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Assessment – Why and How? Stephanie B. Jones, MD Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Vice Chair for Education Department of Anesthesia, Critical.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment – Why and How? Stephanie B. Jones, MD Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Vice Chair for Education Department of Anesthesia, Critical."— Presentation transcript:


2 Assessment – Why and How? Stephanie B. Jones, MD Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Vice Chair for Education Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

3 Problems No one teaches us how to assess –We judge as we were judged Ideal vs reality –Keeping up with a moving target (ACGME) –Faculty time and energy We work in a time-based system –Should residency be truly competency based?

4 Assessment – Why and How? Definitions –Including difference between feedback and assessment Tools –Global, checklists, 360°, portfolios Limitations and Questions

5 Assessment – a definition …process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information to aid decision-making. –successful completion of a rotation –promotion –remediation Airasian PW. Classroom assessment, 3 rd ed. 1997

6 Feedback vs Assessment Feedback formative evaluation –Provide information for improvement –Directly from the source Assessment summative evaluation –How well a goal has been met –Judgment after the fact Reality overlap Ende J. JAMA 1983;250:777-781

7 Feedback and Assessment Can use same tools for both Allows learner to practice, know goals End result shouldnt be a surprise Duffy et al. Acad Med 2004;79:495-507 Van der Vleuten & Schuwirth. Med Educ 2005;39:309-317

8 Feedback and Assessment Fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) –MCQ exam –5 skill stations BIDMC –PGY 4 surgery residents must pass to advance to PGY 5 year

9 Barriers to feedback Faculty arent taught how to do effectively –Rosenblatt & Schartel 1999 –Only 20% of programs offered formal training –Need reinforcement Residents often not directly observed Impact on faculty evaluations Time and money

10 Assessment ACGME –Core competencies Patient care Medical knowledge Practice-based learning and improvement Interpersonal and communication skills Professionalism Systems-based practice ABA –Certify that the graduate has demonstrated sufficient professional ability to practice competently and independently in the field of Anesthesiology

11 Competency ….the ability to handle a complex professional task by integrating the relevant cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills. Van der Vleuten & Schuwirth. Med Educ 2005;39:309-317

12 An analogy Diagnosing whether resident should be promoted, graduated, etc Just like a complex patient, may need multiple tests and opinions to make the diagnosis Joyce B. ACGME

13 What should happen Design an assessment system –Collection of assessment tools –Decide who does evaluations –Decide what will be evaluated –Evaluation schedule

14 What does happen Continue to use existing system Open ACGME toolbox –New tools –More data Are the tools reliable and valid? Do we ever use the extra data?

15 Definitions Validity – Does assessment measure what it intends to measure Reliability – Scores from assessment are reproducible (consistency)

16 Choosing assessment tools Valid data Reliable data Feasible External validity Provide valuable information Some compromise will be involved Lynch and Swing, ACGME

17 The assessment system Consistent with program objectives Objectives are representative –You cant assess everything Multiple tools Multiple observations –Looking for patterns –Doesnt mean you need to add more questions Lynch and Swing, ACGME

18 The assessment system Multiple observers –Improves reliability Assessed according to pre-specified criteria –Goals and objectives –Faculty training Fair Lynch and Swing, ACGME

19 Summing up… A good assessment programme will incorporate several competency elements and multiple sources of information to evaluate those competencies on multiple occasions using credible standards. Van der Vleuten & Schuwirth. Med Educ 2005;39:309-317

20 Some challenges Setting passing criteria for qualitative information Mixed messages Differentiating performance in a testing situation versus performing with real patients Holmboe ES. Acad Med 2004;79:16-22

21 Global evaluations The old standard Usual end-of-rotation evaluation More useful with behavior-based descriptions or anchors Professionalism and Honesty 1) Residents must demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibility, adherence to ethical principles. Demonstrate respect, compassion, and integrity; a responsiveness to the needs of patients. Demonstrate a commitment to confidentially of patient information, informed consent, departmental polices and guidelines Unsatisfactory, Below Expectations, Good, Above Expectations, Excellent, N/A

22 Global evaluations Useful in context of summative assessment Williams et al, SIU – 3 item global evaluation –Clinical performance –Professional behavior –Overall performance in comparison to peers Williams et al. Surgery 2005;137:141-7

23 Global evaluations Can be used for more specific feedback/assessment –Doyle et al, British Columbia Technical skills in OR, GRITS –Vassiliou et al, McGill Assessment of laparoscopic skills, GOALS Doyle et al. Am J Surg 2007; 193:551-5 Vassiliou et al. Am J Surg 2005;190:107-113

24 Global rating index for technical skills GRITS


26 Halo effect? Global evaluations clearly subject to halo effect Vogt et al, University of TN –Gyn surgical skills –Videotaped hand only and waist up –Scores differed between 2 views (both directions) Vogt et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:688-91.

27 Checklists Simulation –Scavone et al, Northwestern Simulated GA for csxn CA3 vs CA1, 150 vs 128 points –Murray et al, Washington University Series of studies on acute skills performance Multiple scenarios tested Senior residents scored best, varied with scenario Scavone et al Anesthesiology 2006;105:260-6 Murray et al Anesth Analg 2005;101:1127-34

28 Checklists Standardized patients –OSCE Observations of skills –Preanesthesia consult –Machine checkout De Oliveira Filho and Schonhorst. Anesth Analg 2004;99:62-9

29 360° evaluation Derived from business world Multisource evaluation –Different perspectives –Lends credibility –Can/should include self-evaluation Time-sensitive

30 360° evaluation Resident position in hierarchy not fixed –Change rotations –Change attendings –Change types of rotations But can still create action plans based upon results –PBLI and SBP Massagli et al. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007;86:845-52

31 360° evaluation Opportunity to include patient feedback More real than standardized patients? –Overcomes limitation of observer not knowing how patient really feels –Staff evaluation of interpersonal and communication skills often based upon interactions with staff, not patients. Duffy et al. Acad Med 2004;79:495-507

32 360° evaluation Worth the trouble? Brinkman et al –Pediatrics –Added parents and nurses –Better feedback for communication skills and professionalism Weigelt et al –Surgery, trauma/CC rotation –Added RNs, NPs, ICU fellows, Chief resident, trauma nurse clinicians –No change in ratings with added groups Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007:161:103-4; Curr Surg 2004;61:616-26

33 360° evaluation Self-evaluation –Adult learning theory Curriculum should be learner-centric Have to know what you dont know –Often poor correlation between self-assessment and external measures –360 ° allows opportunity to reconcile conflict Not how good am I?, but how can I get better? Schneider et al. Am J Surg 2008;195:16-19.

34 Portfolios Requires reflection and self-assessment Skills needed for life-long learning But… –Need mentor who can facilitate or just becomes a bunch of stuff in a folder –If used for summative assessment, must be very clear about requirements

35 Structured portfolio Holmboe et al. Am J Med 2006;119:708-714

36 Structured portfolio Holmboe et al. Am J Med 2006;119:708-714

37 Remaining questions Are residents truly adult learners? What is the best way to assess the assessments? Does any of this really improve outcomes in a time- limited residency? How can we assess residents after graduation?

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