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1 Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff Garden Apartment Fires By Capt. David Polikoff

3 2 Objectives Discuss construction of garden apartment Discuss tactics Discuss our rolls and functions on the fire ground Discuss command considerations Discuss construction of garden apartment Discuss tactics Discuss our rolls and functions on the fire ground Discuss command considerations

4 3 Overview Building Construction Layout and Design Box Assignment Strategy and Tactics Command Considerations Building Construction Layout and Design Box Assignment Strategy and Tactics Command Considerations

5 4 Definitions Aggressive: moving quickly to accomplish a task. All the while keeping safety of you and your crew in mind. Aggressive firefighting is used in offensive or defensive modes. Forceful Hard hitting Assertive Unyielding Attic: a story or room directly below the peaked roof of a building, especially a house. Aggressive: moving quickly to accomplish a task. All the while keeping safety of you and your crew in mind. Aggressive firefighting is used in offensive or defensive modes. Forceful Hard hitting Assertive Unyielding Attic: a story or room directly below the peaked roof of a building, especially a house.

6 5 Definitions cont. Cockloft: structural space above ceiling and below rafters of a flat roof building, often connecting adjacent occupancies and permitting fire to spread laterally, often unseen. Division: The organizational level that is responsible for operations within a defined geographic area, or with functional responsibility. Radio designation: Division xxx (Roof, Basement 1,2,3,4…) Cockloft: structural space above ceiling and below rafters of a flat roof building, often connecting adjacent occupancies and permitting fire to spread laterally, often unseen. Division: The organizational level that is responsible for operations within a defined geographic area, or with functional responsibility. Radio designation: Division xxx (Roof, Basement 1,2,3,4…)

7 6 Definitions cont. Group: The organizational level that is responsible for a specified functional assignment at an incident, e.g., ventilation, salvage, water resources, etc. Radio designation: specific function- (e.g., Salvage) Poke through: A hole or opening in fire stopping material VES: Vent Enter Search Group: The organizational level that is responsible for a specified functional assignment at an incident, e.g., ventilation, salvage, water resources, etc. Radio designation: specific function- (e.g., Salvage) Poke through: A hole or opening in fire stopping material VES: Vent Enter Search

8 7 Key to Success Aggressive Truck and Engine Work –Open walls and ceilings –Bring the correct GPM (min. 150 GPM), hose length and size –Put the manpower in the correct place Plenty of Manpower Understand how fire spreads in Garden Apartments Aggressive Truck and Engine Work –Open walls and ceilings –Bring the correct GPM (min. 150 GPM), hose length and size –Put the manpower in the correct place Plenty of Manpower Understand how fire spreads in Garden Apartments

9 8 Keys to Success cont. Understand how Garden Apartments are built –Kitchens and bathrooms stacked on top of each other from the bottom to the top Be prepared to stretch hose longer than 200 feet Preplan your area Understand how Garden Apartments are built –Kitchens and bathrooms stacked on top of each other from the bottom to the top Be prepared to stretch hose longer than 200 feet Preplan your area

10 9 Always check the attic/cockloft on any fire regardless where in the building the fire started. Do this to ensure no fire has entered the walls and is traveling to the overhead spaces. Always check the attic/cockloft on any fire regardless where in the building the fire started. Do this to ensure no fire has entered the walls and is traveling to the overhead spaces. Keys to Success cont.

11 10 Keys to Success cont. From this To this

12 11 Building Construction New vs. Old Stack Design Pipe Chases Roof Design New vs. Old Stack Design Pipe Chases Roof Design

13 12 Construction Buildings are usually –Wood frame –Brick veneer –Ordinary construction –Multiple buildings joined together –Common attic/cockloft –Lightweight building construction Roof and floor Buildings are usually –Wood frame –Brick veneer –Ordinary construction –Multiple buildings joined together –Common attic/cockloft –Lightweight building construction Roof and floor

14 13 New Construction Lumber yards in the sky Large open spaces Large open cocklofts/attics Light weight building materials Light Weight Truss Construction Wooden I Beams (with poke through in the web) Energy efficient Flammable exterior siding –Vinyl Lumber yards in the sky Large open spaces Large open cocklofts/attics Light weight building materials Light Weight Truss Construction Wooden I Beams (with poke through in the web) Energy efficient Flammable exterior siding –Vinyl

15 14 Old Construction Nailed roof systems Masonry construction (brick and block) Metal I Beams Sturdy Not as energy efficient Nailed roof systems Masonry construction (brick and block) Metal I Beams Sturdy Not as energy efficient

16 15 Stacked units Kitchen –Stove vents Bathrooms –Plumbing drains –Vent stacks Provides fire spread through convection and conduction Same floor plan plus or minus bedrooms Kitchen –Stove vents Bathrooms –Plumbing drains –Vent stacks Provides fire spread through convection and conduction Same floor plan plus or minus bedrooms

17 16 Pipe Chases Run vertical and horizontal Cut through fire stops Cut through wooden I Beams Provides avenue for fire and smoke travel Provides fire spread through conduction and convection Run vertical and horizontal Cut through fire stops Cut through wooden I Beams Provides avenue for fire and smoke travel Provides fire spread through conduction and convection

18 17 Roof Light weight truss –Fail very quickly –Gusset plates –Built off site –Each component relies on each other Solid sawn wood –More solid than truss –Solid wooden beams Sometimes larger than 2x4 –Built on site Light weight truss –Fail very quickly –Gusset plates –Built off site –Each component relies on each other Solid sawn wood –More solid than truss –Solid wooden beams Sometimes larger than 2x4 –Built on site

19 18 Roof cont. Eaves –Direct access to the attic for venting fire Loads on roof –HVAC Plywood –Burns very fast as it delaminates Flat Pitched Eaves –Direct access to the attic for venting fire Loads on roof –HVAC Plywood –Burns very fast as it delaminates Flat Pitched

20 19 Roof cont. Truss Construction Pitched Roof Broken Truss Component Gusset Plates

21 20 Roof cont. Flat Roof Stairwell Hatch

22 21 Layout Of Building Side A vs. Side C Kitchens Bathrooms Hallway Building Access Building Size Side A vs. Side C Kitchens Bathrooms Hallway Building Access Building Size

23 22 Side A vs. Side C What are the differences –Number of stories Access –Truck Company Laddering –Ground Rear entrance Terrain What are the differences –Number of stories Access –Truck Company Laddering –Ground Rear entrance Terrain

24 23 Kitchens Same from bottom to top Fire travel Extension Overhaul Same from bottom to top Fire travel Extension Overhaul

25 24 Bathrooms Same from bottom to top Fire travel Extension Overhaul Same from bottom to top Fire travel Extension Overhaul

26 25 Hallways Side A Enclosed Open Court yard style Foyer style –Typical layout Side A Enclosed Open Court yard style Foyer style –Typical layout

27 26 Hallway cont. Foyer Style Most common Foyer Style Most common Enclosed Hallway

28 27 Hallway cont. Court Yard Style

29 28 Hallway cont. Open Stairs no hallway Is this old or new construction? Fallout Shelter Sign

30 29 Building Access How does it sit –Shotgun (sideways) –Rear facing –Up stairs –Down stairs –Across a bridge Distance from curb –Pre-connects –Leader line How does it sit –Shotgun (sideways) –Rear facing –Up stairs –Down stairs –Across a bridge Distance from curb –Pre-connects –Leader line

31 30 Building Access Down Stairs Shotgun

32 31 Building Access Side C Upstairs

33 32 Building Access Across a bridge

34 33 Building Access 200 feet pre-connect lines will not get there

35 34 Building Size Small older building –Small hallway –Small entrance Large newer construction –Long hallways –Large lobby area Small older building –Small hallway –Small entrance Large newer construction –Long hallways –Large lobby area One building

36 35 Our Box Assignment Minimum of 26 people –5 Engines –2 Trucks –1 Rescue Squad –1 EMS unit Behind the 8 ball from the dispatch Minimum of 26 people –5 Engines –2 Trucks –1 Rescue Squad –1 EMS unit Behind the 8 ball from the dispatch

37 36 Apparatus Placement 1 st Engine secure water supply –Side A 2 nd Engine complete water supply for 1 st Engine –Side A 3 rd Engine secure 2 nd water supply –Side C 4 th Engine complete 3 rd engines water supply –Side C 1 st Engine secure water supply –Side A 2 nd Engine complete water supply for 1 st Engine –Side A 3 rd Engine secure 2 nd water supply –Side C 4 th Engine complete 3 rd engines water supply –Side C

38 37 Apparatus Placement cont. 5 th Engine –Uncommitted 1 st Truck Side A 2 nd Truck Side C Rescue Squad dont block engines or trucks EMS Unit Dont block incoming units or hydrants 5 th Engine –Uncommitted 1 st Truck Side A 2 nd Truck Side C Rescue Squad dont block engines or trucks EMS Unit Dont block incoming units or hydrants

39 38 Crew Assignment 1 st Engine –Size up side A –Fire floor attack fire 2 nd Engine –back up 1 st engine Protect exits 3 rd Engine –Size up side C –Attack fire floor above or most threatened exposure 1 st Engine –Size up side A –Fire floor attack fire 2 nd Engine –back up 1 st engine Protect exits 3 rd Engine –Size up side C –Attack fire floor above or most threatened exposure

40 39 Crew Assignment cont. 4 th Engine –RIC 5 th Engine –Uncommitted –Report to the IC 1 st Truck –Ladders Ladders Ladders side A –Open up, vent and search –Report to the fire floor 4 th Engine –RIC 5 th Engine –Uncommitted –Report to the IC 1 st Truck –Ladders Ladders Ladders side A –Open up, vent and search –Report to the fire floor

41 40 Crew Assignment cont. 2 nd Truck –Ladders Ladders Ladders Side C Report to the floor above the fire –Open up, vent, search Rescue Squad –Search, utilities assist Truck with opening up EMS Unit –set up aid station become part of rehab 2 nd Truck –Ladders Ladders Ladders Side C Report to the floor above the fire –Open up, vent, search Rescue Squad –Search, utilities assist Truck with opening up EMS Unit –set up aid station become part of rehab

42 41 Strategy and Tactics Engine Company Truck Company Rescue Squad EMS Unit Engine Company Truck Company Rescue Squad EMS Unit

43 42 Assume that the 911 call has been delayed!!

44 43 Avoid Unnecessary Radio Traffic

45 44 Engine Company Arrive on the scene –ENSURE A WATER SUPPLY!! –Leave room for the truck Most ladders come off the rear of trucks Pull past the address, or stop short if truck is coming from opposite direction (you can stretch hose not ladders) –Initial command Mode Investigative Attack Crew Placement –Aggressive Initial hose stretch –Leader line –Size of attack line should be based on the amount of fire –Protect the interior stairs –Work with the Truck Company Arrive on the scene –ENSURE A WATER SUPPLY!! –Leave room for the truck Most ladders come off the rear of trucks Pull past the address, or stop short if truck is coming from opposite direction (you can stretch hose not ladders) –Initial command Mode Investigative Attack Crew Placement –Aggressive Initial hose stretch –Leader line –Size of attack line should be based on the amount of fire –Protect the interior stairs –Work with the Truck Company

46 45 Engine Company cont. Size up –Where is the smoke coming from 1 st floor and/or roof line –Color of the smoke –Smell of smoke (food vs. working fire) –Circle check Nothing from front what about the rear ? –Rescues Front and/or rear Size up –Where is the smoke coming from 1 st floor and/or roof line –Color of the smoke –Smell of smoke (food vs. working fire) –Circle check Nothing from front what about the rear ? –Rescues Front and/or rear

47 46 Engine Company Size Up cont. Where is the fire going Building construction –New or old Interior status report ASAP –What you have –Are you getting it –Do you need more resources Where is the fire going Building construction –New or old Interior status report ASAP –What you have –Are you getting it –Do you need more resources

48 47 Engine Company cont. Hose line placement –1 st line –2 nd line –3 rd line –4 th line Lines 3 and 4 –consider another way into the building (ladder into window) –But avoid: Hose line placement –1 st line –2 nd line –3 rd line –4 th line Lines 3 and 4 –consider another way into the building (ladder into window) –But avoid:

49 48 Engine Company cont. opposing hose lines fighting fire from an apartment into a hallway; may jeopardize the stairwell Drivers –Ensure the hose is smooth from the engine to the entrance of the fire building –Monitor radio –Assist Truck driver with ladders opposing hose lines fighting fire from an apartment into a hallway; may jeopardize the stairwell Drivers –Ensure the hose is smooth from the engine to the entrance of the fire building –Monitor radio –Assist Truck driver with ladders

50 49 Truck Company Placement on the fire ground –Type of apparatus TDA (tiller) Rear mount Stick Rear mount Tower Mid-Ship Tower Placement on the fire ground –Type of apparatus TDA (tiller) Rear mount Stick Rear mount Tower Mid-Ship Tower

51 50 Truck Company cont. Crew placement Tasks –Ground ladders –Forcible Entry –Search Vent enter search (VES) may be a consideration for heavy fire conditions –Get walls and ceiling opened up Ensure there is a charged hose line –Check the Attic/cockloft –Overhaul Crew placement Tasks –Ground ladders –Forcible Entry –Search Vent enter search (VES) may be a consideration for heavy fire conditions –Get walls and ceiling opened up Ensure there is a charged hose line –Check the Attic/cockloft –Overhaul

52 51 Truck Company cont. Aggressive work –Quickly, but with purpose –Get the place open for the engine –Get the place open (ventilation) –Get ladders in position to effect rescues (VES if applicable) –Make the building ready to enter Bring the proper tools (all the time) –Open walls and ceilings –Windows –Doors Aggressive work –Quickly, but with purpose –Get the place open for the engine –Get the place open (ventilation) –Get ladders in position to effect rescues (VES if applicable) –Make the building ready to enter Bring the proper tools (all the time) –Open walls and ceilings –Windows –Doors

53 52 Truck Company cont. Size Up –Same as Engine Company –Give status report –Ladders Where –Cover all sides –Drivers work together What size –Where is the fire/where is it going Size Up –Same as Engine Company –Give status report –Ladders Where –Cover all sides –Drivers work together What size –Where is the fire/where is it going

54 53 Truck Company cont. Ventilation –Type needed Vertical or horizontal Coordinated with interior crews PPV vs. Natural When to vent Where to vent Drivers monitor the radio Ventilation –Type needed Vertical or horizontal Coordinated with interior crews PPV vs. Natural When to vent Where to vent Drivers monitor the radio

55 54 Rescue Squad Unit placement –Does it need to be up front? Crew Placement –Tasks In a position to ensure all the searches are done Sometimes the whole building Utilities Support Truck crew –Ladders –Vent Unit placement –Does it need to be up front? Crew Placement –Tasks In a position to ensure all the searches are done Sometimes the whole building Utilities Support Truck crew –Ladders –Vent

56 55 Rescue Squad cont. Size Up –Same as Engine and Truck Bring the proper tools (all the time) –Open walls and ceilings –Windows –Doors Size Up –Same as Engine and Truck Bring the proper tools (all the time) –Open walls and ceilings –Windows –Doors

57 56 Rescue Squad cont. Rescue –Time of day –Size of building –Type of occupancy –Fire conditions Rescue –Time of day –Size of building –Type of occupancy –Fire conditions

58 57 EMS Unit Unit placement –Well away from the front –Dont block hydrants –Allow room to leave if you must Crew –Set up Aid Station –Be the 2 out if designated (must be certified) –Full PPE and SCBA –Assist with hose stretch –Assist with laddering –Assist with vent Unit placement –Well away from the front –Dont block hydrants –Allow room to leave if you must Crew –Set up Aid Station –Be the 2 out if designated (must be certified) –Full PPE and SCBA –Assist with hose stretch –Assist with laddering –Assist with vent

59 58 EMS Unit cont. Size Up –Same as Engine –Report changing conditions –Report location of Aid Station –Become part of Rehab. Size Up –Same as Engine –Report changing conditions –Report location of Aid Station –Become part of Rehab.

60 59 Command Considerations Establish Command –Ensure PSCC announces your command and location Utilize Site maps or preplans –Get them from your stations in your Batt. In advance Ensure all units are in correct position per SOP Call for RID Establish Command –Ensure PSCC announces your command and location Utilize Site maps or preplans –Get them from your stations in your Batt. In advance Ensure all units are in correct position per SOP Call for RID

61 60 Command Considerations cont. Decide on incident action plan –Offensive If decision is made to go offensive Allow crews to get in place and do the job Get updates ASAP Decide on incident action plan –Offensive If decision is made to go offensive Allow crews to get in place and do the job Get updates ASAP

62 61 Command Considerations cont. –Offensive cont. Ensure RIC is in place Set up appropriate Group/Sectors Set up appropriate Divisions –Defensive Ensure exposures are covered first Establish collapse zones. Limit exposure damage Ensure all sides are covered Set up appropriate Groups/Sectors –Get up dates often –Offensive cont. Ensure RIC is in place Set up appropriate Group/Sectors Set up appropriate Divisions –Defensive Ensure exposures are covered first Establish collapse zones. Limit exposure damage Ensure all sides are covered Set up appropriate Groups/Sectors –Get up dates often

63 62 Command Considerations cont. More manpower –Taskforce –Extra alarms Establish appropriate Groups/Divisions –Get this done quickly –When referring to exposures use terminology set forth in Policy 20-02/NIMS (Exposure Axxx) Maintain accountability –Use your Groups/Divisions This will reduce radio traffic More manpower –Taskforce –Extra alarms Establish appropriate Groups/Divisions –Get this done quickly –When referring to exposures use terminology set forth in Policy 20-02/NIMS (Exposure Axxx) Maintain accountability –Use your Groups/Divisions This will reduce radio traffic

64 63 Command Considerations cont. When giving orders ensure the receiving unit understands the order –Have them repeat your order back to you Ensure your Group/Division Supervisors know who is assigned to them. Ensure you get progressive reports continually Ensure SOPs are followed Ensure there is minimum unnecessary radio traffic –Use other talk groups or Nextel to get info from PSCC When giving orders ensure the receiving unit understands the order –Have them repeat your order back to you Ensure your Group/Division Supervisors know who is assigned to them. Ensure you get progressive reports continually Ensure SOPs are followed Ensure there is minimum unnecessary radio traffic –Use other talk groups or Nextel to get info from PSCC

65 64 Command Considerations cont. As incident grows utilize other talk groups Maintain a sense of duration in relation to fire volume and type of construction Older Construction –Last longer than new –May sustain longer firefighting operations Line placement –1 st to the fire floor –2 nd back up 1 st line –3 rd floor above (consider other entry than front door) –4 th to attic/cockloft (consider the 5 th Engine) As incident grows utilize other talk groups Maintain a sense of duration in relation to fire volume and type of construction Older Construction –Last longer than new –May sustain longer firefighting operations Line placement –1 st to the fire floor –2 nd back up 1 st line –3 rd floor above (consider other entry than front door) –4 th to attic/cockloft (consider the 5 th Engine)

66 65 Command Considerations cont. Ensure crews operate aggressive Ensure all crews have/use proper tools –Hand tools –PPE and SCBA –Engine crew Using correct size line(150 GPM or more) Ensure to get interior up-date ASAP –Truck crew Open up Vent Ladders all over Ensure crews operate aggressive Ensure all crews have/use proper tools –Hand tools –PPE and SCBA –Engine crew Using correct size line(150 GPM or more) Ensure to get interior up-date ASAP –Truck crew Open up Vent Ladders all over

67 66 Command Considerations cont. –Rescue Squad Utilities Searches Assist truck crews –Rescue Squad Utilities Searches Assist truck crews

68 67 Engine Company Benchmarks

69 68 Truck Company Benchmark

70 69 Rescue Squad Benchmarks

71 70 Review Building Construction Layout and Design Box Assignment Strategy and Tactics Command Considerations Building Construction Layout and Design Box Assignment Strategy and Tactics Command Considerations

72 71 References Used 1.Street Smart Firefighting by Robert C Bingham 2.Building Construction for the Fire Service 3rd Edition by Francis Brannigan 3.Fire Officers Hand Book of Tactics 2 nd Edition by John Norman 4.Truck Company Operations by John Mittendorf 5.Montgomery County Safe Structural Firefighting Policy Strategic and Tactical Considerations on the Fireground by James Smith 1.Street Smart Firefighting by Robert C Bingham 2.Building Construction for the Fire Service 3rd Edition by Francis Brannigan 3.Fire Officers Hand Book of Tactics 2 nd Edition by John Norman 4.Truck Company Operations by John Mittendorf 5.Montgomery County Safe Structural Firefighting Policy Strategic and Tactical Considerations on the Fireground by James Smith

73 72 Photos Courtesy of 1.The Firefighters Page 2.Firehouse Magazine 3.Kentland Vol. Fire Dept. 4.Laurel Vol. Fire Dept. 5.Capt. Derrick Anthony 6.Beltsville Vol. Fire Dept. 7.Station 15 B Shift 8.Shawn R. Fitzpatrick Station 15 1.The Firefighters Page 2.Firehouse Magazine 3.Kentland Vol. Fire Dept. 4.Laurel Vol. Fire Dept. 5.Capt. Derrick Anthony 6.Beltsville Vol. Fire Dept. 7.Station 15 B Shift 8.Shawn R. Fitzpatrick Station 15

74 73 Questions/Comments


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