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Life Saver Program. What Is It? A Fire Department Recognized Life Saver Residence Would Have the Following Features: –A residential fire sprinkler system.

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Presentation on theme: "Life Saver Program. What Is It? A Fire Department Recognized Life Saver Residence Would Have the Following Features: –A residential fire sprinkler system."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life Saver Program

2 What Is It? A Fire Department Recognized Life Saver Residence Would Have the Following Features: –A residential fire sprinkler system –Hardwired and interconnected smoke alarms on every floor, in every bedroom and immediately outside of bedrooms (Current Oregon Residential Code) This Program Would be Applied to All Residential Occupancy Types –1 & 2 Family Dwellings –Rental Houses, Apartments –Condominiums, Townhouses –Adult Foster Homes (5 or fewer persons)

3 About the Idea A Program Created to Encourage the Installation of Residential Fire Sprinklers –Modeled after the Super Good Cents Program which encouraged energy efficiency: Signs were posted Contractors/Realtors advertised this as a plus for marketing their homes Contractors were behind it The public became educated and wanted this

4 The Goal Take a More Aggressive Approach at Promoting Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems by: –Providing education about the benefits of residential fire sprinklers –Creating a public desire/demand for residential fire sprinklers Create a demand among homebuyers to have residential fire sprinkler systems Create a demand among homebuilders to offer residential fire sprinklers as a positive life-saving option Save Lives

5 What the Bureau Would Do Post Signs at Qualified Residences to Help Sell the Program and Educate the Public Educate Realtors Educate Contractors Educate the Media Provide Answers on our Website Answer Questions from the Public

6 The Signs

7 An Acronym L ife I n surance F o r E veryone S prinklers + A larms V i rtually E l iminates R isk

8 Education The following slides show information we will use to promote the Program To make things more personal, many of the slides have pictures of structure fires that happened in this area References are noted for each slide which are available upon request. Sources include: –United States Fire Administration (USFA) –National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC) –National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) –National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA) –Medford Fire Department –Oregon State Fire Marshal (OSFM) –Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition (HFSC) –Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition –Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) –National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) –Residential Fire Safety Institute (RFSI) –Kirks Fire Investigation, John D. DeHaan, 5 th Edition

9 Is the Cost Really Worth It? Nobody wants to lose their loved ones….. Nobody wants to lose their most valued possessions….. In an unprotected residence, this likely could happen….. In a Life Saver Fire Department Recognized Residence, this likely wont happen!

10 The Problem-Nationally 2005 Statistics 1 –396,000 home fires in the U.S. –3,055 lives lost not including firefighters –13,825 injured not including firefighters – $7 billion dollars lost in residential fires 4 out of 5 Fire Deaths Occur in Homes 2 Primary Victims 3 –Children 2,500 children aged 14 or younger were injured or killed in residential fires (2002) 1/2 under age 5 and 70% under age 10 –Elderly 2,300 adults age 65 or older were injured or killed in residential fires (2002) 80% between ages 65-84 On average 100 Firefighters Die Annually, Most in Residential fires 4 Most in Residential fires 4 Smoking is the leading cause of fire-related deaths 1 Cooking is the primary cause of residential fires 1 Purdue Fire

11 The Problem-Medford 2000-2004 Statistics 1 –249 structure fires in residential occupancies –9 fatalities –31 civilian injuries –6 firefighter injuries –$4,400,405 in residential property loss/damage Average Fire Death Rate (1995-2004) –12.0 per million (Oregon) 2 –14.6 per million (U.S.) 3 –19.4 per million (Medford + Rural) 1 In Oregon, One and Two Family Dwellings Account: 3 –For 86% of all residential fire deaths –For 82% of the estimated residential fire dollar loss Two More Die in 2006 (Medford) 1 Fairmount Fire

12 Medford Fire Fatalities

13 The Dilemma Inspections the Fire Code Allows: –Commercial Occupancies –Exterior and Common Areas of Residential Buildings Containing 3 or More Units Exempt From Fire Code Inspections: –Private Residences, Including: One and Two Family Dwellings Rental Houses, Apartments Adult Foster Homes (5 or fewer persons)

14 The Dilemma Residential FiresDeathsCommercial FiresDeaths 1996428,0004,080150,500140 1997406,5003,390145,500120 1998381,5003,250136,000170 1999383,0002,920140,000120 2000379,5003,445126,000 90 2001 1 396,5003,140125,000 80 2002401,0002,695118,000 80 2003 2 402,0003,165117,500220 2004410,5003,225115,500 80 2005396,0003,055115,000 50 1 An additional 2,451 deaths as a result of 9-11-01 2 Rhode Island nightclub and two nursing home fires Sources: U.S. Fire Administration

15 The Facts-Asphyxiation Fire Consumes Oxygen and Produces Toxic Gases 1 –Oxygen concentrations below 10% will lead to unconsciousness and death –Carbon monoxide (CO) is the cause of most fire deaths –Hydrogen cyanide is produced from common polymers-coatings, paints, varnishes, foams. Aside from CO, this is probably the predominant toxic gas hazard –Less air available for combustion in a fire increases production of CO Geneva Fire Sources: NFPA 921; Kirks Fire Investigation

16 The Facts-Burns Burns –Skin can be damaged when it reaches a temperature of 130 o F Radiant Heat Flux (kW/m 2 ) –1.4 Direct summer sun, potential sunburn in 30 minutes or less –2.5 Common thermal radiation exposure while firefighting. This energy may cause burn injuries with prolonged exposure –6.4 Skin blisters after 18 seconds with 2 nd degree burn injury –10.4 Skin blisters after 9 seconds with 2 nd degree burn injury –16 Skin blisters after 5 seconds with 2 nd degree burn injury –20 Heat flux on a residential family room floor at the beginning of flashover Sources: NFPA 921; Kirks Fire Investigation

17 Test Fire-Without Sprinklers Corner of living room near stairs Plastic wastebasket filled with newspapers Ignition source a match Water shielded from water spray by an end table Adjacent vinyl/polyurethane furnishings Wood paneling on walls Carpeting on floor Combustible ceiling tile Draperies on walls Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association

18 Test Fire-Without Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association

19 140012001000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 3 Below Ceiling 60 Above Floor 36 Above Floor Temp. Time (sec.) Test Fire-Without Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association

20 Test Fire-Without Sprinklers A concentration of as little as 0.04% (400 parts per million) carbon monoxide in the air can be fatal. Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 4000300020001000 0 Carbon Monoxide Time (sec.) PPM

21 140120100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 60 120 180 240 3 Below Ceiling 60 Above Floor 36 Above Floor Temp. Time (sec.) Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association Test Fire-With Sprinklers

22 4000300020001000 0 0 60 120 180 Carbon Monoxide Time (sec.) PPM Test Fire-With Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association

23 What About Smoke Alarms? Smoke Alarms (Detectors) Alone, are Not Enough –W–W–W–While functioning smoke alarms can save lives, it has been estimated that up to 50% of alarms are removed, disabled or not powered –S–S–S–Smoke alarms are missing in 2/3 of deadly residential fires1 –R–R–R–Recent studies show children may not wake up even with smoke alarms sounding in their rooms2 –F–F–F–From 2001-2004 there were 452 fatalities (391 fatal residential structure fires) in the U.S. in residences with working smoke alarms. (37% died sleeping; 29% died trying to escape)3 –S–S–S–Smoke detectors have a 10-year design life Carpenter Hill Fire

24 The Facts-Flashover Residents Do Not Survive Flashover –C–C–C–Caused when the fire spreads very rapidly when all combustible items in a room reach their ignition temperatures more or less simultaneously –F–F–F–Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes1 –W–W–W–Window of escape time has been reduced form 17 minutes in the 1970s to 3 minutes currently3 –P–P–P–Post-flashover fires triple the number of victims2 –M–M–M–Most victims in post-flashover fires are found remote from the room of origin2 Flashover

25 The Facts-Furnishings & Fuel Loads Heat Release Rates (HRR) (Btu/sec) –Small wastebasket 4-142 –TV set 114-275 –Cotton mattress 38-921 –Polyurethane mattress 768-2495 (+271-2025%) –Cotton easy chair 275-351 –Polyurethane easy chair 1281-1888 (+466-538%) –Polyurethane sofa 2960 –Armchair (modern) 332-711 –Recliner(synthetic padding/covering) 474-949 –Christmas tree, dry 474-617 –Pool of gasoline (2 quarts on concrete) 949 –Living room or bedroom fully involved 2846-9487 Sources: NFPA 921; Kirks Fire Investigation

26 The Facts-Furnishings & Fuel Loads Sources: NFPA 921; Kirks Fire Investigation Polyurethane Mattress 768-2495 Btu/sec 11-23 flame height TV 114-275 Btu/sec 5-10 flame height Desk Chair 142-237 Btu/sec 7-9 flame height Wastebasket 4-142 Btu/sec 1-7 flame height Minimum 497.3 Btu/sec HRR required for flashover in this typical bedroom

27 The Facts-Fire & Smoke Spread Animation Source: NIST

28 Your Fire Scenario 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation & applies 250 gpm to fire areas. Windows are broken and holes are cut in the roof to vent fire gases and smoke. Smoke reaches the smoke detector Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. Smoke begins to layer down Ceiling temp. reaches 1,000 degrees, visibility is reduced to zero Ceiling temp reaches 1,400 degrees. Flashover occurs engulfing all contents of the fire room and extending fire throughout home You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds The fire room and all contents are completely destroyed. Heat damage extends throughout the entire house, burning or melting all items within 5 feet of the ceiling. Smoke has blackened all contents of the house. Windows and roof vent holes must be boarded-up. All drywall will need to be replaced and all contents replaced or restored. Extensive water damage exists from firefighting efforts. Average time of displacement...6 months to a year. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition

29 Available Personnel & Economics Serious Residential Fire w/o Fire Sprinklers Average Manpower for Extended Duration –15.5 personnel –60.1 man-hours –Mutual aid required for other normal responses –+ Overtime crews –+ Overtime investigation

30 The Solution Your Chances of Surviving a Fire Approach 100% 1 with: – – A fire sprinkler system and – – Smoke alarms Added Benefits – –Much less property damage – –Valued possessions will most likely be spared – –You will not have to relocate for an extended period of time while your residence is being rebuilt +=>Survival

31 Sprinkler System Fire Scenario 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation and limits water damage by shutting down the water supply to the sprinkler system. The fire department then assists with initial clean-up operations. Smoke reaches the smoke detector You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds Fire damage is limited to the objects in or near the initial fire. Heat damage is limited to the fire room. Heavy smoke damage is limited to the fire room. Water damage is limited to the sprinkler flow of 15 gpm (approx. 150 gal total). Average time of displacement from home...1-2 days. Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. The sprinkler head over the fire activates Fire is controlled or completely extinguished. Sprinkler head continues to spray water at 15 gpm. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition

32 Available Personnel & Economics Residential Fire with Fire Sprinklers Average Manpower –3 Personnel –6 Man-hours –No overtime crews –Units available for another response –Possible short duration overtime Investigation

33 How Do Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Work? The heat from the fire activates the head nearest the fire The sprinkler system controls the fire with water before the atmosphere becomes untenable The sprinkler system controls the fire with water before the atmosphere becomes untenable

34 Types of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Conventional System –Common underground supply, separate piping

35 Types of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Network/Multipurpose System –Integrated into domestic plumbing

36 Are Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Expensive to Install? Less Than You Might Think… –$–$–$–$1.00-$1.50 per square foot1 –1–1–1–1-1 ½% of total building cost2 –A–A–A–About the price of upgrading carpet3 –M–M–M–May be many times less than landscape sprinklers Holly Street Fire

37 $ Cost Breakdown Study $ Given: –$400,000 home (Average price for a 3,000 sq. ft. home) –Cost to install sprinkler system=$3,000 Cost Breakdown per Month: –$3,000 amortized over 30 years at 7.75%+$20.47 Tax Savings (28% federal; 5% state income taxes): –From deduction of interest on the loan:- 6.10 Insurance Savings (6 quotes--$90-165 per year): –Using middle quote ($135 per year)- 11.33 Total Expenditure per Month: $3.04 Conclusion 1 : Basically, for the price of a Happy Meal or a Starbucks coffee, your family can be protected by a residential sprinkler system, Basically, for the price of a Happy Meal or a Starbucks coffee, your family can be protected by a residential sprinkler system, Fred Benn, President of Advanced Automatic Sprinkler Company in Hayward, CA Fred Benn, President of Advanced Automatic Sprinkler Company in Hayward, CA

38 ??? Do All the Heads Go Off? Summit Fire No. – 90% of all fires that occur in homes are quickly controlled by a single sprinkler head 1

39 ??? What About the Water Damage? 93% of all fires that occur in homes are quickly controlled by a single sprinkler head flowing 13-25 gallons per minute 1 Without fire sprinklers, the fire continues to grow exponentially. The fire department arrives 5-10 minutes later and puts hundreds to thousands of gallons on the out-of- control fire Tests conducted by the Los Angeles Fire Department and the U.S. Fire Administration showed that damage caused by water in a sprinklered fire is substantially less than damage caused by a fire department hose streams in an identical unsprinklered fire 2 W. Jackson Fire

40 ??? What about Accidental Discharge? Loss records of Factory Mutual Research show that the probability of a sprinkler discharging accidentally due to a manufacturing defect is only 1 in 16 million sprinklers per year in service 1 Fire sprinkler systems are under the same pressure as residential plumbing systembut are tested at 2-3 times higher pressure during installation 1 Mariposa Fire

41 ??? Are Sprinkler Heads Unsightly? There are now a variety of residential sprinkler heads including concealed heads, which are hidden until they drop down upon activation. Also, all residential sprinklers can be factory painted to match ceiling and wall colors. Orange St. Fire Concealed Head

42 ??? Is There a Lot of Maintenance? Virtually No Maintenance –Monthly-Visually inspect all sprinklers to insure against obstruction of spray. Sprinklers should never be painted –Monthly-Inspect all valves to ensure they are open* –Annually-Verify waterflow alarm activation* *Not required for multipurpose systems Myers Court Fire

43 ??? Are Newer Houses Inherently Safer? No –Whether or not a house is new, the fact is, the contents are thefuel that drives the fire. Modern furniture presents a huge fuel load, loaded with materials such as polyurethane foam which burns like gasoline and gives off toxic gases. –Drywall has some fire resistant features, however, modern truss and composite I-joist construction, when exposed to fire, can actually lead to structural failure faster than conventional lumber. Smoke detectors can be disabled Siskiyou Fire

44 Case Studies Residential Fire Sprinklers –S–S–S–Scottsdale, AZ (15 Year Study)1 Over 50% of houses sprinklered 13 lives saved Over $20 million in property loss prevented Average fire loss was: –$–$–$–$2,166 in fire sprinklered residences –$–$–$–$45,019 in non-fire sprinklered residences Piccadilly Fire

45 Case Studies Residential Fire Sprinklers –P–P–P–Prince Georges County, MD Ordinance Enacted in 1992 Residential Sprinkler System Reported Fire Incidents: 117 Residential Sprinkler Activations: 143 Total Fire Loss: $ 401,220.00 Potential Fire loss: $ 38,230,000.00 Reported Lives Saved: 154 Injuries Reported (All minor in nature): 7 S. Ivy Fire

46 Benefits to the Homeowner Additional Life Assurance –Home fire sprinklers are designed to ensure a tenable atmosphere for escape –Chance of surviving fire approaches 100% –A residential fire sprinkler system is like having a firefighter 24/7 with an immediate response time –A residential fire sprinkler system is like having a firefighter 24/7 with an immediate response time Reduces Property Damage- –Controls fire before the destructive phase –Precious items will be saved Insurance Savings –Possibly 5-15% Court Street Fire

47 Benefits to Community Safer Community Safer Community – Less injuries and deaths Less Property Damage Less Property Damage Less Risk to Firefighters Less Risk to Firefighters Saved $$$ Saved $$$ –Less overtime for suppression and investigation efforts –Less apparatus required for extended durations Berrydale Fire

48 Residential Sprinklers… the Choice is Yours! Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition


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