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Providing Appropriate & Targeted Feedback to Todays College Student Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., LPC, NCC, ACS Professor of Counseling Coordinator of Counseling.

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Presentation on theme: "Providing Appropriate & Targeted Feedback to Todays College Student Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., LPC, NCC, ACS Professor of Counseling Coordinator of Counseling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Providing Appropriate & Targeted Feedback to Todays College Student Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., LPC, NCC, ACS Professor of Counseling Coordinator of Counseling Clinic College of Education Clinical Suite Eastern Michigan University 1 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

2 Your Presenter Perry C. Francis, Ed.D., LPC, NCC, ACS Eastern Michigan University Department of Leadership & Counseling Professor of Counseling College of Education Clinical Suite Counseling Clinic Coordinator Office: Web: 2 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

3 Our Goals for the Next 90 Minutes Identify the characteristics of effective feedback. How to effectively give negative feedback without building resistance from students. How to structure feedback so students remember the information. How to use the principles of motivational interviewing in your feedback to encourage student learning. Creating targeted feedback that builds self-confidence and promotes greater cooperation in the classroom or workplace. 3 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

4 What Does This Look Like: Identifying the characteristics of effective feedback. Looks really do matter… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 4

5 What is Purpose of Feedback Promote learning Offering new information to replace outdated or incorrect information. Promote Behavior Change To reinforce what is done well by a student. Help student change unproductive behavior. Promote Trust To offer information in respectful fashion that promotes the value of the person and reinforces learning. 5 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

6 What is Purpose of Feedback Feedback is about Providing the student insight about the information, skills, & behaviors desired in the organization (college or university) to accomplish the mission (learning the material and/or changing behavior) to achieve the goals (graduation) and find employment. Creating an environment where the student feels safe to ask for help and information. Creating a respectful learning environment. 6 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

7 Two Basic Forms of Feedback Formative Gives information to instructors & students about how students are doing relative to course learning or behavior change goals. The formative assessment script reads like this: What knowledge or skills do I aim to develop? How close am I now? What do I need to do next? 7 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

8 Two Basic Forms of Feedback Summative Provides the student with information about how he/she did mastering the information or making the requested change in behavior. For example, did the students learn what they were supposed to learn after using the instructional module. Summative feedback/evaluation is typically quantitative, using numeric scores or letter grades to assess learner achievement. 8 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

9 Examples… Formative Feedback Enrique, let me give you some ideas on how to improve your paper… Two specific examples where it can be improved Four specific examples where Enrique was doing well Summative Feedback Enrique, your earned a B- on your paper. Let me point out specifically the two areas that lowered your grade and several areas that you did well on… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 9

10 When Feedback Goes Wrong Creates defensiveness in students Impacts classroom climate Inhibits learning Poor course/instructor evaluations Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 10

11 Effective Feedback Effective feedback is specific, not general. Effective feedback always focuses on a specific behavior or actions, not on a person or their intentions. The best feedback is sincerely and honestly provided to help. People will know if they are receiving it for any other reason. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 11

12 Effective Feedback Successful feedback describes actions or behaviors that is under the control of the individual. Feedback that is requested is more powerful. Build in permission to provide feedback, even if permission is not necessary. Say, I'd like to give you some feedback about the presentation, is that okay with you? Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 12

13 Effective Feedback Effective feedback involves the sharing of information and observations. It does not include advice unless you have permission or advice is requested. Effective feedback is well timed. Whether the feedback is positive or negative, provide the information as closely tied to the event as possible. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 13

14 Effective Feedback Effective feedback involves what or how something was done, not why. Asking why is asking people about their motivation and that provokes defensiveness. Check to make sure the other person understood what you communicated Use a feedback loop, such as asking a question or observing changed behavior. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 14

15 Examples… Ineffective Feedback Mr. Smith, you are talking over everyone else during class discussion…why are you doing that… you know the class discussion rules. Effective Feedback Mr. Smith, I have noticed that when you participate in class discussion, you are talking over everyone else. It would be helpful to the whole class if you waited until others have stopped speaking. Additionally, what you have to say is very good…on target, and matches the class readings. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 15

16 Effective Feedback Effective feedback is as consistent as possible. If the actions are great today, theyre great tomorrow. If the classroom behavior merits discipline, it should always merit discipline. Effective feedback is offered privately. Never single anyone out for embarrassment Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 16

17 Without Looking… What do you think are the top 10 ways kids say their parents embarrass them…? Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 17

18 Remember the Last Time…. Top 10 ways kids say their parents embarrass them. 1.Public kissing 2.Treating them like a child 3.Telling them off in public 4.Spit wash (cleaning their face with your saliva) 5.Holding their hands 6.Dancing at a party 7.Using pet names for them in public 8.Telling bad jokes 9.Wearing uncool clothes 10.Public singing Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 18 Being publically reprimanded in public brings back all those negative memories.

19 Structuring Feedback: How to structure feedback so students remember the information. & How to effectively give negative feedback without building resistance from students. The Order Really Does Matter… 19 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

20 Structuring Feedback When people are given both positive and negative feedback, what do they remember? A.Both the Positive & Negative Equally B.Mostly the Negative feedback C.Mostly the Positive feedback D.My students generally dont listen when I speak! 20 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

21 Structuring Feedback People will mostly remember the NEGATIVE feedback. People generally do not deeply consider praise. People remember criticism in significant detail. 21 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

22 Structuring Feedback Remember, even if you offer equal amounts of positive and negative feedback to a student, it will still feel negative over all. Concept of hedonic asymmetry Brain is optimized to identify and respond to bad experiences first and seek to resolve them (survival). Good news can wait once threat is averted. 22 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

23 Structuring Feedback The 90/10 rule… People generally focus on the 10% of their lives that are going wrong and overlook the 90% of their lives that are going normal or well. 23 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

24 The Feedback Sandwich Many have been taught to sandwich negative criticism between positive remarks. Problems with the Feedback Sandwich: 1.The criticism blasts the first positive comments out of the receivers brain. 2.The receiver then thinks hard about the criticism which drives it into memory. 3.The receiver is now on guard for more criticism and cannot hear the positive comments that end the cycle. 24 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

25 A Better Structure for Feedback Briefly present a few negative remarks followed by a long list of positive remarks. This can be hard…coming up with positives can take work Provide as much detail as you can Reason: Positive feedback is harder to remember. People generally scrutinize & remember criticism and gloss over positive remarks. 25 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

26 Order a Different Sandwich… Go from this… You have a great writing and presentation style…at the same time, I can really see some areas for improvement. Suggestion # 1 Suggestion # 2 I also think the content of what you presented is good. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 26

27 Order a Different Sandwich… To this… Lets take a look at your written report & presentation…two areas to focus on are… Specific Example 1 & 2 Some strong areas were… Great attention to the details of the report, for example… Your presentation brought home the fact about… You matched the learning goals with the points in the presentation… You sustained eye contact with your audience. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 27

28 Structuring Negative Feedback When giving negative feedback Be clear!! Focus on things that can be changed or controlled by the receiver. Present a clear and constructive way to change the behavior or acquire new knowledge. 28 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

29 Presenting Positive Feedback Generally when people are receiving positive praise & feedback… Heart rate slows Blood pressure lowers Adrenaline levels decrease Muscles relax It also becomes less memorable. 29 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

30 Presenting Positive Feedback To make positive feedback more memorable: 1.Give positive feedback that is unexpected. 2.Give feedback that creates positive, esteem boosting nicknames. 3.Give feedback that rhymes or has prose (supports memory). 30 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

31 A Different Tool for Giving Feedback: How to use the principles of motivational interviewing in your feedback to encourage student learning The Use of Motivational Interviewing 31 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

32 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Counseling technique used to help people identify personal reasons for undertaking the hard work of behavior change. Based on the stages of changes model of behavior change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982). Pre-comtemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, & Maintenance 32 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

33 What is MI for Feedback A client-centered, semi-directive method of engaging intrinsic motivation to change behavior by developing discrepancy and exploring and resolving ambivalence within the client. The core approach to MI is focused on the helper being in a stance of trying to connect and find the right stance or approach for each given situation. MI discusses three key stances which can be used. These are…. 33 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

34 What We Can Learn From MI 34 Listening / Reacting Guiding Directing / Informing Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

35 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Overview of Motivational Interviewing Express Empathy Develop Discrepancy Avoid Argumentation Roll with Resistance Support Self-Efficacy 35 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

36 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Express Empathy Communications that imply a superior/inferior relationship are avoided. The students freedom of choice and self-direction are respected. While the instructor is in a position of power, encouraging change happens through listening rather than talking. Attitude change attempts are gentle, subtle, always with the assumption that change is up to the student. 36 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

37 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Develop Discrepancy Change occurs when students perceives a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be. In certain cases such as the pre-contemplators (in Prochaskas and DiClemente's stages of change model) it may be necessary first to develop such discrepancy by raising the students awareness of the adverse personal consequences of their negative behavior choices. 37 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

38 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Avoid Argumentation Avoid direct argumentation! Tends to evoke resistance. The instructor does not seek to prove or convince by force of argument. Instead, the instructor employs other strategies to assist the student to see accurately the consequences of their behavior and to begin devaluing the perceived positive aspects of their negative choices. 38 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

39 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Roll With Resistance Do not meet resistance head-on, but rather roll with the momentum – with a goal of shifting the students perceptions in the process. New ways of thinking about problems are invited but not imposed. Ambivalence is viewed as normal, not resistant, and is explored openly. Solutions are usually evoked from the student rather than provided by the instructor. 39 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

40 Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Support Self-Efficacy According to Bandura, self-efficacy is the belief that one can perform a particular behavior or accomplish a particular task. In this case, the students must be persuaded that it is possible to take charge of their learning and/or change their own behavior, reduce their overall problems, and improve their learning. 40 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

41 Using the Feedback Cycle: Creating targeted feedback that builds self- confidence and promotes greater cooperation in the classroom or workplace. Offer Feedback early and often… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 41

42 The Feedback Cycle The feedback cycle emphasizes the importance of students understanding and engaging with both the evaluation criteria and feedback in an ongoing way to enhance learning. You start this process from the very beginning of your class. Discuss your syllabus and lead a discussion on course requirements, classroom expectations, and appropriate behavior. It is applied to all the opportunities you have to focus your students attention on what you are hoping they will learn and how they are performing throughout the class. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 42

43 Using a Feedback Cycle to Promote Learning & Engagement 43 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 1) Explicit Criteria & Standards 2)Active Engagement w/ Criteria & Standards Active Engagement w/ Feedback 3a) Self-Assessment 3b) Educator & Peer Feedback Price & ODonovan (2006)

44 Explicit Criteria & Standards Clear expectations in the syllabus. Listing of appropriate behaviors Clear examples Clear instructions for all assignments If you are not sure, consult a colleague Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 44

45 Active Engagement w/ Criteria & Standards During course orientation: Engage students in discussion on assignments, grading, and acceptable classroom behavior. Know your boundaries and consistently enforce them. Repeat as necessary during subsequent classes Never single a student out in front of others Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 45

46 Self, Educator, & Peer Feedback Periodically ask students to assess their own learning. Give them opportunity to ask for feedback. Invited feedback is generally more welcomed. Educator creates specific feedback based on criteria already laid out in the syllabus. Targeted to expectations for learning and behavior. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 46

47 Active Engagement w/ Feedback Create structure activities to assist students to engage with feedback. This helps to avoid the situation where educators feel frustrated that the time and effort they have spent providing quality feedback has been wasted Engaging your students with feedback can start even before any activity is carried out. Ask your students to suggest the focus of feedback from a learning experience. This way you will be concentrating on an area they are motivated by. At other times you may require that your student shows evidence that he has understood and is acting on the feedback that has been given. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 47

48 Case Example Charlie, a student in your class, has been periodically late on several occasions and talks over other students during class discussions. His written work and exam scores have been excellent. You are at the midpoint in the semester and, as part of the syllabus, you have a planned midterm feedback/evaluation built into the course. How are your going to structure feedback to Charlie? Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 48

49 The Not So Good Sandwich… Charlie, Lets take a look at your work so far... First, your papers are well written. I always appreciate that. Second, you seem to be late to class quite often… why is that…it really is disrespectful to me and the other students. Speaking of disrespectful…you really need to pull back a bit in classroom discussion. Finally, your test scores show you are mastering the material. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 49

50 The New Improved Sandwich… Charlie, Lets take a look at your work so far... First, lets go over the criteria in the syllabus… Lets start with your own self assessment…any thoughts on how you are meeting the criteria in the syllabus? Id like you to wait until others have finished their thoughts before jumping in to a class discussion. It would really help with class flow. Second, Ive noticed that you are late quite a bit to class, I was wondering if this is something you can control? Finally, your test scores show you are mastering the material. Specifically, you have done very well on sections 3, 4, & 5. Your papers are also demonstrating the same thing…they are well written, thoughtful, and have pulled together the reading, discussions, and homework. One last thing…you have really mastered the APA style…in fact you are the APA Master! Do you have any questions… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 50

51 To Review Review the criteria used for the feedback. Engage the student in his/her own self- evaluation. Offer your feedback… Structure with a few negative and several specific positive. Check for Understanding. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 51

52 To Review If met with resistance… Express understanding and role with resistance. Avoid argumentation Identify discrepancy Where does the student think s/he is Where does s/he think s/he needs to be Identify, using the criteria in syllabus, a plan to get to goal. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 52

53 Questions 53 Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

54 References Brookhart, S. M. (2008). How to give effective feedback to your students. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Motivating Behavior Change. (2011, February). Harvard Mental Health Newsletter 27(8). Boston: Harvard Health Publications. Nass, C. & Yen, C. (2010). The man who lied to his laptop: What machines teach us about human relationships. New York: Current. Price, M., & O'Donovan, B. (2006). Improving performance through enhancing student understanding criteria and feedback. In C. Bryan & K. Clegg (Eds.), Innovative Assessment in Higher Education (pp ). London: Routledge, p.107. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research And Practice, 19(3), Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

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