Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Barrel vault The extension of a simple arch creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Barrel vault The extension of a simple arch creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the."— Presentation transcript:

1

2

3

4

5 Barrel vault The extension of a simple arch creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the vaults to counteract their downward and outward thrust. Groin or cross vault Formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal size. Needs less buttressing and appears lighter than barrel vaults. Pseudo-peripteral A series of engaged columns that run around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade. Cultures that most strongly influenced that Roman art were Etruscan and Greek.

6 Temple of Fortuna Virilis from Rome, Italy ca. 75 B.C.E. Two features of the Temple of Fortuna Virilis that were drawn from Etruscan temples; The planthe high podium is accessible only by the front via a wide flight of steps. Columns are confined to the porch. From Greek temples; The Ionic featuresthe fluted columns with bases and the Ionic frieze. It is built of stone overlaid with stucco in imitation of Greek marble temples. Roman; A series of engaged Ionic half- columns on the sides and back of the cella (pseudo-peripteral). In contrast to a Greek temple, the Roman temple usually was set on a tall podium, approached from a single side, and pseudoperipteral

7 Two non-Greek features of the so- called Temple of Vesta: Axial alignment of the narrow stairway being the only access to the high podium. The cella walls were not constructed with masonry bocks but with concrete. The temple plan is circular. The development of concrete – a cheap and very strong material, enabled the Romans to create an architecture of space rather than of sheer mass. It can create huge vaulted and domed rooms without internal supports. It allowed the Romans to develop the groin vault and the hemispherical dome.

8 Amiternum relief (1st cent. BC): depiction of funeral procession; notice the body on a bier, surrounded by family, preceded by musicians, and carried by slaves

9 Grave Relief of Publius Curtilius Agatus, Silversmith Unknown Roman, Italy, A.D. 1 - 25 Marble 31 7/16 x 23 1/16 x 12 1/2 in. Roman Grave stele from the Ilissos of a young hunter and his father (attributed to Skopas?), ca. 340 B.C. (CLX008) Greek Stylistic Features The portraits are specific likenesses (portraits) rather than idealized types. Differences The Roman reliefs focus on the heads (which are in high relief), torso, and hands, rather than the full figures, making them more intimate depictions as opposed to the formal Greek tomb. Position of slaves in Roman as opposed to Greek society Only freed slaves could have portraits made of themselves, because slaves were property, not people, under the law. Freed slaveholders proudly ordered portrait reliefs for their tombs to commemorate their new status as Roman citizens.

10 Head of a Roman patrician ca. 75-50 B.C.E. marble approximately 1 ft. 2 in. high Function of Roman Portraits The patricians were proud of their heritage and used portraits for public show and private purposes. Portraits were one way the patricians celebrated their elevated position in Roman society. Stylistic Features They were veristic, e.g., realistic, not idealized. The head alone was enough to constitute a portrait, whereas the Greeks believed the head and body were inseparable parts of an integral whole. Romans sometimes put veristic heads on bodies to which they could not actually belong.

11

12 Portrait of a Roman General Tivoli, Italy ca. 75 - 50 B.C.E. marble 6 ft. 2 in. high Romans sometimes put veristic heads on bodies to which they could not actually belong. Veristic portraits of elderly patricians are most typical of Republican Rome

13 Dinarius with Portrait of Julius Caesar 44 B.C.E. silver 3/4 in. Why is this portrait of Julius Ceasar breaking the rules? Portraits on Roman coins replaced mythological figures and spread the ruler's fame, but did not appear on idealized bodies

14 Amphitheater Double theater, a continuous elliptical cavea, resembling two Greek theaters put together. Supported by concrete. Atrium The large central reception room in a Roman house. Basilica A civic building that housed the law court and other offices. Rectangular in plan with a central nave, flanked by two aisles. Cubiculum Bedroom. Forum Public square, usually located in a citys center at the intersection of the main east/west and north/south avenues. Impluvium The basin that catches rainwater that falls through an opening in the atrium roof. Peristyle garden A courtyard-type garden in a Roman house walled by colonnades on all sides; separate from the atrium. Triclinium Dining room. Romans used the basilica for…. civic administration

15

16 The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 BCE enabled modern scholars to learn so much about life in a Roman town

17

18 Amphitheater Pompeii, Italy ca. 80 B.C.E.

19 First Style wall painting fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy late 2nd century B.C.E. fresco Painting styles found in Pompeii and Rome: 1 st Style Stucco relief designs painted to resemble costly marble panels. 2 nd Style Painters aimed to dissolve a rooms confining walls and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary three-dimensional world, either confined to the surface (early style) or extending beyond it (mature style). 3 rd Style A return to surface decoration, with delicate linear patterns and fantasies sketched onto mostly monochromatic backgrounds. 4 th Style Illusionism returns with landscapes (this time framed or otherwise bordered) and architectural elements, painted on a white ground. The first Roman painting style is also known as the masonry style.

20 Dionysiac mystery frieze Room 5, Pompeii, Italy ca. 60-50 B.C.E. fresco frieze approximately 64 in. high 2 nd Style Painters aimed to dissolve a rooms confining walls and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary three- dimensional world.

21 Pompeian wall paintings of the second style are characterized by the wall seemingly opening up into illusionistic scenes

22 Cubiculum (bedroom) from the villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy ca. 40-30 B.C.E. fresco Three pictorial devices used by Roman painters to suggest depth. One-point perspective The illusion of a shallow ledge (painted flat on the wall) for figures to stand on. Painted doors and gates that invite the viewer to step through them to the painted world beyond.

23 Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco approximately 79 in. high

24 Wall painting, third style Third style Roman painting featured fantastic linear architecture.

25 Wall painting, fourth style Pompeian wall paintings of the fourth Roman style of painting are characterized by architectural illusionism

26 still life with peaches Detail of 4th style wall painting from Herculaneum, Italy ca. 62-79 C.E. fresco approximately 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 1 1/2 in.

27 Fauces Foyer Atrium Courtyard reception room Impluvium The basin used to collect rain below the skylight in the atrium. Cubiculum Bedroom Tablinium Home office Triclinium Dining room Peristyle Garden

28 The poor lived in multistory apartment buildings of brick-faced concrete and glass windows. There were shops on the ground floor and up to four floors of apartments above. They had only narrow light wells and courtyards on the interior of the building. Only deluxe apartments had private toilets; others used communal latrines.

29 Colosseum A massive concrete amphitheatre erected by Vespasian ca. 70-80 CE. It was built on land Nero had confiscated for his private use. The Colosseum could hold 50,000 spectators and showcased gladiator fights, naval battles, and other spectacles. Pont-du-Gard An aqueduct bridge, comprised of three rows of arches, providing 100 gallons of water a day to Nimes, France, from a source 30 miles away. Rusticated masonry Roughened surfaces and beveled edges of stone blocks. Used to contrast with precisely-carved blocks in the Greek style.

30 You most likely to find an exedra at a forum In architecture, an exedra is a semicircular recess or plinth, often crowned by a semi-dome, which is often set into a building's facade. The original Greek sense (a seat out of doors) was applied to a room that opened onto a stoa, ringed with curved high-backed stone benches, a suitable place for a philosophical conversation

31 The Stadium of Domitian (Stadio di Domiziano) is located on Palatino Hill in ancient Rome. The semicircular structure seen in this photograph is called an Exedra. It looks out onto the stadium.

32 Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high Stylistic sources inspired the Augustus of Primaporta Classical Greek art, especially Polykleitos works. Political message He is depicted as a general addressing his troops. The reliefs on his armor advertise a diplomatic victory; the Cupid at his feet indicates divine descent.

33 Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high The strongest influence of Greek Classical art can be seen in work done for the Emperor Augustus

34 Head of Caesar Augustus ca. 100 C.E. marble with traces of polychrome

35 Ara Pacis Augustae Rome, Italy ca. 13-9 B.C.E. marble 63 in. high Purpose To celebrate his most important achievement, the establishment of peace in the Roman Empire (the Pax Romana), which was to last two centuries.

36 Ara Pacis Augustae Rome, Italy ca. 13-9 B.C.E. marble 63 in. high

37 Ara Pacis Augustae Rome, Italy ca. 13-9 B.C.E. marble 63 in. high

38 Ara Pacis Augustae Rome, Italy ca. 13-9 B.C.E. marble 63 in. high

39 Ara Pacis Augustae Rome, Italy ca. 13-9 B.C.E. marble 63 in. high

40

41 Maison Carée Nimes, France ca. 1-10 C.E. Erected in France in the Augustan style

42 Maison Carée Nimes, France ca. 1-10 C.E.

43 Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E. Purpose of the Pont-du-Gard An aqueduct to carry water from a source 30 miles away. Engineering principles Gravity flow; the channels have a continuous gradual decline that runs from the waters source to the city.

44 Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E.

45

46 Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy, ca. 50 CE. Rustication Rough masonry cutting used to contrast with Greek-style smooth surfaces, creating an exciting and varied appearance.

47 Neros Domus Aurea Shape Octagonal Material Cement Major significance For the first time, architects seem to have thought of walls and vaults as not merely limiting space but shaping it.

48 Colosseum Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E. The Flavian Amphitheater is also known as The Colosseum Capacity 50,000. Material Concrete. The Roman Colosseum was built primarily of concrete

49 Colosseum Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E.

50 Arch of Titus Rome, Italy 81 C.E.

51 Portrait bust of a Flavian woman from Rome, Italy ca. 90 C.E. marble 25 in. high Flavian-era artists brought back the veristic tradition, possibly at Vespasians specific direction, with the intention of distancing himself from the excesses of Nero.

52 Portrait of Carcalla ca. 211-217 C.E. marble 14 in. high

53 The Arch of Titus Subjects depicted in the reliefs on the Arch of Titus: A historical scene of the Spoils of Jerusalem, Titus triumphant return from the Jewish Wars. An allegorical scene of Titus in his triumphal chariot being crowned by Victory. Political significance This was the first instance of divine and human figures intermingling in Roman monumental sculpture. However, it was not erected until after the emperors death, when he was officially considered a god.

54 Apotheosis Ascent to the heavens, elevated to the rank of the gods. Apse A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church. Basilica A civic building that housed the law court and other offices. Rectangular in plan with a central nave, flanked by two aisles. Circus Maximus An oblong arena holding a racecourse where the worlds best horse teams competed in chariot races,. Continuous narration In narrative art, where the same figure appears multiple times in the same space at different stages of the story. Encaustic painting Painting where the pigment is mixed with wax and applied to a surface while hot. Equestrian portrait A portrait of a figure on horseback. Insula Multistory apartment buildings. Oculus Circular opening in a dome.

55 Timgad Plan A square divided into equal quarters by its two main streets which cross at right angles and are bordered by colonnades. The quarters are each divided into square blocks.

56 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, model of Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome Built by the Emporer Trajan A forum twice the size of the forum Augustus had built a century earlier. Architect Apollodorus of Damascus.

57 Portrayed on the Column of Trajan was Trajans two successful military campaigns against the Dacians. TRAJAN'S COLUMN: view from south (through Basilica Ulpia), ca. 113 C.E. The story is told in more than 150 episodes (carved in low relief) in a winding, 625-foot long band. The band increases in width as it winds up the column, to make it easier to read as it reaches the top and is farther from the viewer. The Emperor Trajan commissioned the column depicting his victories

58 Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.

59 Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.

60 Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. Coffering in the Pantheon helped lighten the weight of the dome

61 Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.

62 Hadrians Villa Principles that Hadrians Villa shares with the 2 nd century tomb from Petra Classical Greek architectural elements are used in a purely ornamental fashion and with a studied disregard for classical rules that is distinctly Roman.

63

64 Al-Khazneh Petra, Jordan 2nd century C.E.

65 Model of an Insula Ostia, Italy 2nd century C.E. Scenes depicted on funerary plaques were scenes of daily life.

66 POSEIDON & SEA CREATURES Ostia Antica, Rome, Italy Type: Floor Mosaic Context: Ostia, Baths of Neptune Period: Imperial Roman True or False Roman black and white mosaics usually appeared on the walls of homes. False Roman black and white mosaics usually appeared on the FLOORS of homes

67 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high

68 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high

69 A change in burial practices caused sarcophagi to become so popular during the 2 nd century. Romans began to favor burial over cremation, possibly reflecting an interest in Christianity and other eastern religions that conceived of an afterlife for the body. Themes used to decorate the sarcophagi included Greek mythology, with portraits of the deceased serving as the faces of the Greek heroes and heroines. Sarcophagus with the myth of Orestes, 140-150 CE,

70

71 Mummy portrait from Faiyum, Egypt ca. 160-170 C.E. encaustic on wood

72 Caladarium The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment. Frigidarium The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment. Tempera A technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue, or casein. Also the medium of the paint. Tepidarium The warm-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment.

73 CHARIOT PROCESSION OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, approx. 5' 6" high. Castle Museum, Tripoli. Late Antique Style The frontality of the emperor and his sons and the floating figures of the higher row of figures. These motifs were new to official art but had been present in the lower-class art of freed slaves. Roman sculpture for freed slaves and commoners is characterized by disregard for the rules of classical art

74 Reconstruction view from the plunge pool into the frigidarium hall Roman baths fulfilled Functions, other than sanitary, including; They had landscaped gardens, lecture halls, libraries, exercise courts, and a swimming pool. Groin vaults were used for the frigidarium of the Baths of Caracalla

75 Portrait Bust of Trajan Decius Capitolino, Rome 249-251 C.E. marble 2 ft. 7 in. high Soldier Emperors Trajan Decius portrait shows worry and anxiety with deep lines in the forehead and offset eyes, reflecting the out-of- control continuous civil war era of the latter half of the second century. Trebonianus Gallus is nude as in the Greek tradition, but his physique emphasizes bulk and power over a balance of brain and body, giving it a feeling of brute force.

76 Asiatic Sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman 165-170 C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 7 in. high

77 Sarcophagus of a Philosopher 270-280 C.E. marble 4 ft. 11 in. high

78 Diagram of the Temple of Venus Baalbek, Lebanon Temple of Venus at Baalbek is the only known example of five-sided Corinthian columns on pentagonal bases.

79

80 Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Marks, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high

81 Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Marks, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high Stylistic characteristics of the 4 th century portraits of the tetrarchs; Individual appearances and personalities of the figures are less important than the idea of the tetrarchy itself. They are clad in identical clothing and have very similar faces. Large cubical heads on squat bodies. The figures are grouped together and subsumed into a whole; the figure is once again shown in iconic terms and is no longer freed from formal rigidity as seen in Egyptian statues.

82 Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E. Which architectural element is not found on Roman triumphal arches? drum

83 Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E. Declining creativity and skill in sculpture is one possible reason for Constantines reuse of 2 nd century sculpture on his triumphal arch An alternative explanation is that the statues were carefully selected to associate Constantine with the good emperors of the second century, such as Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius.

84 Architectural elements were used to construct Constantines Basilica Nova include; Brick-faced concrete walls, coffered barrel vaults, and groin vaults. Features it shared with the Aula Palatina include the austere brick exterior, a relatively simple interior, and large windows. It is different because it has a semicircular apse separated from the main hall by a triumphant arch, and it also has boldly projecting buttresses. True or False The Basilica of Constantine included barrel vaults, groin vaults, and a central dome over an eight-sided room. True False

85 Portrait of Constantine from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy ca. 315-330 C.E. marble head approximately 8 ft. 6 in. high

86

87 Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy 306-312 C.E. An apse is a semi-circular recess found in a Roman basilica.

88

89

90 Aula Palatina (Basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century C.E.

91 Aula Palatina (Basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century C.E.

92 Aula Palatina (Basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century C.E.

93 Palace of Diocletian (model) Split, Croatia ca. 300 - 305 C.E. The emperor Diocletian built a large palace/fort at Split in Yugoslavia

94 Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E.


Download ppt "Barrel vault The extension of a simple arch creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google