Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 8-2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Specify the two basic functions of feedback and three sources of feedback. Define upward feedback and 360-degree feedback, and summarize the general tips for giving good feedback. Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and give a job-related example of each

3 8-3 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Summarize the research lessons about pay for performance, and explain why rewards often fail to motivate employees. State Thorndikes law of effect and explain Skinners distinction between respondent and operant behavior. Demonstrate your knowledge of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction and explain behavior shaping

4 8-4 Improving Individual Job Performance Figure 8-1

5 8-5 Providing Effective Feedback Feedback -objective information about individual or collective performance shared with those in a position to improve the situation

6 8-6 Two Functions of Feedback Instructional -clarifies roles or teaches new behaviors Motivational -serves as a reward or promise of a reward Can be significantly enhanced by pairing specific, challenging goals with specific feedback about results

7 Question? Grant is responsible for training new employees. He wants to make sure everyone knows their role in making the firm successful. This is __________ feedback. A.Persistent B.Motivational C.Tutorial D.Instructional 8-7

8 8-8 Sources of Feedback Others -peers, supervisors, lower-level employees, and outsiders Task Oneself -Self-serving bias and other perceptual problems can contaminate this source

9 Behavioral Outcomes of Feedback Direction Effort Persistence Resistance 8-9

10 8-10 Nontraditional Feedback Upward feedback -employees evaluate their boss 360-Degree feedback -comparison of anonymous feedback from ones superior, subordinates, and peers with self-perceptions

11 Question? When Janine evaluates her supervisor, she is providing __________ feedback. A.Upward B.Downward C.Horizontal D.Diagonal 8-11

12 Popularity of Nontraditional Feedback 1.Traditional performance appraisal systems have created widespread dissatisfaction. 2.Team-based organization structures are replacing traditional hierarchies. 3.Multiple-rater systems are said to make feedback more valid than single-source feedback. 8-12

13 8-13 Popularity of Nontraditional Feedback 4.Advanced computer network technology greatly facilitates multiple-rater systems. 5.Bottom-up feedback meshes nicely with the trend toward participative management and employee empowerment. 6.Co-workers and lower-level employees are said to know more about a managers strengths and limitations.

14 8-14 Upward Feedback Managers resist upward feedbacks programs because they believe it erodes their authority Anonymous upward feedback can become little more than a personality contest

15 8-15 Why Feedback Often Fails 1.Feedback is used to punish, embarrass, or put down employees. 2.Those receiving the feedback see it as irrelevant to their work. 3.Feedback information is provided too late to do any good.

16 8-16 Why Feedback Often Fails 4.People receiving feedback believe it relates to matters beyond their control. 5.Employees complain about wasting too much time collecting and recording feedback data. 6.Feedback recipients complain about feedback being too complex or difficult to understand.

17 8-17 Commonsense Guidelines for Feedback Relate feedback to existing goals and deliver as soon as possible Be specific and identify observable behavior or measurable results. Focus feedback on things employees can control

18 8-18 Commonsense Guidelines for Feedback (cont.) Cultivate a fair and constructive climate by including positive feedback Take time to listen to employees reaction

19 8-19 Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems Figure 8-2

20 Types of Rewards Extrinsic rewards -financial, material, or social rewards from the environment Intrinsic rewards -self-granted, psychic rewards 8-20

21 Question? Angelo derives pleasure from the task of book writing itself. He can be described as __________ motivated. A.Extrinsically B.Financially C.Materially D.Intrinsically 8-21

22 8-22 Distribution Criteria Performance: results -tangible outcomes Performance: actions and behaviors -teamwork, cooperation, risk-taking Non-performance considerations -contractual

23 8-23 Pay for Performance Pay for performance -monetary incentives tied to ones results or accomplishments

24 Why Rewards Fail to Motivate 1.Too much emphasis on monetary rewards 2.Rewards lack an appreciation effect 3.Extensive benefits become entitlements 4.Counterproductive behavior is rewarded 5.Too long a delay between performance and rewards 8-24

25 8-25 Why Rewards Fail to Motivate 6.Too many one-size-fits-all rewards 7.Use of one-shot rewards with a short- lived motivational impact 8.Continued use of demotivating practices such as layoffs, across-the-board raises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation

26 Question? Kims company has given all employees a performance bonus each year for the past 17 years. Employees have come to expect it no matter what the companys profitability. Why would this pay for performance system fail to motivate employees? A.Too much emphasis on monetary rewards B.Rewards lack an appreciation effect C.Extensive benefits become entitlements D.Counterproductive behavior is rewarded 8-26

27 8-27 Thorndikes Law of Effect Behavior with favorable consequences is repeated; behavior with unfavorable consequences disappears Read an article on the Law of Effect

28 Question? When Grant is praised for a work behavior, he will try hard to repeat it. This follows the law of ___________. A.Affect B.Effect C.Effectiveness D.Efficiency 8-28

29 8-29 Positive Reinforcement Respondent behavior -Skinners term for unlearned stimulus- response reflexes Operant behavior -Skinners term for learned, consequence- shaped behavior

30 Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning Figure

31 8-31 Contingent Consequences Positive reinforcement -making behavior occur more often by contingently presenting something positive Negative reinforcement -making behavior occur more often by contingently withdrawing something negative

32 8-32 Contingent Consequences Punishment -making behavior occur less often by contingently presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive Extinction -making behavior occur less often by ignoring or not reinforcing it

33 8-33 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement -reinforcing every instance of a behavior Intermittent reinforcement -reinforcing some but not all instances of behavior

34 Schedules of Reinforcement 8-34

35 8-35 How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior 1.Accommodate the process of behavioral change. 2.Define new behavior patterns specifically. 3.Give individuals feedback on their performance. 4.Reinforce behavior as quickly as possible. 5.Use powerful reinforcement.

36 8-36 How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior (cont.) 6.Use a continuous reinforcement schedule. 7.Use a variable reinforcement schedule for maintenance. 8.Reward teamworknot competition. 9.Make all rewards contingent on performance. 10.Never take good performance for granted.

37 8-37 Shaping Behavior Shaping -reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a target behavior

38 Question? Employees at ABC Manufacturing strive to operate at a zero-defect level because each gets publicly recognized for their individual and team accomplishments. This is an example of A.Extinction. B.Positive reinforcement. C.Respondent behavior. D.Punishment. 8-38

39 Supplemental Slides Slides contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lectures -Slide 40-41: Yearly Reviews -Slides 42-43: Fear of Feedback -Slide 44: Receiving Feedback -Slide 45: Video discussion slide 8-39

40 Yearly Reviews Why dont managers and employees like performance reviews? Where you work or have worked, how often did you receive feedback? 8-40

41 Yearly Reviews Jack and Suzy Welchs advice: -Sit down with each direct report and provide a single page that says, heres what you do well, and heres what you can do better -This should happen three or four times a year, particularly with every raise, bonus, or promotion What are the pros and cons of this approach? 8-41 Source: Ideas The Welch Way, BusinessWeek, February 26, 2007

42 Fear of Feedback Maladaptive Behaviors -Procrastination -Brooding -Denial -Jealousy -Self-sabotage 8-42 Source: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business Review

43 Fear of Feedback Adaptive Behaviors -Recognize emotions and maladaptive responses -Get support -Reframe the feedback -Break it into parts 8-43 Source: Fear of Feedback, Jackman, J.M., Strober, M.H. (2005) Harvard Business Review

44 Receiving Feedback To help clarify feedback, receivers can ask: Could you give me an example of the behavior that concerns you? Can you help me understand how you came to that conclusion? Can you help me understand the situations in which you have seen the behavior and what you see as the impact? Can you clarify what you would like to see me do differently? 8-44

45 Video Case: Slacking Off Are workers from todays generations exhibiting a slacker attitude at work? Do you think more is being expected of workers today than there was in the past? Are workers today less productive as a result of having slacker attitudes? Is the nature of work different today than it was in the past? Could this be part of the issue? 8-45

Download ppt "Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement Chapter Eight Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google