agent of action in sentence often missing *Somewhat difficult to understand * Occasionally not cohesive: some transitions missing * Thesis easily misunderstood or does not reflect argument * Topic sentences rarely visible * Wordy * Unnecessary metawriting or 1st person * Frequent abstract language * Some jargon or slang * Some contractions (e.g.don’t) * Often unnecessary negative (e.g., did not remember) * Frequent, unnecessary “to be verb” (e.g. there is, there are) * Generally clear * Overall cohesive: transitions present but sometimes lacking or awkward * Thesis reflects argument * Topic sentences visible * No metawriting * Acceptable 1st person * Sometimes wordy * Occasional jargon * No slang * No contractions (e.g. don’t) * Some unnecessary negative (e.g., did not remember) * Agent of action in sentence generally visible * Easy to understand: writing flows * Cohesive: purposeful transitions create a coherent essay * Clear thesis prepares reader * All topic sentences crystallize paragraphs * No metawriting or 1st person * Concise * Precise * No jargon or slang * Negative (e.g. did not remember) in the affirmative (forgot) * Strong verb instead of weak “to be” (e.g., there is, there are) * Agent of action always visible STYLE Score X 2: * Did not follow instructions *Many spelling and punctuation errors * Abbreviation errors * Many citation errors * Not APA reference style * < 600 words text *> 750 words text * Followed instructions * Several spelling and punctuation errors * Several abbreviation and citation errors * Irregular APA reference style * Some spelling or punctuation errors * Some citation or abbreviation errors * APA reference style * Few or no spelling or punctuation errors * Few or no citation or abbreviation errors MECHANICS TOTAL Score out of 24 Not Approved < 12 Weak Approval Approved 16- 19 Strong Approval 20-24 GRADE RANGE Rubric William S. Warner

10 Student TA Rubric Scores
We’re not as smart as we think Student TA Rubric Scores William S. Warner

11 Autumn 2012 Audio replaced with JING SKYPE introduced Social media
6 (45-min) video lectures Introduction Outline Clarity Cohesion Tables & Figures William S. Warner

12 William S. Warner

13 Social Media Writing Centre Writing Wrongs Blog
Social Media William S. Warner

14 Effect Autumn – 3 assignments 81 students: 49 BSc, 32 MSc
Spring – 10 assignments 75 students: 15 BSc, 60 MSc Unhelpful % Helpful JING Tutor Paper Rubric I found JING as helpful as the tutor Disagree % Agree Unhelpful % Helpful JING Tutor Fronter Paper Rubric I prefer JING to Fronter comments Disagree % Agree William S. Warner

15 STUDENT: Efficient Effect
Autumn Spring 98 % students found JING increased writing efficiency Easier to understand than cryptic or loaded sentences Voice tone Emphasize/prioritize Confidence/support JING saved me time Disagree % Agree JING motivated/gave me confidence JING improved my writing William S. Warner

16 Not 2 1 0 1 2 Very Effective/Efficient
TA Evaluation Autumn 6 TAs 3 assignments Did not track student Spring 8 TAs 4 and 6 assignments Tracked 10 students Efficacy Very effective – 4 Effective – 2 Efficiency Very efficient – 1 Efficient – 5 Efficacy Very effective - 1 Effective - 6 Efficiency Very efficient - 2 Efficient - 5 Not Very Effective/Efficient William S. Warner

17 Spring TAs JING’s impact on student writing is noticeable when tracking re-writes. Agree Disagree Which feedback method provides the most help to a student in the least amount of time? 5 JING 4 Face-to-face consultation 1 Rubric 1 Writing comments on hard copy William S. Warner

18 For night owl or procrastinator?
30 minutes/session 30 sessions/term Unhelpful (students) Helpful Autumn 10 students Spring 17 students For night owl or procrastinator? William S. Warner

19 Video Lectures I suggest that you watch the video lecture on…
Half watched the video lectures Unhelpful % Helpful Autumn(40) Spring (34) William S. Warner

20 Spring Feedback Tutorials
80% watched Principles of paraphrasing APA Format for Referencing Unhelpful % Helpful Autumn Spring William S. Warner

21 Social Media Half (75) students found Unhelpful Very helpful 2 1 0 1 2
Website Writing Wrongs blog Student Journal William S. Warner

22 Recommendations Develop protocol Read first – not on the fly
Balloon comment Color code highlight Green – good Yellow – suggest/consider Red - error I suggest you watch the video lecture on cohesion, which explains how to make transitions betweens paragraphs. Save document on Fronter William S. Warner

23 Conclusions Integrate JING across curriculum
Require video tutorials (e.g., EndNote) Develop social media for peer-review Explore MOOC automated feedback William S. Warner

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