Presentation on theme: "Spatial Distribution of Foreign Migrants in the city of Riyadh,Saudi Arabia By: Dr.Mohammed Al-Gabbani Department of Geography,King Saud University Riyadh,"— Presentation transcript:
Spatial Distribution of Foreign Migrants in the city of Riyadh,Saudi Arabia By: Dr.Mohammed Al-Gabbani Department of Geography,King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Study Objectives Investigate the growth and spatial distribution of foreigners in the city of Riyadh. Sheds light on some of their aspects.
Rationale of the Study The city of Riyadh has experienced a rapid change in its population size and composition which have several considerable consequences.
Rationale of the Study In about 29 % of the city residential areas foreigners exceeds the number of nationals.
Foreign s Share of Riyadh Neighborhoods Population
Sources and Limitation of Data This study is based on latest national population census of 1992, as well as additional data obtained from official reports and sample surveys made by the government agencies and the author.
Sources and Limitation of Data Limitation: lack of reliable and recent data.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Saudi Arabia has experienced in the last three decades heavy international migration which influenced social and economic situation of the country in general and urban areas in particular.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth The size and increase of foreign population in the country and in the city is rapid and enormous( Graph).
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Now their size exceeded 8 millions, accounting for nearly 30% of the total population and their numbers are still on the increase. Most of them are unskilled and semi-skilled.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Some 5.5 million are employed. Asian workers are now the majority.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Foreigners found every where but are concentrated in major regions and more than 97% live in urban areas.
Major Foreign Population Groups in Saudi Arabia By Nationality
Major Foreign Population Groups in Riyadh By Nationality
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Seven cities (Riyadh,Jeddah, Makkah,Dammam,Khobar, Medina and Taif) account for more than 63% of them.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Unskilled and semi-skilled foreign workers tend to live in cheap houses available mainly in inner cities residential areas.
Foreign Population in Saudi Arabia: Size and Growth Professionals tend to rent apartments or villas in other parts of the cities.
Riyadh is the capital and largest city in the country. The study Area
The city has grown rapidly to almost 5 millions.(Annual growth rate is 8% a year compared with 3.2% nationally, partly as a result of the influx of foreigners. The study Area
Study Area. The number of foreign migrants in the city of Riyadh has risen rapidly during the past three decades. The city has the largest number of foreigners in the country (estimated to be more than 1.8 millions or 40% of the city population) of 190 different nationalities and socio- economic while their numbers did not exceed 121 thousands in 1394h,(1973) representing 18% of city total population?
Study Area Before 1975 foreign migrants were mainly immigrants :Yemenis,Sudanese, Egyptians, Syrians, Palestinians, and Pakistanis, Eritrea s, Americans and British.(Table).
Inner City Residential Area Nearly 78% of the city derelict buildings are located within this area. Buildings in good and satisfactory conditions represent 10% and 37% respectively.
Inner City Residential Area o It Surrounds the Central Business Districts. The central area is approximately 28 Sq. Km. Total population nearly 503 thousands or 18% of city population as of 1992 census, Live in 4% of city area.
Inner City Residential Area Nearly 70% of the city above ten stories buildings are located within this area. The inner area lost most of Its single story buildings.
Neighborhoods in Inner Area Inner area neighborhoods vary in size, socio-cultural economic characteristics
Neighborhoods at the edge of the Inner area Occupied mainly by Saudi population. They are characterized by large size lots, wider streets and have villa and apartment house types of medium density.
Neighborhoods located in immediate vicinity of the CBD Have small size lots. Densely populated with mud and cement block structures. Mainly occupied by unrelated individual foreign workers and poor Saudi families.
Population of Inner Residential area Population has increased by 39% during the last two decades. Population composition here is converse to the city population composition.
Neighborhoods in intermediate areas Generally occupied by mixed groups. Characterized by apartments type of buildings and have the highest population density in the city.
Population of Inner Residential area More Than 60% is foreign. Nearly 44% of those are Arabs, 66% Non-Arab. About 79% Male.
Distribution of Foreigners Among City Residential Neighborhoods
Major Nationalities Living in Inner residential Areas Nationality% Pakistani22.1 Egyptians15.1 Indians13.2 Sudanese13.2 Yemeni9.9 Bangali7.2 Syrians6.6 Palestinians2.2 Chadis1.2 Jordanians1
Population Density Gross density of central ranges between 135-496 p/h with an average of 186p/h(six times higher than the city (31 p/h).
Housing Arrangements. 55% live in apartments,36.8% in traditional houses,6.2% in villas,camps,workshops. 36% in good conditions,52% in fair conditions, 6% in excellent conditions and 6% in poor conditions.
Housing Arrangements 24.5%have been living in this area for more than 15 years. 96.6% intend to continue to work in the city and country as long as circumstances permit.
Residential Satisfaction 91.6% were satisfied. only 8% plan to move of the area.
Reasons for satisfaction Availability of services. People residing there(social environment).
Reasons for satisfaction Cheapness of rent. Nearness to jobs. City center.
Reasons of Residing in inner areas Cheap rent. Availability of housing.
Reasons of Residing in inner areas Presence of people of same nationality. Nearness to job. Nearness to services and facilities(transportation, markets).
Consequences Demographic : change in age and sex composition. Rise in young age groups. Males were more than females.
Consequences Social: different (wide ethnic diversity) compositions. Rise in crime and social problems
Consequences Economic: less job opportunities for nationals, huge money transfers Pressure on services and facilities
Conclusion and Recommendations. Research findings indicate that foreigners in the city of Riyadh. were distributed among 29 nationalities belonging to three groups: Arabs (49.7%), Asians (45.5%) and Africans (4.9%). Six nationalities: Pakistanis, Egyptians, Indians, Sudanese, Yamane's and Bangladeshis constituted nearly 81% of the total sampled persons.
Conclusion and Recommendations It appeared that there were concentration and centralization of some nationalities in certain residential areas as Pakistanis Bangladeshi in Margab in Shemasi, Sudanese in Ghebairah, and Yemenis in Margab. As to the reasons behind concentration and centralization, presence of relatives, friends, and people of same nationalities, proximity to city center and job locations and services, were frequently mentioned.
Conclusion and Recommendations As a result of the presence of such huge number of foreign population and their continual growth in the city of Riyadh as well as in the country, along with the diversity in their cultural, demographic, economic and social characteristics backgrounds, in addition to centralization and concentration processes several disturbing problems have risen.
Conclusion and Recommendations As such, short and long term policies and measures should be undertaken in order to reduce foreign workers size through replacement of expatriates by nationals especially after the increase in Saudi college graduates and job seekers, on the job training of nationals, elimination of disguised establishments ownership, minimum wage laws, and raising salaries of certain jobs, namely those presently undesired by nationals.
Appendix Some Socio-economic and Physical Characteristics of Riyadh Central Areas