Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 1 Lesson Overview BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Chapter 5 Price and Quantity Controls Why Governments Control Prices Price Ceilings How.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 1 Lesson Overview BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Chapter 5 Price and Quantity Controls Why Governments Control Prices Price Ceilings How."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 Lesson Overview BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Chapter 5 Price and Quantity Controls Why Governments Control Prices Price Ceilings How Price Ceilings Cause Inefficiency So Why are there Price Ceilings? Price Floors How Price Floors Cause Inefficiency Quantity Controls Controversy: Minimum Wages Summary Review Questions

2 2 2 Why Governments Control Prices The market price moves to the level at which the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded. But this equilibrium price does not necessarily please all buyers or all sellers.The market price moves to the level at which the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded. But this equilibrium price does not necessarily please all buyers or all sellers. Therefore, the government intervenes to regulate prices by imposing price controls, which are legal restrictions on how high or low a market price may go.Therefore, the government intervenes to regulate prices by imposing price controls, which are legal restrictions on how high or low a market price may go. Price ceiling is the maximum price sellers are allowed to charge for a good or service.Price ceiling is the maximum price sellers are allowed to charge for a good or service. Price floor is the minimum price buyers are required to pay for a good or service.Price floor is the minimum price buyers are required to pay for a good or service. Why Governments Control Prices BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls

3 3 3 Price ceilings are typically imposed during crises because these events often lead to sudden price increases that hurt many people but produce big gains for a lucky few. Price Ceilings BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls

4 4 4 The Market for Apartments in the Absence of Government Controls $1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1, Quantity of apartments (millions) Monthly rent (per apartment) D E S $1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1, Quantity supplied Quantity demanded Monthly rent (per apartment) Quantity of apartments (millions) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Ceilings

5 $1,400 1,200 1, Quantity of apartments (millions) Monthly rent (per apartment) D S E BA Housing shortage of 400,000 apartments caused by price ceiling Price ceiling The Effects of a Price Ceiling BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Ceilings

6 6 6 How Price Ceilings Cause Inefficiency Inefficiently Low Quantity Inefficiently Low Quantity n Deadweight loss is the loss in total surplus that occurs whenever an action or a policy reduces the quantity transacted below the efficient market equilibrium quantity n It is the guaranteed minimum loss from a price ceiling. n Three other types of loss are likely. Inefficient Allocation to Customers Inefficient Allocation to Customers Wasted Resources Wasted Resources Inefficiently Low Quality Inefficiently Low Quality BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Ceilings

7 $1,400 1,200 1, Quantity of apartments (millions) Monthly rent (per apartment) D S E Deadweight loss from fall in number of apartments rented Price ceiling Quantity supplied with rent control Quantity supplied without rent control A Price Ceiling Causes Inefficiently Low Quantity First, assume only consumers with most value get the good. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Ceilings

8 8 8 Winners and Losers from Rent Control $1,400 1,200 1, Monthly rent (per apartment) S D E Consumer surplus Producer surplus (a) Before Rent Control $1,400 1,200 1, S D E Price ceiling (b) After Rent Control Deadweight loss Producer surplus Consumer surplus transferred from producers Monthly rent (per apartment) Quantity of apartments (millions) Consumer surplus BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Ceilings

9 9 9 Price ceilings often lead to inefficiency in the form of inefficient allocation to consumers: some people who are willing to pay the highest prices dont get it, and those only willing to pay less do get it.Price ceilings often lead to inefficiency in the form of inefficient allocation to consumers: some people who are willing to pay the highest prices dont get it, and those only willing to pay less do get it. n If Abe is willing to pay $1,300 for an apartment but does not get it, and Burt is willing to pay only $1,100 and does get it, there is $200 lost surplus, in addition to deadweight loss. Price ceilings typically lead to inefficiency in the form of wasted resources: potential expend money, effort and time to be able to buy at the low ceiling prices.Price ceilings typically lead to inefficiency in the form of wasted resources: potential expend money, effort and time to be able to buy at the low ceiling prices. If Abe is willing to pay $1,300 for an apartment and Burt is willing to pay only $1,100 and does get it, then Abe is willing to pay up to $200 more than Burt in money, effort and time to be able to buy at the low ceiling prices.If Abe is willing to pay $1,300 for an apartment and Burt is willing to pay only $1,100 and does get it, then Abe is willing to pay up to $200 more than Burt in money, effort and time to be able to buy at the low ceiling prices. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls How Price Ceilings Cause Inefficiency

10 10 Price ceilings often lead to inefficiency in that the goods being offered are of inefficiently low quality: sellers offer low-quality goods at a low price even though buyers would prefer a higher quality at a higher price. n Because there is a surplus of renters under rent control, if renters valued a renovation at $100 each, and the owner could provide the renovation for $40 each, that renovation will not be done because the owner cannot recoup any of the cost, even though the renovation would increase surplus by $60 for each renter. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls How Price Ceilings Cause Inefficiency

11 11 A black market is a market in which goods or services are bought and sold illegallyeither because it is illegal to sell them at all or because the prices charged are legally prohibited by a price ceiling. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls How Price Ceilings Cause Inefficiency

12 12 Case: Rent Control in New York Price ceilings hurt most residents but give a small minority of renters much cheaper housing than they would get in an unregulated market (those who benefit from the controls are typically better organized and more influential than those who are harmed by them). When price ceilings have been in effect for a long time, buyers may not have a realistic idea of what would happen without them. Government officials often do not understand supply and demand analysis! BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls So Why are there Price Ceilings?

13 13 Sometimes governments intervene to push market prices up instead of down. The minimum wage is a legal floor on the wage rate, which is the market price of labor. Just like price ceilings, price floors are intended to help some people but generate predictable and undesirable side effects. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Floors

14 14 The Market for Butter in the Absence of Government Controls $1.40 $1.30 $1.20 $1.10 $1.00 $0.90 $0.80 $0.70 $ Quantity of butter (millions of pounds) Price of butter (per pound) Quantity supplied Quantity demanded Quantity of butter (millions of pounds ) $ Price of butter (per pound) D S E BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Price Floors

15 $ D S E BA Butter surplus of 3 million pounds caused by price floor Price floor Quantity of butter (millions of pounds) Price of butter (per pound) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls The Effects of a Price Floor Price Floors

16 16 The persistent surplus that results from a price floor creates missed opportunitiesinefficienciesthat resemble those created by the shortage that results from a price ceiling. These include: n Deadweight loss from inefficiently low quantity n Inefficient allocation of sales among sellers n Wasted resources n Inefficiently high quality BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls How Price Floors Cause Inefficiency

17 $ D S E Quantity demanded with price floor Quantity demanded without price floor Deadweight loss Price floor Quantity of butter (millions of pounds) Price of butter (per pound) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls A Price Floor Causes Inefficiently Low Quantity First, assume only suppliers with lowest cost supply the good. How Price Floors Cause Inefficiency

18 18 Price floors lead to inefficient allocation of sales among sellers: those who would be willing to sell the good at the lowest price are not always those who actually manage to sell it.Price floors lead to inefficient allocation of sales among sellers: those who would be willing to sell the good at the lowest price are not always those who actually manage to sell it. If Abes cost to sell butter is $0.60 but does not get to sell, and Burts cost to sell butter is $0.80 and does get to sell, there is $0.20 lost surplus, in addition to deadweight loss.If Abes cost to sell butter is $0.60 but does not get to sell, and Burts cost to sell butter is $0.80 and does get to sell, there is $0.20 lost surplus, in addition to deadweight loss. Price floors often lead to inefficiency in that goods of inefficiently high quality are offered: sellers offer high-quality goods at a high price, even though buyers would prefer a lower quality at a lower price.Price floors often lead to inefficiency in that goods of inefficiently high quality are offered: sellers offer high-quality goods at a high price, even though buyers would prefer a lower quality at a lower price. Likewise, to complete for buyers, Abe may advertise his butter at a significant cost, which is lost surplus in addition to deadweight loss.Likewise, to complete for buyers, Abe may advertise his butter at a significant cost, which is lost surplus in addition to deadweight loss. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls How Price Floors Cause Inefficiency

19 19 A quantity control, or quota, is an upper limit on the quantity of some good that can be bought or sold. The total amount of the good that can be legally transacted is the quota limit. An example is the taxi medallion system in New York. A license gives its owner the right to supply a good. The demand price of a given quantity is the price at which consumers will demand that quantity. The supply price of a given quantity is the price at which producers will supply that quantity. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Quantity Controls

20 $ D S E Quantity of rides (millions per year) Fare (per ride) Quantity of rides (millions per year) Fare (per ride) Quantity supplied Quantity demanded BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls The Market for Taxi Rides in the Absence of Government Controls Quantity Controls $7.00 $6.50 $6.00 $5.50 $5.00 $4.50 $4.00 $3.50 $3.00

21 21 $7.00 $6.50 $6.00 $5.50 $5.00 $4.50 $4.00 $3.50 $ Quantity of rides (millions per year) Fare (per ride) Quantity supplied Quantity demanded A B $ D S E Deadweight loss The wedge Quota Quantity of rides (millions per year) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Fare (per ride) Effect of a Quota on the Market for Taxi Rides Quantity Controls

22 22 How Quantity Controls Work A quantity control, or quota, drives a wedge between the demand price and the supply price of a good; that is, the price paid by buyers ends up being higher than that received by sellers. The difference between the demand and supply price at the quota limit is the quota rent, the earnings that accrue to the license-holder from ownership of the right to sell the good. It is equal to the market price of the license when the licenses are traded. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Quantity Controls

23 23 The Costs of Quantity Controls Deadweight loss because some mutually beneficial transactions dont occur. Incentives for illegal activities. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Quantity Controls

24 24 Controversy: Minimum Wages BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Controversy: Minimum Wages

25 25 BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls A minimum wage is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers. Equivalently, it is the lowest wage at which workers may sell their labor. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in a great many jurisdictions, there are differences of opinion about the benefits and drawbacks of a minimum wage. Supporters of the minimum wage say that it increases the standard of living of workers and reduces poverty. Opponents say that if it is high enough to be effective, it increases unemployment, particularly among workers with very low productivity due to inexperience or handicap, thereby harming lesser skilled workers to the benefit of better skilled workers. Controversy: Minimum Wages

26 26 BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Question: Use demand and supply curves to show the following surplus looses from minimum wages designed to help unproductive workers: the lost producer surplus from the inefficient allocation of employment (some with higher opportunity costs are employed while other potential workers with lower costs are not employed) the lost producer surplus from the inefficient allocation of employment (some with higher opportunity costs are employed while other potential workers with lower costs are not employed) the lost total surplus as minimum wages reduce employment. the lost total surplus as minimum wages reduce employment. the wasted resources from potential workers competing for employment. the wasted resources from potential workers competing for employment. Controversy: Minimum Wages

27 27 Answer: The lost producer surplus if some with higher costs supply labor while others with lower costs do not sell labor. S D E Loss in producer surplus if Yvonne successfully competes to sell labor instead of Xavier 1,000 $6 $7 $5 0 Quantity of labor Y X BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Minimum wage Controversy: Minimum Wages

28 $ D S E Labor demanded with minimum wage Labor demanded without minimum wage Deadweight loss Minimum wage Employment of labor (millions of hours) Wage rate (per hour) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls The lost total surplus from reduced employment. Controversy: Minimum Wages

29 29 S D E 1,000 $60 $70 $50 0 Quantity of labor (days) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Minimum wage 800 The wasted resources of each unit of labor if they compete for jobs by waiting in line for each unit of employment. Only the first 800 units are employed, and they each pay $20 to compete for employment. Controversy: Minimum Wages

30 30 S D E 1,000 $60 $70 $50 0 Quantity of labor (days) BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Minimum wage 800 Comment: If each unit of labor competes by waiting in line for each unit of employment, each pays $20 to compete and so is paid the minimum $70 but nets only $50, which is less than if there were no minimum wage. Controversy: Minimum Wages

31 31 Summary 1.Even when a market is efficient, governments often intervene to pursue greater fairness (although putting needy people on welfare would be more effective) or to please a powerful interest group. Interventions can take the form of price controls or quantity controls, both of which generate predictable and undesirable side effects. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Summary

32 32 Summary 2.A price ceiling, a maximum market price below the equilibrium price, benefits successful buyers but creates persistent shortages. Price ceilings lead to inefficiencies in the form of deadweight loss from inefficiently low quantity, inefficient allocation to consumers, wasted resources, and inefficiently low quality. It also encourages illegal activity (tempting citizens to break the law) as people turn to black markets to get the good. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Summary

33 33 Summary 3.A price floor, a minimum market price above the equilibrium price, benefits successful sellers but creates persistent surplus. Price floors lead to inefficiencies in the form of deadweight loss from inefficiently low quantity, inefficient allocation of sales among sellers, wasted resources, and inefficiently high quality. It also encourages illegal activity and black markets. The most well-known kind of price floor is the minimum wage, but price floors are also commonly applied to agricultural products. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Summary

34 34 Summary 4.Quantity controls, or quotas, limit the quantity of a good that can be bought or sold. The quantity allowed for sale is the quota limit. The government issues licenses to individuals, the right to sell a given quantity of the good. Economists say that a quota drives a wedge between the demand price and the supply price; this wedge is equal to the quota rent. Quantity controls lead to deadweight loss in addition to encouraging illegal activity. BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Summary

35 35 Review Questions BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Review Questions You should try to answer some of the following questions before the next class. You should try to answer some of the following questions before the next class. You will not turn in your answers, but students may request to discuss their answers to begin the next class. You will not turn in your answers, but students may request to discuss their answers to begin the next class. Your upcoming Exam 1 and cumulative Final Exam will contain some similar questions, so you should eventually consider every review question before taking your exams. Your upcoming Exam 1 and cumulative Final Exam will contain some similar questions, so you should eventually consider every review question before taking your exams.

36 36 Review Questions BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Follow the link for review questions for Lesson I.6 that practices these skills: Identify the effective and ineffective price ceilings and floors. Identify the effective and ineffective price ceilings and floors. Compute the shortage and reduced supply from a price ceiling. Compute the shortage and reduced supply from a price ceiling. Identify the inefficiencies from a price ceiling: Identify the inefficiencies from a price ceiling: loss from lowered quantity as some previous consumers no longer consume and some previous sellers no longer sell, loss from lowered quantity as some previous consumers no longer consume and some previous sellers no longer sell, an inefficient allocation to consumers (some with higher willingness to pay do not consume while others with lower willingness to pay consume), an inefficient allocation to consumers (some with higher willingness to pay do not consume while others with lower willingness to pay consume), wasted resources from consumers competing to buy, wasted resources from consumers competing to buy, inefficiently low quality. inefficiently low quality. Compute the surplus and reduced demand from a price floor. Compute the surplus and reduced demand from a price floor. Identify the inefficiencies from a price floor: Identify the inefficiencies from a price floor: loss from lowered quantity as some previous consumers no longer consume and some previous sellers no longer sell, loss from lowered quantity as some previous consumers no longer consume and some previous sellers no longer sell, an inefficient allocation to producers (some with higher costs produce while others with lower costs do not produce), an inefficient allocation to producers (some with higher costs produce while others with lower costs do not produce), wasted resources from producers competing to sell, wasted resources from producers competing to sell, inefficiently high quality. inefficiently high quality. Compute the deadweight loss of a quota. Compute the deadweight loss of a quota. Compute the quota rent, as the value of the right to sell under the quota. Compute the quota rent, as the value of the right to sell under the quota.

37 37 End of Lesson I.6 BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls BA 210 Introduction to Microeconomics


Download ppt "1 1 Lesson Overview BA 210 Lesson I.6 Price and Quantity Controls Chapter 5 Price and Quantity Controls Why Governments Control Prices Price Ceilings How."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google