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Roman Republic and Roman Empire

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic and Roman Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Chapter 5 and 6 Roman Republic and Roman Empire

2 Origin of Rome – Stories and Myths Etruscans Early Rome: 753 – 509 BC
Emergence of Rome Geography Mountains Plains Rivers Inhabitants Neighbors and Influences Origin of Rome – Stories and Myths Etruscans Early Rome: 753 – 509 BC Two Groups Living on Peninsula Greeks Roman Republic: 509 – 31 BC Political Economic Religious Military and Conquest Family and Gender Husbands Wives Adoption Slavery

3 Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic
Culture Laws Culture / Attitudes Struggle of Orders – Social Divisions Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic Growing Unrest New Role for Roman Army Collapse of the Roman Republic

4 Roman Empire: 31 BC – 4th century AD
Age of Augustus 31 BC – 14 AD Military Political Social Structure Early Empire 14 AD – 180 AD Economic Social Culture Family and Gender Legal Religion Late Empire / Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Civil Wars Invasions Christianity Reforms Diocletian Constantine Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Empire Selected Emperors and their Stories Conclusion

5 Roman Republic: 509 B.C. and 31 B.C. Roman Empire: 31 B.C. to A.D. 476
Roman history can be divided into three periods or episodes: Rome’s Origins: B.C. Roman Republic: 509 B.C. and 31 B.C. Roman Empire: 31 B.C. to A.D. 476

6 Emergence of Rome Geography Inhabitants Mountains Plains Rivers
Apennine Plains Latium Rivers Tiber River Po Arno Rubicon Inhabitants Neighbors and Influences Aequi, Greeks Sabines, Volscians Etruscans

7 Origin of Rome – Stories and Myths
Latin Speakers – Indo European Aeneas Virgil, TheAeneid Written 30 BC Lavinium Aeneas, Lavinia, Silvius. Silvius, Ascanius. Alba Longa Thirteen kings ruled after Ascanius … and the 13th was Amulius. Romulus and Remus, 753 B.C. Rome – hilltop on plain of Latium Horatius Shepherds

8 Etruscan Early Rome, 753-509 B.C. Etruscans DO NOT WRITE – JUST READ
North Greatest impact on early development Early Rome, B.C. DO NOT WRITE – JUST READ Livy admitted that: "Events before Rome was born have come down to us in old tales with more of the charm of poetry than of sound historical record, and such traditions I propose neither to affirm nor refute."

9 Greeks Etruscans Two Main Groups living on the Italian Peninsula
Greatest impact overall. Alphabet, Olives, Art, Cultural models, architecture, literature Etruscans Control years adopted many Etruscan customs - alphabet, toga, vaulted arch, gladiatorial contests. 9

10 Creation of executive office – Consul – to be given to two men, who would eventually be called consuls. To prevent tyranny They could only serve for one year at a time.

11 Roman Republic 509 – 31 BC Political
In 509 B.C., and after having expelled the Etruscans, the Romans constructed a form of political organization we call a republic. Citizenship? Four Major Components – Checks and Balances 1) Two magistrates or consuls 2) Senate 3)Assembly of Centuries 4)Assembly of Tribes

12 Economic Farming Trade Figs Corn Grains Fruit trees Olives Vegetables
Grape vines Trade Textiles Metals Pottery Wine Wool

13 Roman Religion Polytheistic Morphed Greek gods into Roman
Every aspect of life was responsibility of individual powers (numen) Morphed Greek gods into Roman Piety toward others gods Entrails, burnt offerings, feed the gods gods – authority – state Less personal – more civic duty Cults Dionysus 13

14 Military and Conquest Need to consolidate power South – Aequi, Greeks
East – Sabines, Volscians North – Etruscans Gauls on the march – 4th century sacked Rome 493 B.C. established the Latin League Roman form of conquest - made them partners. Confederacy – all conquered and assimilated

15 Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 B.C.E.)
Punic Wars – (Carthage and Rome) First Punic War, B.C.E. Second Punic War, B.C.E. began in Spain. Third Punic War, B.C.E. By 44 B.C., the Romans controlled all of Spain, Gaul (France), Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, and most of North Africa (80% of the coastal lands of the Mediterranean). 15

16 Roman Family and Gender
Paterfamilias Husbands / fathers Power Absolute Women / wives More opportunity than in Greece Divorce Arranged marriages Dowry Roles changed as empire expanded and by 2nd century AD divorce more common Women more control Father did not transfer control to husband When father died, daughter had more control of her life – dowry. Adoption Children Not all members born into family became members of family legal rights as natural born 16

17 Domus Etruscan architecture Wealthy – domus – estates, compounds\
Poor – insula – apartments

18 Slavery Slavery common in ancient world
Before 3rd century – 1-2 slaves per farmer During Republic period, most were from conquest Prestigious to have many slaves Greeks – had greatest influence on Rome overall. Irony Revolts First Slave Revolt B.C. Second Slave Revolt B.C Third Slave Revolt 73 BC Sicily, Spartacus - revolted in 73 B.C.E. 18

19 g) Culture Law: Laws of the Twelve Tables.
Commission, statutes  to fill ten bronze tablets, plebeians were dissatisfied, two additional tablets were added. ii. Culture and Attitudes: Romans - practicality and efficiency 19

20 The Struggle of the Orders: Social Divisions in the Roman Republic
The "Struggle of the Orders" – a struggle between patrician and plebeian – developed over the issue of legality. In 494 B.C., the plebeians threatened to leave Rome and set up their own independent state.. Plebians – poverty during 1st half of Republic Withdrawal from city (1st half of 5th century BC) Demands Assembly of Plebeians created in 471 B.C.E. 4th century B.C.E. plebeians permitted to become consuls Theoretically, by 287 B.C.E. all Roman citizens equal under the law Outside enemies 20

21 Decline / Fall of Roman Republic (133-31 B.C.)
Growing Unrest Latifundias contribute to the decline of small farms Farm landowners were the backbone of the Roman army Small farmers drifting to the cites forming a large class of landless poor By the middle of the 2nd century, there was a threefold problem brewing in the Roman Republic. 1) the senatorial class, growing in number and more wealthy than ever before 2) the urban masses were divorced from the land 3) the army disgusted by the senatorial class

22 New role for the Roman army
133 B.C. Roman politics, polarized around two factions in Senate: "Optimates" "Populares“ Reforms Gracchi brothers land reform New role for the Roman army Social War and the arrival of Marius and Sulla Marius Loyalty Oath Collapse of the Republic Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar (1st Triumvirate) 22

23 Rome and its Emperors (select few)
Roman Republic 509 BC – 31 BC Age of Augustus 31 BC – 14 AD Roman Empire 14 AD – 455 AD (approximate)

24 VI. Roman Empire: 31 BC – 4th Century AD
i. Age of Augustus (31 [could also be 29] B.C. -14 AD) Military To maintain order foreign and domestic – Army 28 legions; 150,000 men Auxiliaries Praetorian Guard Stabilization of the frontiers Political Emperor Augustus given title of imperator (commander-in-chief) by the senate Inherited the Republican system Governing the provinces Social Structure Roman belief – governance of world A divine rule believed by all Romans Augustus encouraged upper class birthrate Adultery was made criminal Revised tax laws Social Stratification: Limited Mobility Senatorial – economic based Equestrian – anyone who owned property valued at 400,000 sesterces Lower Classes – lost power when assemblies dismantled 24

25 ii. The Early Empire (14-180) c) Economic d) Social Conditions
a) Political Five Good Emperors (96-180) Augustus’ stepson and subsequent four emperors = Five Good Emperors Pax Romana Public work projects Equal treatment Tolerance / Diplomacy Peace and prosperity for nearly 100 years. b) Military Frontiers and Provinces Consolidation of the frontier Strengthening the provinces  Cities and towns spread culture, law, and Latin language c) Economic Prosperity Extensive trade -- food and luxury goods Agriculture the primary occupation Industrial development: bronze work, pottery, brickmaking d) Social Conditions Increased wealth – better conditions in Rome Wealthy and poor treated well 212 – Roman citizenship for all

26 e) Culture and Society in the Roman World Roman Literature
Subsidized by wealthy patrons and by state Catullus (c B.C.E.) Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.), Aeneid Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness Horace Ovid Livy Roman Art Copy Greek statues Architecture Arch, vault, and dome

27 f) Family Upper Class Lower Classes Patrician / Equestrian
Living conditions - good Weakened paterfamilias Women – more independence Lower Classes Living conditions – poor Drudgery of life Free grain Entertainment

28 g) Roman Law Twelve Tables, 450 B.C.E. Law of nations – Natural Rights
Codified Civil law Law of nations – Natural Rights Justice, Equality, Innocence All men equal before law (more theory than practiced) Standards of justice established Innocent until proven guilty Right to defend themselves before a judge 28

29 h) Religion The Jews Mystery religions / cults
Augustus attempted to revive Roman religion of worship many gods Polytheistic Toleration Mystery religions / cults Hellenistic cults Sacrificial, emotional, bonding Mithras: agent for chief god of light (Sun) The Jews By 6 AD Judea was made a Roman province Unrest among the Jews Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Zealots Revolt of Jews in 66 was crushed by Romans four years later 29

30 Growth of Christianity
Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.-29 C.E.), Messiah Paul of Tarsus (c. 5-c. 67) Preach the message to all, not just Jews Key figure in spreading Christianity outside Jewish community

31 iii. Late Empire / Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Imperial Rome
Largest population of any city in empire – 1.5 million Polyglot Overcrowded / noisy Police force Chasm between rich / poor free grain Entertainment!! Gladiatorial contests – amphitheater or Coliseum Public spectacles Coliseum could seat 50,000 Condemned men and gladiators – sometimes free men – trained in gladiator schools

32 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Military Monarch Civil war, Invasions Persians Germanic Tribes Plagues Population declined, trade and industry declined, labor shortage, soldiers looted from farmers, debased coinage (inflationary), armies unpaid and yet needed, agricultural collapse, economic collapse, invasions, plagues – and the Romans looked to mercenaries to help – hired Germans. 32

33 The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine
Four administrative units Economic policies Constantine ( ) Expanded on Diocletian’s reforms Edit of Milan New capital Political reforms Military reforms Theodosius the Great – 378 AD – Christianity became official state religion throughout empire

34 Fall of the Western Roman Empire Invasions
Huns, Visogoths (germanic) Adrianople 378 451 – Aetius and Theodoric v. Huns under Attila Rome sacked by Visogoths Rome sacked by Vandals in 455 Other Causes for fall 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

35 In the East, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another 1000 years.
Byzantia Constantinople

36 VII. Selected Emperors and their stories:
Julius Caesar - Antony – Cleopatra / Octavian and Octavius Tiberius Gaius Claudius: Nero: VIII. Conclusion


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