Presentation on theme: "Formative Assessment & Effective Feedback. Why Formative Assessment? There is a body of firm evidence that formative assessment is an essential component."— Presentation transcript:
Why Formative Assessment? There is a body of firm evidence that formative assessment is an essential component of classroom work and that its development can raise standards of achievement. We know of no other way of raising standards for which such a strong prima facie case can be made. (Black & Wiliam, 1998)
Traditional Assessment Practices Generally encourage rote/ superficial learning Can predict students results on external tests, but provides little information about students learning needs Focus on quantity, rather than quality, of work Over-emphasize grading, under-emphasize learning
Check-In Question #1 What are key features of formative assessment?
Formative Assessment Role for both teachers and students Assessment information must be used to make adjustments to teaching & learning Timing: While learning is in progress Not all classroom assessments are formative! A key characteristic [of formative assessment] is that the assessment information is used, by both teacher and pupils, to modify their work in order to make it more effective. (Black, 1993)
Formative Assessment: Range of Practices INFORMAL On-the-Fly Planned-for Interaction Embedded Assessment FORMAL Separate Assessment * Adapted from Shavelson (2003)
Check-In Question #2 In your subject area, what is an example of a planned-for interaction formative assessment opportunity?
Check-In Question #3 In your subject area, what is an example of an embedded formative assessment opportunity?
Purposes of Formative Assessment Monitoring Learning Whether learning is taking place Diagnosing (informing) learning What is & isnt being learned Forming learning What to do about it * Borrowed from Wiliam (2004)
Check-In Question #4 In your subject area, how would an assessment for diagnosing learning look different from an assessment for monitoring learning?
Components of Formative Assessment Eliciting assessment information Interpreting elicited assessment information Acting upon interpretations Providing feedback to students Reflecting upon & revising teaching * Adapted from Ruiz-Primo (2005)
Traditional Feedback Provides information about relative standing, rather than how to improve Reinforces to weaker students that they lack ability and are not able to learn
Necessary components of good feedback Sadler (1989) delineated 3 necessary components of feedback: The standard which is to be achieved The actual level of performance How to go about closing the gap Ramaprasads (1983) definition emphasized use of information to close the gap
Good feedback Provides specific information (Black, 1998; Black et al., 2004; Bonnoil, 1991; Choi, Nam, & Lee, 2001; Croocks, 1998; Elawar & Corno, 1985; Harlen & James, 1997; Mavrommatis, 1997; Sadler, 1998; Torrance & Pryor, 2001) Compares student performance to clear standards, not to performance of others Is honest and authentic Is timely
Steps to Providing Good Feedback Start with the positive Use specific, non-judgmental language to indicate areas for improvement Target a small number of areas where the student is ready to make improvement, and provide guidance about what to do next Provide an opportunity for relearning, correction, and revision in response to feedback
Grades & Feedback Students tend to ignore feedback when accompanied by a grade or overall judgment (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & Wiliam, 2004) A numerical mark or grade does not tell you what to do: if it is high, youre pleased but have no impetus to do better, if it is low it might confirm your belief that you are not able to learn the subject. (Black & Harrison, 2001)