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The Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership (MMP), an initiative of the Milwaukee Partnership Academy (MPA), is supported with funding from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EHR Cynthia CuellarBernard Rahming Milwaukee Public Schools Math Teaching Specialist What Weve Learned About Assessment, Part 3: Descriptive Feedback: Moving to the Next Level New Wisconsin Promise January 2009

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Participants will... Examine what research says about the effects of feedback. Deepen their understanding of different types of feedback. Analyze student work in mathematics to practice identifying types of feedback. Discuss ways to use feedback in the classroom to guide student learning of mathematics.

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Research by: Richard Stiggins Achievement gains are maximized in context where educators increase the accuracy of classroom assessments, provide students with frequent informative feedback (versus infrequent judgmental feedback), and involve students deeply in the classroom assessment, record keeping, and communication process. In short, these gains are maximized where teachers apply the principles of assessment for learning.

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Research by: John Hattie 1992 The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback.

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Type of Feedback: Goal is to make the learner feel good. Feedback that is intended to encourage and support the learner. It does not give guidance on how to improve the learners reasoning. Since it is not intended to move students forward in the learning process, it can be given on summative assessments. Motivational

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Goal is to measure student achievement with a score or a grade. Feedback that is intended to summarize student achievement. It does not give guidance on how to improve the learners reasoning. Since it is not intended to move students forward in the learning process, it can be given on summative assessments. Type of Feedback: Evaluative

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Goal is to improve student achievement by telling the learner how to move forward in the learning process. Feedback that is intended to tell the learner what needs to be improved. Feedback isnt as effective in getting students to move forward in the learning process. Type of Feedback: Descriptive

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Goal is to get student to internalize the effective feedback to use the suggested strategies independently on future work. Feedback that is intended to be used by the learner to independently move their reasoning to the next level. Criteria-based phrases are used to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the learners work. Limits feedback to one or two traits/aspect of quality at a time. Students should have an opportunity to redo their work based on the effective feedback. Type of Feedback: Effective

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1.I agree with the pattern that you have identified in the table. I am not convinced that the rule you wrote works for all the values in the table. How could you prove this? Motivational 2.I like how you completed the assignment. Descriptive & Effective Examples of Feedback

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3.Your explanation of your work is the best that you have done. Nice use of sequence words in your explanation. Evaluative 4.You accurately found the number of students in 4th grade who said chocolate ice-cream was their favorite. You now need to divide this number by the total number of students to get the percent who said chocolate ice-cream was their favorite. Descriptive Examples of Feedback

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What Does Effective Feedback Look Like? Effective Feedback Should: Describe and inform, not judge Be specific, not general Be clear to students Suggest what students should do to improve Adapted from Formative Assessment Strategies for Every Classroom, Susan M. Brookhart, ASCD

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Think-Pair-Share Instructional Strategy Think On your own, think about what type of feedback is represented by each statement. Pair Turn to a partner and share your thoughts. Come to agreement on the type of feedback represented. Share Share with the whole group some of your thoughts and discussions.

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Type of Feedback Activity Motivational EvaluativeDescriptiveEffective Feedback is primarily motivational Feedback is primarily evaluative Descriptive feedback primarily tells the student how to correct their reasoning. Descriptive feedback asks the student what to do to move their reasoning to the next level. Purpose: to encourage and support the learner Purpose: to measure student achievement with a score or a grade Purpose: to improve learning by indicating to the student what needs to be improved Purpose: to improve learning, by moving student reasoning to the next level MoreSummativeMoreFormative

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Classroom Assessment Based on Standards Use what you know about probability to justify your answer. Teds Café Lunch Menu Sandwiches Vegetables Cookies Grilled Cheese Carrots Chocolate Chip Hamburger Corn Oatmeal Turkey Teds Café A lunch combo at Teds café consists of one sandwich, one vegetable and one cookie. What is the probability that a customer will order a combo that includes a chocolate chip cookie? Answer: ___________________________

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Mathematics Grade 6 Classroom Assessment Based on Standards Teds Café MPS Learning Target: Statistics and Probability MPS Learning Target #8: Gather and display data from experiments and analyze outcomes based on theoretical and experimental probabilities to determine likelihood and fairness of events and to solve problems.

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Wisconsin Assessment Framework for Mathematics Objective: E. Statistics and Probability Subskill: Probability: Descriptor: Describe and determine the number of combinations of selecting 3 items from 4 or more items. Objective: A. Mathematical Processes Descriptors: Use reasoning and logic to perceive patterns, identify relationships, formulate questions, pose problems, make conjectures, justify strategies, and test reasonableness of results Communicate mathematical ideas and reasoning using the vocabulary of mathematics in a variety of ways (e.g. using words, numbers, symbols, pictures, charts, tables, diagrams, graphs, and models). Solve and analyze routine and non-routine problems. Mathematics Grade 6 Classroom Assessment Based on Standards Teds Café

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What Mathematics Am I Assessing? Description of Assessment: School: Grade Level: CABS Assessment Overview After working through the assessment, reflect on what you expect students to do. Complete the following table before developing your descriptive feedback. Identify appropriate Key Mathematics Features students may develop as a response to this assessment : Connections to the Comprehensive Mathematics Framework Identify misconceptions you anticipate students will demonstrate : o Understanding o Reasoning o Computing o Engagement o Problem-solving o Understanding o Reasoning o Computing o Engagement o Problem-solving Identify misconceptions identified after analyzing student work: o Understanding o Reasoning o Computing o Engagement o Problem-solving

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Analyzing Student Work Samples Analyze student work samples. Identify the type of feedback represented on each work sample.

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Assessment Identification: Teds Cafe Description of Assessment: Find the probability of picking a combo with a chocolate chip cookie. Assessment Identification: Teds Cafe Description of Assessment: Find the probability of picking a combo with a chocolate chip cookie. Effective Feedback Summary Match the descriptive feedback to the student work. Teacher: C. Cuellar Date: 12/20/07 Indicate to the student, The anticipated answer is 6/12, 6 out of 12, 6:12, ½, 1 out of 2, 1:2 or 50% Student HStudent CStudent A Effective Feedback Summary Match the descriptive feedback to the student work. Teacher:C. Cuellar Date: 12/20/07 Indicate to the student, The anticipated answer is 6/12, 6 out of 12, 6:12, ½, 1 out of 2, 1:2 or 50% Student Names: Effective Feedback to Student(s) (Frame the effective feedback in a way that challenges students to revise, redo, relearn, or expand.) I see a nicely organized list of all possible combos. What are some ways we practiced providing a written explanation in class that you might use here? You accurately identified 7 menu choices. How does the number of menu choices affect the number of possible combos? You accurately identified there is 1 cookie choice that is chocolate chip. I am unclear how you determined there were only 3 combos. How might you use a strategy we practiced in class to support the number of combos? You clearly explained your reason for determining a probability of ½. How might you determine the probability of picking a combo with grilled cheese and chocolate chip cookie? I see all the combos that have a chocolate chip cookie nicely organized to support the 6 in your fraction. How can you use one of the strategies we discussed to further support the 12 in your fraction? You accurately identified there are 6 combos with chocolate chip cookies. That was the hard part. Now, could you use the same reasoning, to correctly determine the denominator in your probability? Lets talk during small group time. Assessment Identification: Teds Cafe Description of Assessment: Find the probability of picking a combo with a chocolate chip cookie.

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How to Manage the Use of Feedback in the Classroom When should I use feedback? A success story The Gail Burrill Strategy

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Research by: Richard Stiggins Achievement gains are maximized in context where educators increase the accuracy of classroom assessments, provide students with frequent informative feedback (versus infrequent judgmental feedback), and involve students deeply in the classroom assessment, record keeping, and communication process. In short, these gains are maximized where teachers apply the principles of assessment for learning.

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Reflections An idea that squares with my beliefs... A question or concern going around my head... A point I would like to make...

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Forecast What Weve Learned About Assessment, Part 4: A Guide to Formative Assessment

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This material was developed by the Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership (MMP) with support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Foundation.

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Additional Documents to Correspond with this Presentation can be found at the MMP Website 6 th Grade Statistics & Probability CABS (www4.uwm.edu/Org/mmp/_resources/cabs.htm)

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