2 Overview u Definition of 360-degree feedback u How can 360-degree feedback help individual development? l Basic assumptions l Challenges l How do we think? u Better Integrating 360-degree feedback and individual learning u Summary
3 A Personal Story u I went to a store to buy some computer equipment. u I really enjoyed the time at the store. u When I got home, my wife asked: Did you find what you need? u Oh, I forgot….!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4 How Does This Story Connect To 360- degree Feedback? u Organizations often forget their major objectives when they implement 360-degree surveys l They plan to use 360-degree feedback programs to develop peoples leadership skills l Then they focus on how to implement such programs smoothly and successfully u It is really a complex process l When they finish the process, they often have forgotten their original goals
5 Definition Of 360-degree Feedback u A manager or supervisor is rated on a range of leadership competencies by people with whom he or she has a work or business relationship l Self, boss, peer, subordinates, customers, and even family members u It is a common belief that such programs are effective when used for developmental purposes but not for administrative (e.g. promotion) purposes l So, this presentation will mainly discuss how to use 360-degree feedback effectively to develop people
6 Definition Of 360-degree Feedback u A 360-degree feedback process usually consists of multiple steps l Planning l buy-in l evaluation instrument design or selection l report generation l feedback delivery l setting development plan l follow-up
7 How Can 360-degree Feedback Help Individual Development?
8 Basic Assumption u Feedback can enhance self-awareness about own strengths and weaknesses l Based on Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1957), a significant gap between self- ratings and ratings from others can cause psychological dissonance. When this happens, people are motivated to reduce this gap and feel assonant again. l According to Control Theory (Carter & Schneier, 1981,1982), when people detect discrepancies between their goals and their behavior, they are likely to take actions to reduce the discrepancies.
9 Basic Assumption u Therefore, it is widely believed that 360- degree feedback can result in energy and impetus for change (e.g., Lewin, 1958; London, 1997). u However, some challenges have been raised to this assumption
10 Challenge From Common Sense and Observations u A common sense perspective l Many people are already well aware of their weaknesses and strengths because of rich feedback in daily life u Observations l Kaplan (1993) observed that too often managers are given feedback, dutifully resolve to do better, and nothing changes.
11 Challenge From Empirical and Theoretic Research u A meta analysis by Kluger and DeNisi (1989) suggests that simply providing people feedback itself doesnt result in positive change. l Lower their objectives and/or reject the feedback that can be motivated to u Keep self-consistency u Maintaining and enhancing self-esteem
12 Challenge From Empirical and Theoretic Research u Goodstone and Diamante (1998) questioned the assumption that to know oneself is to change oneself. l Feedback is more effective when it focuses on behaviors, tasks, and situations l However, the target areas of 360-degree often are interpersonal styles or other trait-related competencies (see what feedback reports often present).
13 What Do We Think? u There is a plenty of room between feedback and actual individual development /change l Feedback : How was a person perceived by various raters? l Judgment : what does the feedback mean to the person? l Intention : What does the person plan to do? l Action : What does the person really do? l Results : What does the person finally achieve? u Therefore, a lot of effort is needed to ensure that feedback can result in positive change
14 What Do We Think? (cont.) Planning Instrument Data Collection Feedback IDP Follow-up The process of 360- degree feedback is often presented in this way. This model can mislead people. Individual learning and developm ent are primarily individual s responsibi lities after providing feedback
15 What Do We Think? (cont.) u Conceptual model can affect peoples practice u It describe its main objective, the individual development activities, as follow-up. Based on this model, organizations may fail to u Keep their focus on their original goal u Recognize the difficulty of individual development u Allocate sufficient resources u Create learning conditions u Provide important support and facilitation u Make necessary culture changes
16 What Do We Think? (cont.) u It is important to model the process of 360- degree feedback in a way that l The primary goal can be emphasized or highlighted l Organizational continuing support to individual development is addressed
17 What Do We Think? (cont.) u People need to better understand individual development/learning process l A diligent and long-term process l People need to overcome resistance to stretch beyond their comfort zones u Organizations and individuals need to work as a united force: u Personal goals and organizational objectives can be aligned u Organizations can facilitate and support individual learning u Organization can improve and even transform its culture during this process
18 Better Integrate 360-degree Feedback And Individual Learning
19 What Should Be Done At The Organizational Level u When designing a 360-degree feedback program, it is important to l make it clear that actual individual development /change is the major goal l Better model the individual learning process instead of simply using follow-up u During implementing the program, it is important to l Align the whole effort with the goal of individual development u e.g., train people how to give constructive feedback in real work situations
20 What Should Be Done At The Organizational Level (cont.) u After giving feedback, it is important to l Ensure to keep focus on the major goal individual development l Set realistic expectations l Allocate sufficient resources l Provide supportive conditions l Create a learning culture
21 What Should Be Done At The Individual Level? u Better understand why he or she needs to learn or develop l Personal stakes l Organizational stakes u Find a good coach or mentor u Have a focus l More is less and less is more u One of the keys is to identify one or two areas for improvement Motivation
22 What Should Be Done At The Individual Level? (cont.) u Three ways to make a development focus: u Strengths (from good to great) u Weaknesses when they really create problems u Leverage strengths and compensate for weaknesses v Learn how to mix them to have a better outcome
23 What Should Be Done At The Individual Level? (cont.) u If you know how to play chess, you will know that l You have a total of 16 pieces l Some pieces (e.g., 1 queen, 2 bishops, 2 rooks) are more powerful than other (e.g., 8 pawns) l You cannot change each pieces power. However, you can learn how to manipulate those individual pieces more effectively to achieve a better overall result. u This is often ignored because it cannot be directly reflected in a 360-degree feedback report u Organizations may redesign work systems or processes to better use people
24 What Should Be Done At The Individual Level? (cont.) u Be patient, persistent, resilient and creative l Reflection is important l Seek external support whenever needed u Emotional u Strategic u Technical
25 Benefits Of This Integration u Ensure the main objective, individual development, always a focus u Both organizations and individuals are responsible for making actual learning happen l They work as a joint force l Aligning personal development goals and organizational goals and objectives
26 Benefits Of This Integration (cont.) u Organizations can provide sufficient resources and create supportive conditions and culture to facilitate individual learning l Ideally, organizations can finally create a feedback culture which is characterized as: u People often receive constructive feedback from various sources on a regular basis u People also often actively seek feedback for improvement
27 Benefits Of This Integration (cont.) u When a feedback culture is created, it can help apply feedback theories more correctly l Research indicates: u Feedback is more effective when v Focusing on tasks and behaviors instead of trait-type competencies v Given in a timely manner u 360-degree programs often v Target leadership competencies v Take a long time to provide feedback
28 Benefits Of This Integration (cont.) u In a feedback culture, l Individuals can get feedback on a regular basis so that feedback is u Given in a timely manner u more likely to focus on behavior instead of trait because of vivid memory
29 Summary u Need to better model the whole process of 360- degree feedback programs with a focus on individual development l Conceptual model directs peoples practice l You are going to launch a space shuttle instead of satellite u Satellite: not much follow-up is needed after it is launched u Space shuttle, the real mission just starts after it is launched l Future research is needed to collect empirical evidence u How organizations and individuals can learn together