Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 10 Improving Job Performance with Feedback, Extrinsic Rewards, & Positive Reinforcement Understanding the Understanding the Feedback Process Feedback.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Improving Job Performance with Feedback, Extrinsic Rewards, & Positive Reinforcement Understanding the Understanding the Feedback Process Feedback."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Improving Job Performance with Feedback, Extrinsic Rewards, & Positive Reinforcement Understanding the Understanding the Feedback Process Feedback Process Nontraditional Feedback: Nontraditional Feedback: Upward and 360-Degree Upward and 360-Degree Positive Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement

2 Feedback Feedback Feedback objective information about performance Functions of Feedback Functions of Feedback Instructional – clarifies roles, teaches behavior Motivational – serves as reward To be used effectively managers must understand interaction between how feedback is given and how feedback is perceived To be used effectively managers must understand interaction between how feedback is given and how feedback is perceived 10-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Characteristics Self-esteem Self-efficacy Needs and goals Desire for performance feedback Perception Sign and content of feedback message Cognitive Evaluations Feedback accuracy Source credibility System fairness Expectancies Behavioral Standards Cognitive Processing Model of Feedback Sources Others Task Self Behavioral Outcomes Direction Effort Persistence Resistance Recipient 10-4 Figure 10-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Practical Lessons from Feedback Research Feedback acceptance should not be treated as a give; often misperceived or rejected Managers can enhance credibility as sources of feedback by developing their expertise and creating a climate of trust Negative feedback is typically misperceived or rejected Feedback is too infrequent in organizations Feedback needs to be tailored to the recipient 10-5 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Practical Lessons from Feedback Research Cont. High performers respond to feedback that enhances their feelings of competence and self-control Computer-based feedback leads to greater performance when received directly from computer Recipients perceive feedback as more accurate when they actively participate in the feedback session Destructive criticism tends to cause conflict and reduce motivation Higher one rises in an organization the less likely they are to receive quality feedback 10-6 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Nontraditional Feedback Upward Feedback subordinates evaluate their boss 360-Degree Feedback comparison of anonymous feedback from ones superior, subordinates, and peers with self-perceptions 10-8 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Sources and Types of Feedback in the 360-Degree Approach Direct supervisor Peers/team members Direct subordinates Relevant others such as customers and suppliers Manager/Focal Person Self-evaluation of a variety of skills 10-9 Figure 10-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Tips for Giving Good Feedback Relate feedback to existing performance goals and expectations Give specific feedback tied to observable behavior or measurable results Channel feedback toward key result areas Give feedback as soon as possible Give positive feedback for improvement, not just final results Focus feedback on performance, not personalities Base feedback on accurate and credible information McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 General Model of Organizational Reward Systems Profit maximization Equity Equality Need Results Behavior Other factors Financial/material (extrinsic) Social (extrinsic) Psychic (intrinsic) Attract Motivate Develop Satisfy Retain Figure 10-4 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Rewards Desired Outcomes Organizational Reward Norms Distribution Criteria

10 Reward norms Profit maximization – maximizing ones own gain Equity – rewards should be consistent with contributions Equality – rewards should be the same for everyone Need – rewards should not be distributed according to contribution

11 Reward Distribution Criteria Performance/results – rewards are given for tangible outcomes Performance/actions and behaviors – rewards are distributed for things worker does Nonperformance criteria – rewards are given for things other than performance

12 Why Do Extrinsic Rewards Fail to Motivate? Too much emphasis on monetary rewards Rewards lack an appreciation effect Extensive benefits become entitlements Counterproductive behavior is rewarded Too long a delay between performance and rewards Too many one-size-fits-all rewards Use of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impact Continued use of demotivating practices such as layoffs, across-the-board raises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Maximizing Motivational Impact of Extrinsic Rewards Make pay for performance an integral part of the organizations basic strategy. Base incentive determinations on objective performance data. Have all employees actively participate in the development, implementation, and revision of the performance-pay formulas. Encourage two-way communication so problems with the pay-for-performance plan will be detected early McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Maximizing Motivational Impact of Extrinsic Rewards Cont. Build the pay-for-performance plan around participative structures such as suggestion systems or quality circles. Reward teamwork and cooperation whenever possible Actively sell the plan to supervisors and middle managers who may view employee participation as a threat to their traditional notion of authority If annual cash bonuses are granted, pay them in a lump sum to maximize their motivational impact Remember that money motivates when it comes in significant amounts, not occasional nickels and dimes McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 Reinforcement Law of effect – behavior with a favorable consequence tends to be repeated and behavior with a negative consequence tends to disappear Operant behavior – action that is learned when one operates on the environment to produce desired consequences

16 Positive reinforcement – strengthening behavior by presenting something pleasing Negative reinforcement – strengthening behavior by taking away something displeasing Punishment – weakening behavior by presenting something displeasing or withdrawing something pleasing Extinction – weakening behavior by ignoring it or making sure its not reinforced

17 Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning Punishment Negative Reinforcement Punishment (Response Cost) Positive Reinforcement (no contingent consequence) Extinction Contingent Withdrawal Contingent Presentation Positive or PleasingNegative or Displeasing Nature of Consequences Behavior-Consequence Relationship Figure 10-5 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Schedules of Reinforcement ScheduleDescription ContinuousReinforcer follows every response (CRF) IntermittentReinforcer does not follow every response Fixed ratio (FR) A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs. Variable ratio (VR)A varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs. Fixed interval (FI)The first response after a specific period of time has elapsed is reinforced Variable interval (VI)The first response after varying or random periods of time have elapsed is reinforced Table 10-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Learning Module B Performance Appraisal

20 Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal judgmental evaluation of ones traits, behavior, or accomplishments as basis for personnel decisions and developmental plans B-1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 Components of the Performance Appraisal Process Appraiser Appraisee Appraisal MethodOutcomes B-3 Figure B-1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Basic Approaches to Appraising Job Performance How decisive is the individual? Very Decisive Indecisive Moderately Decisive The Trait Approach B-6 Figure B-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Basic Approaches to Appraising Job Performance Teamwork (check the box that best describes this individuals behavior) The Behavioral Approach Works alone on all projects Teams up with others on most major projects Works alone on most projects Teams up with others on all major projects Works alone about half the time B-7 Figure B-2 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Basic Approaches to Appraising Job Performance The Results Approach Key result area: Unit Sales 12-month goal: 12,000 units Actual results: 10,500 units Comments______________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ____________________ B-8 Figure B-2 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Criteria of Legally Defensible Performance Appraisal Systems Based on an analysis of 51 employment discrimination cases, a performance appraisal system has a better change of standing up in court if it satisfies these criteria: A job analysis used to develop the appraisal system Definite standards of performance are developed, written, and provided to all raters regardless of they type of rating methods used Raters are trained to properly use the rating instrument B-9 Figure B-3 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Criteria of Legally Defensible Performance Appraisal Systems Based on an analysis of 51 employment discrimination cases, a performance appraisal system has a better change of standing up in court if it satisfies these criteria: Formal appeal mechanisms are developed and performance ratings are reviewed by upper-level management Performance ratings are supported with documented examples of behavior Employees are given a chance to improve their performance by provision of performance counseling or corrective guidance B-10 Figure B-3 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 A Contingency Approach to Performance Appraisals Identifies deficient results, but does not tell why Results Pinpoints specific performance improvement needs Behavioral Tends to cause defensiveness among low self-esteem employees Trait Development Decisions Same as aboveResults Appropriate when competing appraisees have similar jobs Behavioral Appropriate when competing appraisees have dissimilar jobs Trait Promotion Decisions CommentsAppraisal Method Function of Appraisal B-11 Table B-2 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 A Contingency Approach to Performance Appraisals Same as aboveResults Weighted combination of behaviors, results, and seniority is recommended Behavioral Inappropriate, potentially discriminatory Trait Layoff Decisions Same as aboveResults Enhances performance-reward linkage Behavioral Weak performance-reward linkageTrait Pay Decisions CommentsAppraisal Method Function of Appraisal B-12 Table B-2 cont. McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Download ppt "Chapter 10 Improving Job Performance with Feedback, Extrinsic Rewards, & Positive Reinforcement Understanding the Understanding the Feedback Process Feedback."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google