2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Specify the two basic functions of feedback and three sources of feedback.Define upward feedback and 360-degree feedback, and summarize the general tips for giving good feedback.Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and give a job-related example of each
3 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Summarize the research lessons about pay for performance, and explain why rewards often fail to motivate employees.State Thorndike’s “law of effect” and explain Skinner’s distinction between respondent and operant behavior.Demonstrate your knowledge of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction and explain behavior shaping
5 Providing Effective Feedback objective information about individual or collective performance shared with those in a position to improve the situation
6 Two Functions of Feedback Instructionalclarifies roles or teaches new behaviorsMotivationalserves as a reward or promise of a rewardCan be significantly enhanced by pairing specific, challenging goals with specific feedback about results
7 Question?Grant is responsible for training new employees. He wants to make sure everyone knows their role in making the firm successful. This is __________ feedback.PersistentMotivationalTutorialInstructionalThe correct answer is “D” – instructional. See previous slide.
8 Sources of Feedback Others Task Oneself peers, supervisors, lower-level employees, and outsidersTaskOneselfSelf-serving bias and other perceptual problems can contaminate this source
9 Behavioral Outcomes of Feedback DirectionEffortPersistenceResistance
10 Nontraditional Feedback Upward feedbackemployees evaluate their boss360-Degree feedbackcomparison of anonymous feedback from one’s superior, subordinates, and peers with self-perceptionsTypically involve multiple sources of feedback
11 Question?When Janine evaluates her supervisor, she is providing __________ feedback.UpwardDownwardHorizontalDiagonalThe correct answer is “A” – upward feedbackAACSB: Communication; Group-individual dynamicsBloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Page: 205
12 Popularity of Nontraditional Feedback Traditional performance appraisal systems have created widespread dissatisfaction.Team-based organization structures are replacing traditional hierarchies.Multiple-rater systems are said to make feedback more valid than single-source feedback.
13 Popularity of Nontraditional Feedback Advanced computer network technology greatly facilitates multiple-rater systems.Bottom-up feedback meshes nicely with the trend toward participative management and employee empowerment.Co-workers and lower-level employees are said to know more about a manager’s strengths and limitations.
14 Upward FeedbackManagers resist upward feedbacks programs because they believe it erodes their authorityAnonymous upward feedback can become little more than a personality contestResearch evidence on upward and 360-degree feedback favors anonymity and discourages use for pay and promotion decisions
15 Why Feedback Often Fails Feedback is used to punish, embarrass, or put down employees.Those receiving the feedback see it as irrelevant to their work.Feedback information is provided too late to do any good.
16 Why Feedback Often Fails People receiving feedback believe it relates to matters beyond their control.Employees complain about wasting too much time collecting and recording feedback data.Feedback recipients complain about feedback being too complex or difficult to understand.
17 Commonsense Guidelines for Feedback Relate feedback to existing goals and deliver as soon as possibleBe specific and identify observable behavior or measurable results.Focus feedback on things employees can control
18 Commonsense Guidelines for Feedback (cont.) Cultivate a fair and constructive climate by including positive feedbackTake time to listen to employees’ reaction
19 Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems Figure 8-2
20 Types of Rewards Extrinsic rewards Intrinsic rewards financial, material, or social rewards from the environmentIntrinsic rewardsself-granted, psychic rewards
21 Question?Angelo derives pleasure from the task of book writing itself. He can be described as __________ motivated.ExtrinsicallyFinanciallyMateriallyIntrinsicallyThe correct answer is “D” - intrinsicallyAACSB: Group-individual dynamicsBloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Hard Page: 209
22 Distribution Criteria Performance: resultstangible outcomesPerformance: actions and behaviorsteamwork, cooperation, risk-takingNon-performance considerationscontractual
23 Pay for Performance Pay for performance monetary incentives tied to one’s results or accomplishments
24 Why Rewards Fail to Motivate Too much emphasis on monetary rewardsRewards lack an “appreciation effect”Extensive benefits become entitlementsCounterproductive behavior is rewardedToo long a delay between performance and rewards
25 Why Rewards Fail to Motivate Too many one-size-fits-all rewardsUse of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impactContinued use of demotivating practices such as layoffs, across-the-board raises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation
26 Question?Kim’s company has given all employees a “performance bonus” each year for the past 17 years. Employees have come to expect it no matter what the company’s profitability. Why would this “pay for performance” system fail to motivate employees?Too much emphasis on monetary rewardsRewards lack an “appreciation effect”Extensive benefits become entitlementsCounterproductive behavior is rewardedThe correct answer is “C” – see slide 8-24
27 Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behavior with favorable consequences is repeated; behavior with unfavorable consequences disappearsRead an article on the “Law of Effect”
28 Question?When Grant is praised for a work behavior, he will try hard to repeat it. This follows the law of ___________.AffectEffectEffectivenessEfficiencyThe correct answer is “B” – effect. See previous slide.
29 Positive Reinforcement Respondent behaviorSkinner’s term for unlearned stimulus-response reflexesOperant behaviorSkinner’s term for learned, consequence-shaped behavior
30 Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning Figure 8-3
31 Contingent Consequences Positive reinforcementmaking behavior occur more often by contingently presenting something positiveNegative reinforcementmaking behavior occur more often by contingently withdrawing something negative
32 Contingent Consequences Punishmentmaking behavior occur less often by contingently presenting something negative or withdrawing something positiveExtinctionmaking behavior occur less often by ignoring or not reinforcing it
33 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcementreinforcing every instance of a behaviorIntermittent reinforcementreinforcing some but not all instances of behaviorContinuous reinforcementreinforcing every instance of a behaviorIntermittent reinforcement – reinforcing some but not all instances of behaviorFixed ratioVariable ratioFixed intervalVariable interval
35 How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior Accommodate the process of behavioral change.Define new behavior patterns specifically.Give individuals feedback on their performance.Reinforce behavior as quickly as possible.Use powerful reinforcement.
36 How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior (cont.) Use a continuous reinforcement schedule.Use a variable reinforcement schedule for maintenance.Reward teamwork—not competition.Make all rewards contingent on performance.Never take good performance for granted.
37 Shaping Behavior Shaping reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a target behavior
38 Question?Employees at ABC Manufacturing strive to operate at a zero-defect level because each gets publicly recognized for their individual and team accomplishments. This is an example ofExtinction.Positive reinforcement.Respondent behavior.Punishment.The correct answer is “B” – positive reinforcementAACSB: Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy: ApplicationDifficulty: Medium Page: 213
39 Supplemental SlidesSlides contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lecturesSlide 40-41: Yearly ReviewsSlides 42-43: Fear of FeedbackSlide 44: Receiving FeedbackSlide 45: Video discussion slide
40 Yearly ReviewsWhy don’t managers and employees like performance reviews?Where you work or have worked, how often did you receive feedback?Discussion question:Why don’t managers and employees like performance reviews?Have students discuss reasons these reviews are uncomfortable.Reasons that may be suggested:Hurt feelingsNervous; surprised by feedbackLevel of formality and seriousness especially when attached to merit raises or bonusesWhere you work or have worked, how often did you receive feedback?Yearly, twice a year, quarterly are common responsesDiscuss whether the regularity of the feedback affects the discomfort or anxiety associated with the performance review meeting.Use these answers as a segue into the next slides on feedback
41 Source: Ideas The Welch Way, BusinessWeek, February 26, 2007 Yearly ReviewsJack and Suzy Welch’s advice:Sit down with each direct report and provide a single page that says, here’s what you do well, and here’s what you can do betterThis should happen three or four times a year, particularly with every raise, bonus, or promotionWhat are the pros and cons of this approach?Source: Ideas The Welch Way, BusinessWeek, February 26, 2007Jack and Suzy Welch respond to a reader asking why we can’t just let employees know when they are performing way under or way beyond expectations because it would save a lot of time.Jack and Suzy Welch’s advice:Sit down with each direct report and provide a single page that says, here’s what you do well, and here’s what you can do betterThis should happen three or four times a year, particularly with every raise, bonus, or promotionWhat are the pros and cons of this approach?May want to discuss the heightened sensitivity when pairing feedback with tangible rewards. Employee may be overly defensive or closed to negative feedback and supervisors may soft-pedal because they know their ratings have real consequences for the employee.A regular coaching model may be a solution so employees get the feedback they need in time to make real improvements that impact their promotability and salary.Source: Ideas The Welch Way, BusinessWeek, February 26, 2007
42 Fear of Feedback Maladaptive Behaviors Procrastination Brooding Denial JealousySelf-sabotageSource: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business ReviewMaladaptive behaviors:Procrastination – not asking when something is wrong, problem tends to festerBrooding – letting emotions get in the way of actionDenial – staying too long in a job that is a poor fitJealousy – comparing yourself to others, letting it demotivate youSelf-sabotage – speaking out of anger rather than dealing with issues then getting into troubleAdaptive behaviors:Recognize emotions and maladaptive responses and face them. Figure out why you’re responding that way. Learn to act differently even if emotions are still thereGet Support: friend, colleague, coachReframe the feedback: what can you learn from it, take what you own and move on from the rest, consider ways to improveBreak it into parts: work on 1 or 2 things at timeGetting Feedback:Self-assessmentExternal – peers, bossesAbsorb the feedback: deal with emotions, watch for maladaptive behaviorsTake action: coming to a conclusion and acting on itSource: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business Review
43 Fear of Feedback Adaptive Behaviors Recognize emotions and maladaptive responsesGet supportReframe the feedbackBreak it into partsSource: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business ReviewThis article describes the cognitive and behavioral processes that occur when receiving feedback. Each process is described and strategies for mitigating these effects is provided.Adaptive behaviors:Recognize emotions and maladaptive responses and face them. Figure out why you’re responding that way. Learn to act differently even if emotions are still thereGet Support: friend, colleague, coachReframe the feedback: what can you learn from it, take what you own and move on from the rest, consider ways to improveBreak it into parts: work on 1 or 2 things at timeGetting Feedback:Self-assessmentExternal – peers, bossesAbsorb the feedback: deal with emotions, watch for maladaptive behaviorsTake action: coming to a conclusion and acting on itSource: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business Review
44 Receiving Feedback To help clarify feedback, receivers can ask: Could you give me an example of the behavior that concerns you?Can you help me understand how you came to that conclusion?Can you help me understand the situations in which you have seen the behavior and what you see as the impact?Can you clarify what you would like to see me do differently?Taken from Academy of Management Executive 2005 Vol 19 No. 2 May, pg Actionable feedback: Unlocking the power of learning and performance improvement.For feedback to be useful it should be actionable and accurate. Often the receiver of feedback doesn’t understand explicitly what the feedback giver is saying and how they came to their perceptions of performance. Instead of feeling confused, receivers can ask the following questions to clarify the feedback:Could you give me an example of the behavior that concerns you?Can you help me understand how you came to that conclusion?Can you help me understand the situations in which you have seen the behavior and what you see as the impact?Can you clarify what you would like to see me do differently?
45 Video Case: Slacking Off This questions is almost impossible to universally answer. The answer will be directly tied to one’s view of work as well as their generation. One has to consider that we have a knowledge based economy today and there is often times no tangible product of our work. People from the days of a manufacturing economy may just not be able to recognize the products of a knowledge worker as being productivity.One could argue that more is expected of workers today given that technology can serve as an electronic leash for some people. As mentioned in the case, people allow their social life to bleed into their work life and their work life to bleed into their home life. In the past, when the worker left work, they were done for the day.The question concerning whether or not we are less productive today is also difficult to answer. This may also be the product of one’s vantage point (i.e. what generation they belong to).Work today is very different than it was in the past. As previously mentioned, we are working in a knowledge based economy that has different products of “labor” than did a manufacturing economy. This could certainly be part of the issue as was previously mentioned.Are workers from today’s generations exhibiting a “slacker” attitude at work?Do you think more is being expected of workers today than there was in the past?Are workers today less productive as a result of having “slacker” attitudes?Is the nature of work different today than it was in the past? Could this be part of the issue?