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1 H OW T O P ROVIDE M EANINGFUL F EEDBACK TO ESL S TUDENTS University of Alberta: EDPY 413 By Naomi, Katie and Angela.

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Presentation on theme: "1 H OW T O P ROVIDE M EANINGFUL F EEDBACK TO ESL S TUDENTS University of Alberta: EDPY 413 By Naomi, Katie and Angela."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 H OW T O P ROVIDE M EANINGFUL F EEDBACK TO ESL S TUDENTS University of Alberta: EDPY 413 By Naomi, Katie and Angela

2 2 O VERVIEW Meaningful assessments and feedback: Are valid Are individualized Are understandable Communicate high expectations Lower emotional barriers Assessment of content-area knowledge: Formative Assessment Summative Assessment

3 3 Overview Strategies that will be useful in the four major elements of Language Arts and other content area classes: Speaking Listening Reading Writing How to communicate feedback to students Direct or Indirect feedback Parental Involvement Peer Feedback

4 4 P RINCIPLES FOR F AIR S TUDENT A SSESSMENT P RACTICES FOR E DUCATION IN C ANADA I.1) Assessment methods should allow us to make valid inferences about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviours possessed by each student 1 - A valid assessment will assess what we intend it to assess. 1 Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-5)

5 5 P RINCIPLES FOR F AIR S TUDENT A SSESSMENT I.5) Assessment methods should suit the background and prior experiences of the student 1 -Assessment should be free from biases such as culture, ethnicity, or language 1 Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-7)

6 6 P RINCIPLES FOR F AIR S TUDENT A SSESSMENT III.4) Comments on student work should be presented in a way that allows students to understand and use them 1 -Comments should encourage learning and help students to understand how they can improve 1 Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-7)

7 7 T EACHER E XPECTATIONS : A S ELF -F ULFILLING P ROPHECY Students perceive differences in teacher expectations by watching how the teacher behaves towards them 1 With time, students' achievement and behaviour conform more and more closely to the expectations of the teacher 1 (Alderman, 2004, p. 171)

8 8 C OMMUNICATING H IGH E XPECTATIONS Guidelines for communicating high expectations when assessing ESL students 1 : Give sincere praise regarding a specific area of development Provide frequent and understandable feedback Focus on what the students can do rather than what they cannot Provide ample response time Provide tasks to challenge the students 1 (Gottfredson, 1991, p. 9)

9 9 A NXIETY Sometimes when I speak English in class, I am so afraid I feel like hiding behind my chair. 1 I feel like my French teacher is some kind of Martian death ray: I never know when hell point at me! 1 When Im in my Spanish class I just freeze! I cant think of a thing when my teacher calls on me. My mind goes blank. 2 1 (Gardner, 1991, p. 27) 2 (Gardner, 1991, p. xiii)

10 10 A NXIETY Steinberg and Horwitz (1986) found that anxiety affects communication strategies 1 Certain grammar points may also be forgotten 2 Krashens Affective Filter 3 This affects the validity of the assessment 1 (Gardner, 1991, p. 28) 3 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 4) 2 (Gardner, 1991, p. 29)

11 11 M EANINGFUL F EEDBACK ? We will show assessment methods and ways to communicate results to students that: 1) Are valid 2) Fit students backgrounds 3) Are understandable 4) Communicate high expectations 5) Lower emotional barriers

12 12 A SSESSING A CADEMIC C ONTENT K NOWLEDGE ELLs often understand more than they can express 1 Use assessments that are less dependent on language proficiency 1 Assess in the same way students are taught 1 Demonstrations Creation of a product Speech-based Written products 1 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 6)

13 13 A SSESSING THE T ASK : F ORMATIVE A SSESSMENT (A SSESSMENT FOR LEARNING ) These types of assessments occur on a daily basis and help teachers decide what they can do to help students progress 1 : Student Reflections (learning journals, concept maps) Anecdotal Note-taking Conversations with students Peer Assessments 1 (Government of Manitoba, 2008, p. 29)

14 14 L EARNING J OURNALS Allow students to: Record personal responses to content Record questions about confusing terms Record observations Illustrate or describe concepts Emphasis is on content rather than grammar and mechanics 1 1 (Hurley, & Tinajero, 2001, p. 94)

15 15 (Sweetland, 2005)

16 16 C ONCEPT M APS Visual representations of the students mental structure 1 Kidspiration or Inspiration 2 1 (Birbili, 2006) 2 (Inspiration Software, 2008)

17 17 (Inspiration Software, 2008) Grade 6 Social Studies: Greece

18 18 W HY U SE L EARNING J OURNALS AND C ONCEPT M APS ? Knowledge demonstrated pictures and/or words 1 Student-centred and promote reflection 2 Teacher can assess preconceptions and misconceptions 3 1 (Hurley & Tinajero, 2001, p. 92) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 123) 3 (Birbili, 2006)

19 19 C ONCEPT M APS & L EARNING J OURNALS : A SSOCIATED I SSUES Too much guidance or too little guidance? 1 Must be addressed immediately 1 Judgements will discourage students, making the formative assessment less useful to the teacher 2 1 (Shanahan, 2007) 2 (Nunan, 2004, p. 159)

20 20 A NECDOTAL R ECORDS Small number of students observed each day 1 1 (Genesee Upshur, 1996, p. 94)

21 21 W HY U SE A NECDOTAL R ECORDS ? Good indicators of student progress 1 Do not increase language demands, or anxiety Allow you to assess without interrupting the natural classroom activities 2 1 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 7) 2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 129)

22 22 A NECDOTAL R ECORDS : A SSOCIATED I SSUES If not organized, they become pieces of paper with random notes on them 1 May overlook vital issues 2 1 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 86) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 94)

23 23 F ORMAL AND I NFORMAL C ONVERSATIONS Conferencing 1 Having impromptu conversations Making notes afterwards 2 1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 132) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 114)

24 24 W HY H AVE C ONVERSATIONS ? Conveys high expectations 1 Informal conversation is a natural way to get a feel for level of understanding Gives students the opportunity to seek clarification 1 (Gottfredson, 1991, p. 9)

25 25 C ONVERSATION : A SSOCIATED I SSUES Learners may be uncomfortable discussing areas in which they are struggling 1 Open conversation may be hindered by low levels of English language proficiency 1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 131)

26 26 A SSESSING THE T ASK : S UMMATIVE A SSESSMENT (A SSESSMENT OF LEARNING ) Assessment used for reporting purposes to ensure that students have achieved the curricular outcomes 1 : Portfolios Student Self-Assessments Rubrics Checklists and Rating Scales 1 (Government of Manitoba., 2008, p. 55)

27 27 P ORTFOLIOS Two types: Developmental Portfolio 1 Showcase Portfolio 2 Students actively participate by purposefully selecting entries 2 Teachers assist with entry selection and provide feedback during conferences 3 1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 157) 2 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 158) 3 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 159)

28 28 P ORTFOLIO R EFLECTION A reflection is attached to each entry 1 Other possibilities include: Reflections written in first language Reflections recorded by the teacher Reflections recorded by a peer/parent who speaks the same L1 1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 158)

29 29 W HY U SE P ORTFOLIOS ? Completed without pressure or time constraints 1 Clearly demonstrate progress over time 1 Develop active learners 1 Conversations about entries demonstrate comprehension and the ability to use academic language 2 1 (Nunan, 2004, p. 160) 2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 130)

30 30 S ELF -A SSESSMENT Teachers need to provide students with words, definitions or concepts they will need to understand the task 1 Common formats include 1 : yes or no questions I can name the regions of Canada Yes No Sentence completion I am still confused about... Rating scales I cooperated with my group (never) 1 2 3 4 (always) Picture cues or by discussion beforehand. 1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 135)

31 31 W HY S ELF -A SSESSMENT ? Builds metacognitive competence 1 Students can tell us a lot Creates independent learners 1 Assesses both the learning process as well as outcomes 2 1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 135) 2 (Nunan, 2004, p. 149)

32 32 P ORTFOLIOS AND S ELF -A SSESSMENT : A SSOCIATED I SSUES Students may not accurately judge own ability 1 Language barrier The notion that students have a role in assessment may be difficult to accept 2 Learners may be uncomfortable sharing work that is in need of improvement 3 Learners may be hesitant to take pride in their achievements 3 1 (Nunan, 2004, p. 149) 2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 130) 3 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 131)

33 33 R UBRICS Holistic 1 Analytic 2 Use between 4 and 8 points to avoid a middle dumping ground 1 Assess the content rather than language proficiency 3 1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 134) 2 (Austin and Haley, 2004, p. 131) 2 (Austin and Haley, p. 132)

34 Excellent (4) Good (3) Satisfactory (2) Needs Improvement (1) Score Understanding of animal lifecycle Illustrations of the infant and adult accurately portray the creature in its respective stage. Small details have been recognized and included. Illustrations of the infant and adult portray the creature and demonstrate an understanding of the lifecycle. Illustrations of the infant and adult somewhat portray the creature and demonstrate a generalized understanding of the lifecycle. Illustrations of the infant and adult are completely inaccurate or demonstrate no difference between the two forms. /4 Habitat Student has provided a detailed illustration of the animals habitat Student has provided a basic illustration the animals habitat (land, water, etc) Student has provided an illustration of the animals habitat that is lacking is some regard. Student has not provided an illustration of the animals habitat, or the habitat drawn is incorrect /4 Strategy used to organize ideas Student has chosen an appropriate strategy to organize their findings. The chart is completed correctly, is neat, and contains details above and beyond what was asked Student has chosen an appropriate strategy to organize their findings. It is correct and contains all pertinent information Student has attempted to use a strategy, but has used it incorrectly or the chart is incomplete Student has not selected a strategy. Information is recorded at random. /4 Total:/20

35 35 R ATING S CALES AND C HECKLISTS Checklists: check off the items that correspond to what you have observed or inferred 1 Ex. Student cooperates in a group setting ___ Rating scales: Allow you to specify the degree to which the item was achieved 2 (1= never, 2= rarely, 3= frequently, 4= always) Ex. Student completes homework every night 1 2 3 4 1 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 88) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 90)

36 36 T RY A SSESSING ! Read the ESL writing sample and use the checklist to assess it. Then talk to a partner: What did you like about it? What problems did you encounter?

37 37 W HY U SE C HECKLISTS, R ATING S CALES AND RUBRICS ? Assigns justifiable grades to authentic classroom activities 1 Used in self-assessment and clarify teachers expectations 1 After construction, they require little time or effort to complete 2 Show specific areas of strength and need 3 1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 136) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 90) 3 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 91)

38 38 C HECKLISTS AND R ATING S CALES : A SSOCIATED I SSUES Require precise and well- articulated categories and criteria 1 Take a considerable amount of time to construct 2 Are highly specific and will likely need to be modified each time 3 Language to can be complex and difficult for an ESL student to understand 1 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 87) 2 (Genesee & Upshur, p. 90) 3 (Genesee & Upshur, p. 91)

39 39 O VERVIEW Strategies that will be useful in the four major elements of Language Arts and other content area classes: Speaking Listening Reading Writing

40 40 Speaking

41 41 (Collier, Combs, & Ovando, 2003) Stages of Language Production Beginning stage: Silent period, rely on gestures and pictures Early production stage: usage of more grammar Speech Emergence stage: can handle more academic concepts Intermediate Fluency stage: fewer errors in speaking Fluency stage: at level of fluency but are still learning

42 42 (Oxford, 1990) Vocabulary Instruction Provide both explicit and implicit vocabulary instruction. Teach strategies for how to handle unfamiliar words Language Learning Strategies: using clues, asking for clarification, using keywords. Exposure to high frequency vocabulary through meaningful activities.

43 43 (Hewings, 2004) Pronunciation Five things to ensure students understand: Consonants Cluster Vowel length Word stress Prominence or tonic stress For example, teach: Stress-timed versus syllable-timed language

44 44 (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007) BICS and CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

45 45 (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007) SOLOM Student Oral Language Observation Matrix Allows observation of oral language proficiency; BICS and CALP Assesses real day to day classroom purposes and activities.

46 46 Potential Problems Vocabulary instruction Implicit can cause problems for students- they may think they understand but they do not Explicit may teach rote memorization and not meaningful understanding. Pronunciation Instruction: Students L1s may interfere if they have a syllable timed language. BICS and CALP CALP cannot be inferred, it has to be directly taught and modeled.

47 47 Handout: Speaking Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, P. 161) SOLOM: Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (Cabral, Herrera, & Murry, 2007)

48 48 Listening

49 49 (Herrell, & Jordan, 2008) Strategy for Improving Listening and Oral communication skills Dictoglos Focus is on fluent academic language Supports recalling information by listening to English language models. Process: Listen Take notes Partners, groups Re-create text

50 50 (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007) Develop listening skills: Explicitly teach how to listen: Selective Attention Ask for clarification: teach students how to recognize when they have misunderstood, and teach the questions to ask to get back on track. Model strategies aloud. Provide graphic organizers or fill in the blanks for videos and lectures, so they can concentrate on listening rather than writing. Build background knowledge: Frontload Use self-assessments of how well they listened.

51 51 Potential Problems When listening, students: may not recognize when they do not understand may not know they need clarification or further explanation may not know how to formulate questions to get the answers they seek

52 52 Handout: Listening Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 160) BICS and CALP Checklist (Cabral, Herrera, & Murry, 2007)

53 53 Reading

54 54 (Herrell &Jordan, 2008) (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008) Running records/Miscue Analysis Finds oral reading errors Helps to see what strategies the reader is using and points to areas of instruction.

55 55 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008) Cloze Activities: Support language acquisition and reading skills Are from written text where some words are left out and blanks are inserted instead. Are used to assess reading comprehension Provide opportunities to teach vocabulary and reading decoding skills. Example: I went for a walk to the ______. I wanted to _______ a _______.

56 56 Potential Problems: Running Records/Miscue Analysis May be hard to find a reading passage that is at the students reading level. Cloze Time consuming to make for students specific needs

57 57 Handout: Reading Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 162)

58 58 Writing

59 59 (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008) The writing process Prewriting: use drawing to gather ideas, talk about the topic, or dramatize the topic. Students choose topics that are familiar. Graphic organizers, webbing. Drafting: emphasize expressing ideas, not handwriting skills or conventional spelling. Revising: rereading, making few changes or adding to clarify, slowly try and address audience. Editing: de-emphasize until the students have learned conventional spelling, rules for capitalization, etc. Publishing: putting into a final form, sharing with others.

60 60 (Ferris, 2003, p. 3) Feedback through comments on student writing Three purposes: To let students know if their texts have conveyed their intended meaning. Help students become aware of the questions and concerns of an audience. To give students a motive for revision.

61 61 (Ferris, 2003, p. 3) Written Comments: can take away students attention from their own purpose and bring it to the teachers purpose. are not context specific and can be changed from context to context.

62 62 (Ferris, 2003, p. 3) Error Correction Selective correction: choose several major patterns of error, rather than all types of errors. Comprehensive correction: give detailed feedback, so that students are not mislead about correctness if the teachers do not mark all errors. Direct Feedback: teachers write the correct form on students paper. Indirect Feedback: allows the student to engage in guided problem-solving

63 63 (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008) Conferences Students are the focus. They are the writers. Teachers/Peers help to make choices and define directions for revisions. The process Students should talk first about their concerns. Ask questions, do not give answers. Give compliments, then suggestions later. Limit the number of revision suggestions.

64 64 Potential Problems Written comments Generic comments Changes students ideas to teachers ideas Error correction Focus on errors on the first draft Lack of hierarchy of important issues for revision Miscommunication with the teacher. Mark what you have taught. Conferences Cultural differences

65 65 Handouts: Writing Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 163)

66 66 Differentiating between Content and Language Feedback Keep feedback short and simple to allow the students to understand it. Ensure feedback is specific to the assignment, not giving broad or general suggestions Make sure to emphasize ideas over grammar and mechanics. When correcting written work avoid marking sentences that are technically correct but poorly written or awkward. Focus on errors that the students are familiar with and can understand. Postpone grammar corrections until the final stages of the assignment to allow for focus on the meaning and idea construction Errors are a normal part of learning. Make sure the students know it! Graham (1987)

67 67 Overview This section will cover ways to communicate feedback to students in a meaningful way. Well explore some advantages and disadvantages of each as well as issues and applications. 1. Direct or Indirect Feedback 2. Parental Involvement 3. Peer Feedback

68 68 Direct or Indirect feedback? Direct feedback The teacher identifies an error and corrects it for the student, providing an example of the proper form Indirect feedback Feedback where the educator points out that an error has been made but does not correct it. The students must identify and correct the error themselves.

69 69 Indirect Feedback: Long Term Improvement? Ferris (2002) found that direct feedback on errors led to more correct revisions than indirect feedback (88% vs 77%). He also noted that over the course of the school year those who received indirect feedback reduced their error frequency substantially more than those receiving direct feedback. Fathman and Walley obtained similar results in their 1990 study.

70 70 Direct Feedback: Misdirecting Focus? Fregeau (1999) found that direct feedback was often inconsistent, unclear, and seemed to overemphasize the negative. Not understanding the errors made, students often guessed at corrections. Students also tended to focus more on correcting these errors than improving or extending their ideas.

71 71 Indirect Feedback Uncoded feedback The teacher indicated an error has been made, but does not correct the error. The student must diagnose the type of error and correct it. Coded feedback Gives the exact location of an error and indicates the type of error involved using a code.

72 72 Applications: Coded Feedback Coded feedback is a combination of direct and indirect feedback. Using a predetermined legend, the teacher indicates the presence and type of an error with a symbol. The students must locate and correct the error themselves.

73 73 An example of Coded Feedback Legend SpSpelling CapCapitals needed pPunctuation w/oWord order >Missing word On the weekend I went the zoo > with amy. There was a big tiger. Cap He has stripes There also a p stiped horse. We fed him. We Sp got to eat pizza and icet cream. Sp I want to go again back soon. w/o (Etc)

74 74 Coded Feedback: Remember… Make sure your students are familiar with and understand the symbols used Make sure the students understand the underlying grammatical rule Be consistent!

75 75 Peer Feedback Peer Feedback is a controversial form of feedback because of its disadvantages. When implemented properly, these disadvantages are minimized, allowing the teacher and student to take full benefit. Image: Working Together. From:

76 76 What Students Want Zhang (1995, p. 1) found that students overwhelmingly prefer to receive feedback from their teachers rather than peers. Carnells 2000 interviews indicated that students like to receive feedback from their peers. They felt more freedom interacting with peers than with a teacher. Ur (1996) found that students enjoy being consulted for peer feedback, and usually put a lot of effort into trying to give helpful feedback.

77 77 Cultural Differences Alavi and Kaivanpanah (2007, p. 191-193) found that Iranian students prefer to work alone because they feel they can get better results this way. He also found that the students recognize that there is some value in peer evaluation, but feel that teacher feedback is more accurate and helpful. Carson and Nelson (1996, p. 1-18) found that Chinese students tend to avoid giving critical commentary for two reasons: students withheld criticism in order to maintain group harmony and they were reluctant to be in a position of authority over their peers.

78 78 Peer Feedback: Advantages Allows for more immediate feedback Can provide a different kind of feedback than traditional teacher feedback (less authoritarian) Provides students experience with critical evaluation that can transfer to their own work Encourages life skills such as collaboration and communication

79 79 Concerns Peer feedback may be inconsistent with teacher feedback. ELLs may not feel comfortable giving feedback in their L2. Native language speakers may resent receiving feedback from ELLs. Shy or reserved students may be uncomfortable with the exercise.

80 80 What Works Coaching students in providing effective feedback -Reduces inappropriate feedback -Promotes acceptance and understanding -Allows for discussion to address concerns

81 81 Coaching Students in Providing Effective Feedback Explain benefits of peer feedback Class discussion of the role of students (collaborators, not correctors), purpose of activity Practice and application Discussion of benefits, weak points, overall success (Rollinson, 2005, p. 3-7)

82 82 Considerations- Peer Feedback Size of group. Number of drafts to be written. Evaluation: will students be evaluated on the level of their feedback? Written or oral feedback groups? *Written is usually preferable to oral as it allows time for reflection to avoid inconsiderate comments and lets teacher follow more closely. (Rollinson, 2005, p. 3-7) (Rollinson 2005)

83 83 Parental Involvement When it comes to parental involvement, communication is key, although it can be quite difficult due to language barriers. Parents know their child better than anyone else so they are great resources for the teacher.

84 84 Cultural Differences Korean culture emphasizes trust and respect for authority figures. As a result, questioning a teachers methods is frowned upon and considered extremely impolite (Souyoung, 2005). As a result, Korean parents may seem less involved than parents who are more vocal.

85 85 Issues Language barriers Potential gender role conflicts Cultural brokers can assist with this Ideological differences in teaching methods or styles Time conflicts and access difficulties

86 86 What Works Frequent contact ensures parents and teacher are working together and helps avoid parental alienation. Goal setting with the parents allows the teacher to enlist their support, ensuring the home and school environments are working in harmony. Conferences or meetings with the parent or guardian allow concerns to be expressed, and also provide an opportunity for the students successes to be showcased.

87 87 Applications: Conferences As Angela discussed, student-teacher conferences are an important method for providing formal and informal feedback. Parent-teacher-student conferences are good tools for all parties involved to set goals and get to know each others expectations. The conference can be teacher-led or student-led. Student-led conferences allow the students to showcase their achievements, which can foster a greater sense of pride.

88 88 Be prepared for the conference. If a translator is needed ensure the parents will be comfortable with his/her presence and will understand his/her role. Ensure that you discuss the students strengths as well as any problems or weaknesses. Have examples of the students work prepared. Pick a few pieces from the students portfolio that show the students strengths and weaknesses. Use the opportunity to set goals with the help of the parents for all parties involved. Plan for a follow-up meeting.

89 89 R EFERENCES Alberta Education.(2007). English as a Second Language Guide to Implementation: Kindergarten to Grade 9. In: Education: Teachers: Programs of Study: English as a Second Language: Learning and Teaching Resources. Retrieved November 23, 2008, from Alderman, M. K. (2004). Motivation For Achievement: Possibilities For Teaching and Learning (3rd ed.) [Electronic Version]. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Alavi, S. M. K. (2007). Feedback expectancy and EFL learners achievement in English. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education. (5)1, 181-196. Austin, T. Y., & Haley, M. H. (2004). Content-Based Second Language Teaching and Learning: An Interactive Approach. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Birbili, M. (2006). Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 8(2). Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Boyle, O. F., & Peregoy, S. F. (2005). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resources Book for K-12 Teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Bright, R. M., Pollard, M. J., Tompkins, G. E., & Winsor, P. J.T. (2008). Language Arts: Content and Teaching Strategies. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education. Cabral, R. M., Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2007). Assessment Accommodation for Classroom Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Carnell, E. (2000). Dialogue, Discussion and Secondary School Students on How Other Help Their Learning: Feedback for learning. London, UK: Routledge. Carson, J. & Nelson, G. (1996). Chinese students perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction. Journal of Second Language Writing. 5(1),1 -19. Chamot, A. U., & OMalley, J. M., (1994). Chamot & OMalleys Taxonomy of Learning Strategies in the classroom. The CALLA Handbook. Reading MA: Addison- Wesley. Collier, V., Combs, M., & Ovando, C. (2003). Bilingual and ESL Classrooms: Teaching Multicultural Contexts (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill

90 90 R EFERENCES Eckes, M. & Law, B.(2000). The more than- just surviving handbook: ESL for every classroom teacher (2nd Ed.) Winnipeg, MB: Portage & Main Press. Fathman, A. K., Whalley, E. (1990). Teacher Response to Student Writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2002). Treatment of Error in Second Language Student Writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Ferris, D. R. (2003). Response to Student Writing; Implications for Second Language Students. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Fisher, D. & Rothenberg, C. (2007). Teaching English Language Learners: A Differentiated Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Fregeau, L. A. (1999). Preparing ESL Students for College Writing: Two Case Studies. TESL Journal, 5(10). Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Gardner, R. C. (1991). Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Genesee, F., & Upshur, J. A. (1996). Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second Language Education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Glew, Paul J. (1998). Verbal interaction and English second language acquisition in classroom contexts. Issues in Educational Research, 8(2), 1998, 83-94. Nepean: University of Western Sydney. Gottfredson, D. C. (1991, November). Increasing Teacher Expectations for Student Achievement: An Evaluation. Baltimore, MD: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from ERIC. Government of Manitoba. (2008). Chapter 5: Assessment of Learning. In Education and Literacy: K-12: Assessment and Evaluation. Retrieved November 9, 2008, from Graham, J. G. (1987, November). Helping the ESOL writer: Constructive feedback [Presentation]. Los Angeles, CA: National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved November 25, 2008, from ERIC. Gronlund, N. E. (2004). University of Alberta: Assessment of Student Achievement (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

91 91 R EFERENCES Hurley, S. R., & Tinajero, J. V. (2001). Literacy Assessment of Second Language Learners. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Herrell, A. L, & Jordan, M. (2008). Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson Education. Herrera, S. G., Murry, K. G., Cabral, R. M. (2007). Assessment accommodation for Classroom teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse Students. Pearson Education. Ally & Bacon. Boston MA. Hewings, M. (2004). Pronunciation Practice Activities: A Resource Book for Teaching English Pronunciation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Inspiration Software. (2008). Examples and Lesson Plan. In Products: Kidspiration: Examples and Lesson Plans. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from,772,773, 774,778,775,776,777,779,780,781,782,783,784,785,786,787,740,788,789,772,773, 774,778,775,776,777,779,780,781,782,783,784,785,786,787,740,788,789 Inspiration Software. (2008). Kidspiration. In Products: Kidspiration: Details. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Nunan, D. (2004). Task-Based Language Teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Boyle, O. F., & Peregoy, S. F. (2005). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resources Book for K-12 Teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada. (1993). Edmonton, AB: Joint Advisory Committee. As reproduced in Gronlund, N. E. (2004). University of Alberta: Assessment of Student Achievement (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Rollinson, P. (2005). Using peer feedback in the ESL writing class. ELT Journal. (59)1, 23-30. Shanahan, M. (Fall, 2007). Formative Assessment Through Science Notebooks. University of Alberta: Curriculum & Instruction in Elementary School Science, EDEL 330.

92 92 R EFERENCES Soyoung, L. (2005). Selective parent participation: Structural and cultural factors that influence school participation among Korean Parents. Equity & Excellence in Education. Sweetland, R. (2005). Light Misconceptions. In Science: Misconceptions: Light, Shadows and Rainbows: Three Diagrams and Study Summary. Retrieved November 13, 2008, from Ur. P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Williams. J. G. (2003). Providing feedback on ESL students written assignments. TESL Journal. (6)10. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Zhang, S. (1995). Reexamining the affective advantage of peer feedback in the ESL writing class. Journal of Second Language Writing. (4)3, 209-222.

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