Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Age and Negative Feedback on Witness Response iIIRG Conference Toronto, Canada 24 – 26 May 2012 Dr. Hazel McMurtrie"— Presentation transcript:
The Effects of Age and Negative Feedback on Witness Response iIIRG Conference Toronto, Canada 24 – 26 May 2012 Dr. Hazel McMurtrie
Negative Feedback Negative Feedback is any form of interpersonal pressure (IP) applied overtly or implicitly that conveys criticism of an interviewee in relation to how he or she has responded to questions asked (Baxter et al., in press) Implicit feedback:- Repetition of questions (Register & Kihlstrom, 1986); or Unsupportive / disapproving interviewer manner (Baxter & Boon, 2000)
Response Change (RC) RC under IP could involve:- Change of plea; Changing details of testimony; or Where interviewees waive their right to silence and begin to answer
Gudjonsson and Clark (1986) Model of Interrogative Suggestibility (IS) UncertaintyInterpersonal TrustExpectations of Success
The Ageing Eyewitness Ageing population Projected rise in UK population 23% aged over 65 by 2034 (National Statistics, 2009) Targets of distraction burglaries (Home Office, 2008), and Financial scams (Jacoby, 1999) Increase in older adult involvement with the Criminal Justice System
Age and IP – Literature Review Polczyk et al., (2004) Younger adults (M = 22.3 yrs) Older adults (M = 64.1 yrs) GSS 2 Findings:- No significant differences in the response changes between young and older adults Drake & Bull (2011) Participants (N = 64), (M = 26.36, range 18 – 63) GSS1 Findings:- Response changes increased as age increased.
Present Research Aims & Objectives To investigate the effects of negative feedback on interviewee response in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Adapted the procedure of McGroarty & Baxter (2007, 2009); Retained the GSS questioning-feedback-re- questioning procedure (GSS1, GSS2; Gudjonsson, 1984, 1987); Video-taped event; Examined effects of IP associated with neutral and negative feedback
Experimental Hypotheses 1)Negative feedback to produce significantly greater response changes than neutral feedback. 2)Following negative feedback older adults expected to change significantly more responses than younger adults.
Methodology Participants (N = 101, M = yrs, range ) Laboratory Experiment Conditions:- Feedback: negative / neutral Age group: younger adults (N = 34, range 18 – 35); middle-aged (N = 37, range 36 – 64); older adults (N = 30, range 65 – 82) DV – Number of response changes
Materials and Procedure Filmed event (77 secs, non violent theft of briefcase); Delayed testing (10 mins); Free recall (Tell me everything you can remember about the scene you witnessed in the video); 29-item Event Memory Questionnaire (EMQ) (e.g. Did you see anyone walk past in the background?); Feedback Delivered; Re-questioning
Feedback Negative feedback From my records here I see that others weve asked about this have done better than you. Id like you to try again, to see if you can do better. Neutral Feedback Thankyou for answering these questions. To ensure that we have your answers recorded correctly, well run through the questions once more.
Neutral FeedbackNegative Feedback Age Groups Response Changes Feedback (F = 6.63, p = 0.01, η 2 =.07) Age group (F = 3.21, p < 0.05, η 2 =.06) Age group * Feedback (F = 4.59, p < 0.05, η 2 = 0.09)
Summary and Discussion 1. Negative feedback to produce greater response changes than neutral feedback. Exp hypothesis supported (McGroarty & Baxter, 2007, 2009) 2. Following negative feedback older adults expected to change significantly more responses than younger adults. Exp hypothesis not supported – observed age effect in opposite direction to that expected. Older adults less vulnerable to Interrogative Pressure (Polczyk et al., 2004).
Conclusion Importance of witness consistency to credibility (Fisher, Brewer, & Mitchell, 2009) Inconsistent testimony = poor memory or deception? Younger adults experience interviewee vulnerability incorporated within an interview
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