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Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight

2 Providing Effective Feedback Feedback Serves Two Functions Three Sources of Feedback: Others, Self, and Task The Recipients Perspective of Feedback Behavioral Outcomes of Feedback What about Nontraditional Upward Feedback and 360- Degree Feedback? Organizational Reward Systems Types of Rewards Organizational Reward Norms Distribution Criteria Desired Outcomes 8-1a Chapter Eight Outline

3 Organizational Rewards Systems (continued) Why Rewards Often Fail to Motivate Positive Reinforcement Thorndikes Law of Effect Skinners Operant Conditioning Model Contingent Consequences Schedules of Reinforcement Shaping Behavior with Positive Reinforcement 8-1b Chapter Eight Outline (continued)

4 8-2 Figure 8-1 Results Learning Personal development Stable, strong job performance Properly administered Rewards and Positive Reinforcement Timely and instructive feedback EffortAbility Bolstering the Job Performance Cycle with Feedback, Rewards, and Reinforcement

5 8-3 Feedback: Feedback: Objective information about individual or collective performance. Functions of Feedback: Functions of Feedback: - Instructional - Motivational Sources of Feedback -Task -Self - Others Feedback

6 Upward Feedback: Upward Feedback: Subordinates evaluate their managers style and performance. 360-Degree Feedback: 360-Degree Feedback: Specific (typically anonymous) feedback generated by ones manager, peers, subordinates, and other key people. For group discussion: For group discussion: Are you in favor of this trend toward nontraditional feedback? Explain. What are its limits? 8-5 Nontraditional Feedback

7 Managers need to keep the following tips in mind when giving feedback: goals expectations. Relate feedback to existing performance goals and clear expectations. specific Give specific feedback tied to observable behavior or measurable results. key result areas. Channel feedback toward key result areas. soon Give feedback as soon as possible. improvement, Give positive feedback for improvement, not just final results. performance, Focus feedback on performance, not personalities. accuratecredible Base feedback on accurate and credible information. 8-6 Skills and Best Practices: How to Make Sure Feedback Gets Results

8 8-7 Figure 8-2 Organizations Reward Norms Profit maximization Equity Equality Need Distribution Criteria Results Behavior Other factors Types of Rewards Financial/material (extrinsic) Social (extrinsic) Psychic (intrinsic) Desired Outcomes Attract Motivate Develop Satisfy Retain Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems

9 Too much emphasis on monetary rewards Rewards lack an appreciation effect Extensive benefits become entitlements Counterproductive behavior is rewarded Too long a delay between performance and rewards Too many one-size-fits-all rewards Use of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impact Continued use of demotivating practices such as layoffs, across-the-board raises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation 8-8 Why Rewards Often Fail to Motivate

10 8-9 Figure 8-3 Punishment Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often. Negative Reinforcement Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs more often. Punishment (Response Cost) Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often. Positive Reinforcement Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs more often. (no contingent consequence) Extinction Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often Contingent Withdrawal Contingent Presentation Positive or Pleasing Negative or Displeasing Nature of Consequences Behavior-Consequence Relationship Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning

11 ScheduleDescription Continuous (CRF) ContinuousReinforcer follows every response (CRF) Intermittent IntermittentReinforcer does not follow every response Fixed ratio (FR) A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs. Variable ratio (VR)A varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs. Fixed interval (FI)The first response after a specific period of time has elapsed is reinforced Variable interval (VI)The first response after varying or random periods of time have elapsed is reinforced Table 8-1 Schedules of Reinforcement

12 8-11 Accommodate the process of behavioral change. Define new behavior patterns specifically. Give individuals feedback on their performance. Reinforce behavior as quickly as possible. Use powerful reinforcement. Use a continuous reinforcement schedule (for new behaviors) Use a variable reinforcement schedule for maintenance Reward teamwork -- not competition. Make all rewards contingent on performance. Never take good performance for granted. Skills and Best Practices: How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior


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