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2010 05 04 SIG invited symposium UTILIZING ASSESSMENT INFORMATION FOR (IN)FORMATIVE FEEDBACK.

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Presentation on theme: "2010 05 04 SIG invited symposium UTILIZING ASSESSMENT INFORMATION FOR (IN)FORMATIVE FEEDBACK."— Presentation transcript:

1 SIG invited symposium UTILIZING ASSESSMENT INFORMATION FOR (IN)FORMATIVE FEEDBACK

2 STUDENTS USE OF FEEDBACK IN HIGHER EDUCATION Anders Jönsson Malmö University Sweden

3 BACKGROUND Feedback holds a great potential for learning Still, some students do not use the feedback they receive Why? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY

4 PREVIOUS RESEARCH Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY Students did not act on their feedback, although they did value to receive it (Brown & Glover, 2006) Students do not use assessment information to improve their learning (Mclellan, 2001). Less than half of the students collected their formative feedback (Sinclair & Cleland, 2007) Students seldom read their teachers comments and those who did read them, did not use them (MacDonalds, 1991)

5 PREVIOUS RESEARCH Students did not act on their feedback, although they did value to receive it (Brown & Glover, 2006) Students do not use assessment information to improve their learning (Mclellan, 2001). Less than half of the students collected their formative feedback (Sinclair & Cleland, 2007) Students seldom read their teachers comments and those who did read them, did not use them (MacDonalds, 1991) Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY Students are not very happy about their feedback (e.g. Rust, 2002; Scott, 2005). Teacher feedback is not homogenous (e.g. Connors & Lunsford, 1993).

6 PROCEDURE Literature review 1. Broad search for recent ( ) papers on feedback in higher education in several databases (27 studies) 2.Inclusion criteria Empirical research Higher education Printed and peer-reviewed work Time limit 1990 Feedback from teachers/tutors Not error correction in ESL 3.Snowballing Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY

7 DATA In total: 103 studies Majority of studies published in journals, followed by edited books. Studies vary across subjects (Humanities, Technology, Business) Almost exclusively written comments on students written work (although a growing number of digital-audio feedback) Research designs mostly questionnaires and/or interviews – almost no studies on students use of feedback in vivo Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY

8 RESULTS Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY A large number of different factors may influence students use of feedback: Students perceptions of the teacher (e.g. credibility, scariness) The content of the feedback (e.g. focus on form or ideas) The actual message (e.g. positive or negative) The mode of delivery (e.g. written or oral) The context (e.g. with or withour grading) Timing …

9 RESULTS Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY

10 The feedback is given along with a grade/mark RESULTS Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY Teachers are not educated to give feedback The feedback is not given within the course or module of interest The feedback makes no reference to the assessment criteria The feedback is mainly summative The students have no strategies for using their feedback The feedback contains expressions of power and authority

11 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY The information is not useful Students use their feedback if they are asked to: 1.Revise a task and hand it in again 2.Make use of their feedback in similar assignments COMMON OBSTACLES: No in-built features for using feedback (i.e. it is up to the students themselves) The students do not receive their feedback until the course/module is over The feedback is on the wrong level (e.g. task-level feedback on non-revision tasks)

12 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY The feedback should be comprehensive, specific, detailed, and personal Students prefer: 1.A lot of feedback 2.Specific, detailed, and personal feedback 3.Positive feedback (some even like to be praised) 4.Feedback accompanied by a grade or a mark BUT: The amount of feedback does not necessarily affect how students use their feedback. However, important issues may be missed at the expense of more common issues. The students may make more changes if told exactly what to do, but the results are not always for the better. Positive feedback often lead to less changes. Grades seem to make the students less willing to challenge the teachers feedback and also to focus on smaller (and safer) changes.

13 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY The feedback should be comprehensive, specific, detailed, and personal – OR NOT! Students prefer: 1.A lot of feedback 2.Specific, detailed, and personal feedback 3.Positive feedback (some even like to be praised) 4.Feedback accompanied by a grade or a mark BUT: The amount of feedback does not necessarily affect how students use their feedback. However, important issues may be missed at the expense of more common issues. The students may make more changes if told exactly what to do, but the results are not always for the better. Positive feedback often lead to less changes. Grades seem to make the students less willing to challenge the teachers feedback and also to focus on smaller (and safer) changes.

14 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY The feedback is delivered as a authoritative monologue When the teacher expresses authority through the feedback, students tend to take on a passive role and comply with the teachers comments – even if it means abandoning their own ideas. COMMON OBSTACLES: The teacher makes use of imperatives, obliging modalities, or an insensitive tone in the feedback – sending the message that the teachers point of view cannot be contested. The students are grades, but are not informed about the grading criteria.

15 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY Not everyone knows how to use the feedback productively Many students do not possess any strategies for using the feedback they receive. The students refer to very diffuse strategies, such as keeping the feedback in mind or having to work harder next time. COMMON OBSTACLES: The students are not taught effective strategies for using feedback.

16 Why do students not use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY The students do not understand the academic discourse A lot of students do not understand the comments they receive. Surprisingly often this is due to illegible handwriting, but also a lack of understanding of common terms, such as analysis or logical conclusion. COMMON OBSTACLES: The students are given only words – not examples. The students are seldom given the opportunity to discuss the meaning of their feedback or the assessment criteria.

17 How to make students use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY In-built structures for using feedback The student are active in both using and producing feedback The feedback process is dialogic The students learn how to use feedback as an integrated part of instruction The students can learn from each other From Pryor & Crossouard(2010)

18 CriteriaCriteria How to make students use their feedback? Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY Student answer Model answer (feedback) Task: Compare your answer with the model answer. What strenghts and weaknesses can you identify? How can your answer be improved?

19 Sweden MALMÖ UNIVERSITY THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Anders Jönsson


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