Presentation on theme: "SBI4U Kidney Homeostasis"— Presentation transcript:
1SBI4U Kidney Homeostasis Jennifer McFarlaneLorraine Garofalo
2Curriculum Expectations E3.1 describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine, excretory, and nervous systems, and explain how these systems interact to maintain homeostasisE3.2 explain how reproductive hormones act in human feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis (e.g., the actions of male and female reproductive hormones on their respective body systems)E3.3 describe the homeostatic processes involved in maintaining water, ionic, thermal, and acid–base equilibrium, and explain how these processes help body systems respond to both a change in environment and the effects of medical treatments (e.g., the role of feedback mechanisms in water balance or thermoregulation; how the buffering
3Lesson Sequence Lesson 1: Homeostatic Mechanisms Introduction to Homeostasis: Kidney, Immune System, Nervous SystemLesson 2: Feedback SystemsHuman Body Temperature, Transfer of Energy, Negative Feedback Loop, Positive Feedback LoopLesson 3: The Human Urinary SystemOverview of the Human Urinary System, Anatomy, Comparison of Male & Female SystemsLesson 4: Kidney Function and StructureGeneral Structure of the kidney and nephronLesson 5: How Blood is Filtered in the KidneyRole of Kidney in Maintaining HomeostasisLesson 6: Urine Output and Water Homeostasis
5How does the body maintain a stable state? The body has developed physiological and biochemical mechanisms that allow it to maintain its internal environment in a relatively stable state. The body is able to do so in the face of external stresses such as high or low temperatures and internal stresses such as fever and infection.Homeostasis is a state of balance inside the body, where the body systems work together to keep it functioning normally. The endocrine system keeps this internal balancing act going by releasing chemicals called hormones. This release of hormones is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
6Video & Virtual Lab: Introduction to Homeostasis Explains homeostasis for students learning the topic for the first time http://www.learnerstv.com/animation/animation.php?ani=241&cat=BiologyGIZMO:As external temperature and internal water and blood sugar levels change, adjust factors to maintain internal stability.
7Negative Feedback Loop A process that detects and reverses deviations from normal body constants.3 parts: a receptor, an integrator, and an effector.start at normal range go beyond normal range return to normalSensory Receptors:found throughout every body organ and tissue.Function is to send nerve impulses (stimuli) to the brain in response to environmental informationmonitor the body’s internal conditions, such as temperature, blood pH, blood sugar, and blood pressure, on a continual basis.
8Negative Feedback Loop Animation is an interactive online activity which can be used as a demonstration by the teacher using a projector, or can be an interactive activity for the students if a computer lab is booked.
9Positive Feedback Loop less common in types of homeostasispositive feedback systems reinforce any changes -- they move the controlled variable even further away from a steady state, causing a discrete physiological event to be accomplished rapidly.
13Think-Pair-Share Opening Activity Using the next slide, have students brainstorm on their own, then in pairs, how they think the body responds to the following internal/external stresses.Students to then share their ideas with the class (teacher facilitates).
14How does the body respond to internal and external stresses? thirst high blood pressure food poisoning abnormal blood compositionHow does the body respond to internal and external stresses?
15Diagnostic Assessment Have students fill out a KWL chart in pairs guide instruction and clear up any misconceptions about kidney homeostasis.
17The Kidney and Homeostasis The kidney maintains homeostasis by regulating the following mechanisms:Water BalanceBlood PressureBlood CompositionBlood pHWaste Removal
18Water Balance Inquiry Activity The Physiological Effects of Coffee
19Physiological Effects of Coffee students to design an experiment that allows them to measure the physiological effect of coffeeStudents to prepare a laboratory reportIf it is decided that coffee will not be consumed:Students can research findings on the internetORStudents can interview family/friends who drink coffee(Activity taken from McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2002, Biology 12, pp )
201. Water BalanceHypothalamus directs the pituitary gland of the endocrine system to control levels of the hormone vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the bloodThis hormone travels through the blood to the kidneys where it directs the rate of water reabsorptionIncreased vasopressin ➔ increased water reabsorptionDecreased vasopressin ➔ decreased water reabsorption
21Fluid Balance Game PURPOSE: To help students gain a better understanding of fluid balance in the nephronTo provide students with a fun and kinesthetic learning opportunityPREPARATION:clear the classroom of desks or use an alternative open space25 sheets of white paper crumbled into balls – represent sodium25 sheets of blue paper crumpled into balls – represents waterGOAL OF GAME:to keep an equal balance of white and blue sheets on your side of the room
22Fluid Balance Game Continued ACTIVITY:Split class into 2 groups (room will be split into two halves)Each group will have 9 white balls of paper and 9 blue balls of paperThe students need to keep the balance by throwing the white sheets of paper over to the other side, or running the blue sheets of paper over to the other side.Teacher will periodically throw in balls of paper to ensure that the students are moving around to maintain the balance.POST-ACTIVITY JOURNAL REFLECTION:Students to write a reflection about what they learned during the game and how it clarified their understanding of fluid balance
23Dehydration Case Study How long can we survive without water?Examine physiological response to dehydration and starvation from the real-life report of a girl discovered 15 days after an earthquake devastated Port Au-Prince, Haiti, in January 2010Students are asked to work through the pathways of water loss from dehydration as they examine the multiple systems involved in homeostatic responses, and then are asked to calculate whether it is possible for a human to withstand 15 days without water
242. Blood Pressure Blood volume is regulated by the hormone aldosterone Aldosterone affects the rate of sodium ion reabsorption, which in turn affects the rate of water reabsorptionIncreased aldosterone ➔ increased water reabsorption ➔ higher blood pressureDecreased aldosterone ➔ decreased water reabsorption ➔ lower blood pressure
253. Blood CompositionUseful materials contained in the filtrate (glucose, amino acids, etc.) are reabsorbed until the threshold level of the given material is reachedDefined as the maximum amount of material that can be moved across the nephron back into the bloodWhen the threshold is reached, the remaining material is removed as waste e.g. glucose in diabetes
264. Blood pH Should be close to 7 The kidney removes excessively acidic or basic substances from the blood
27Four-Corners Activity Discuss why waste management is an important part of any functioning system – from computers, to cities, to living things.
285. Waste Removal Urea is the major waste product removed from the kidneysPlaced in the blood by theliver through the detoxification processExcess amino acids are broken down in the liverConverted to ammonia and then to urea
30Urination VideosAn excellent review of Urine Formation:A good overview of the Micturition Reflex:
31Student Activity: Create a Model of the Excretory Filtering System Taken from p. 343 of Nelson Biology 12 (2003) Materials: funnel, aquarium charcoal, 2 small beakers, food colouring, non-absorbent cotton, ring stand Place a small piece of non-absorbent cotton in a funnel. Fill the funnel with aquarium charcoal, and put a small beaker beneath the funnel. Fill a second beaker with about 25 mL of water, and add five drops of food colouring. Pour the coloured water through the funnel and collect it in the beaker beneath as shown in Figure 2. Compare the colour of the filtered water with the original coloured water. Predict what will happen if the water is filtered once again. Test your prediction. How would you improve the filter?
32Urinalysis Virtual Lab Test urine samples for disease or infectionIdentify symptoms that may lead to a urine testLearn the role of urine tests in monitoring diseasesPerform three analyses:1) macroscopic observations2) chemstix analysis3) microscopic observations(*lab can be downloaded from site)
33Student Misconceptions Fact and/or GuidanceStudents may think that when a body is in homeostasis, no change takes place and the internal conditions are stable.Human body systems are constantly active, constantly monitoring and responding to changing conditions.“Normal” bodily constants remain the same for all people in all situations.Young children, the elderly, and heavy individuals find it more difficult to regulate body temperature making themselves more susceptible to internal and external stress.Body temperature also varies with time, place, and activity level.“Normal” blood pressure also differs. Children tend to have lower blood pressure than adults, due to the flexibility of their arteries.They urinary system is an open system allowing entry of any substance from the blood stream.The blood maintains enclosed in vessels but various substances are allowed to move in and out via filtration.Students can often be confused by the many ways that the kidneys maintain homeostasis.“The Kidney and Homeostasis” chart provided in the ‘References’ portion of the Summary is an excellent tool for categorizing the mechanisms the kidney uses to maintain homeostasis. Creating a mind map is also a good way to distinguish the different mechanisms.
34Real-Life Applications Kidney StonesBright’s DiseaseDiabetes Mellitus and Diabetes InsipidusRenal failureEffects of performance-enhancing drugs on homeostasisEffects of energy drinks on homeostasisEffects of alcohol and illegal drugs on homeostasisKidney DialysisDiureticsKidney transplants and wait timesThe effects of chemotherapy on homeostasis
35Should kidney sales be legalized? DebateShould kidney sales be legalized?Based on the newspaper article:“Why Legalizing Organ Sales Would Help to Save Lives, End Violence” - The Atlantic, Nov. 9/11
36Other Activities Create a model of the kidney Jigsaw activity with hormones involved in kidney homeostasisCreate a mind map on kidney homeostasisRAFT writing activity on kidney transplant waiting listPrepare a poster campaign on effects of performance enhancing drugs and drinks on kidney homeostasisCreate flowcharts for hormonal responsesCreate a song about kidney homeostasisStations about applications of kidney homeostasisWhat foods have an impact on urine odour and colour?
37Differentiated Assessment Please refer to previous slides for details:Diagnostic Assessment (KWL Chart)Think-Pair-ShareStudent-Teacher ConferenceJournal ReflectionGameCreate a ModelLaboratory ReportsCase StudyDebateOral CommunicationWriting AssessmentMind MapFlow ChartsCreate a songTests & Quizzes
38Safety Considerations Due to health concerns, it may not be appropriate for some students to participate in an experiment which involves the consumption of diuretics.Be sure that students do not exceed their normal coffee intake.Allow the option of students to research the topic or interview others about the topicThe Fluid Balance Game can be dangerous as it involves students moving around the classroom and throwing objects. The activity should be played in an open area where there is room to move. Ensure that you are supervising the activity at all times.
39Resources Online Resources: Article about how human waste is recycled in Outer Space:Intro to Homeostasis Video:Micturition Reflex Video:Overview of Kidney Filtration Video:Interactive Video of Kidney Function:Negative Feedback Loop Animation:Urination Video:
40Resources ContinuedIntro to Homeostasis GIZMO:Dehydration Case Study:Virtual Urinalysis Lab (can be downloaded from site) – involves testing urine samples for diseases:Introduction to Homeostasis Video:Urine Formation chart:Textbook:Blake, et al. Biology 12. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2002.