7 HOUSES ~ DIAGRAM 1 ADB1 Dwellinghouse with upper floors below 4.5m Single storey dwellinghouseEscape via stair andegress windows.(Alternatively provide aprotected stair)Escape via entrance hall.Inner Rooms providedwith egress windows/doors.4.5mEscape via entrance hall.Inner Rooms providedwith egress windows/doors.Dwellinghouse with more thanone floor above 4.5mEscape via protected stair.Alternative escape route,or sprinkler coverage.No Inner Rooms.Dwellinghouse with one floor above 4.5mEscape via protectedstair. No Inner Roomsallowed.Escape via protected stair.No Inner Rooms.7.5mEscape via protectedstair. Inner Roomsprovided with egresswindowsEscape via protected stair.Inner Rooms provided withegress windows.4.5mEscape via entrancehall. Inner Roomsprovided withegress windows.Escape via entrance hall.Inner Rooms provided withegress windows.
8 TALLER HOUSES ~ 4 STOREYS AND MORE Protected Stair + AFD + fire separation over 7.5m + ALTERNATIVE ESCAPEORProtected Stair+AFDSPRINKLER COVERAGE(THROUGHOUT)
9 OPEN SPATIAL PLANNING IN HOUSES Allowed in two storey housingNot permitted for higher housing, even with sprinkler protection and the fact that enclosure now allows non closing FD !Recent approval for open plan GF in three storey housing on the following basis:Escape via stairs and GF if tenableFR cut off screento FFLwith held open FDBedroomBedroomSprinkler coverageFirst FloorEscape via egress(if GF untenable)Ground Floor(open plan Kitchen, Lounge / Diner)
10 “SENSITIVE” HOUSES Smoke Exhaust Can provide: ~ Early warning Can we create a fire safe sensitive house ?Sprinklers (fast response)AFDSmoke Control (Passive or Systems) ?Can provide:~ Early warning~ Fire suppression~ Tenable escape routes~ Time to escape or“safely stay in place”= Flexibility of Layout
11 within 45m of all points within the dwellinghouse FIRE FIGHTING ~ HOUSESAccess to:within 45m of all points within the dwellinghouse+ all access standards20m max reversing limitopen for discussion(Diagram 24 ADB1)
13 APARTMENT LAYOUTS Standard existing flat layouts (as previous ADB) Max 9m travel distance if open plan, or9m max within protected entrance hallMULTI STOREY APARTMENTSeitherprovide protected stairway, AFD, and alternative exits fromlevels above or below entrance level(as per existing ADB)ORprotected stairway + L2 AFD (all rooms and circulation areas)(subject to any floor level being max 7.5m ± entrance level)protected stairway + AFD (circulation areas, etc) + sprinkler coverage throughout(no height limitation)
14 OPEN PLAN / SPATIAL APARTMENTS ADB does not recognise(over 9m travel distance)Many duplexes seekopen spatial upper levelAny solutions?Arup Fire -have Type Approvalbased on strategic AFDand layoutUse of sprinklers, AFD,smoke control and layoutbeing developedSeems to be OKStateside !
15 MEANS OF ESCAPE FROM FLATS # 1 ADB2 principles and travel distances remain the sameTRAVEL DISTANCE:Single direction = 7.5m maxAlternative routes = 30m max(Flat door to entry to Protected Stairor Stair Lobby)SMALL BUILDING CATEGORY:Basics the same, i.e. – max 11m Fl above GL – only 3 storeysabove Ground StoreyBUT now allows ancillary accommodation at any level if lobbyapproachBUT prohibits stair connecting to any covered car park(these buildings are allowed modified standards)
16 MEANS OF ESCAPE FROM FLATS # 2 AOV7.5m maxVentedCorridor or Lobby4.5m maxin unventedSmall BuildingsOR
17 MEANS OF ESCAPE FROM FLATS # 3 Protectedstairway7.5m maxUnventedcorridorsSTAIR LOBBYSterileVentedNo accommodation to enter directlyUnlimited sizeOptions of sizing and layoutCentral lobby zone – one vent(AOV or shaft)= SPACE GAINS
18 NATURAL SMOKE VENTING OF COMMON AREAS Venting required to zone (corridor, lobby, stair lobby) immediately proceeding entry to protected stairAOV to single stairOV to multi stair(including any dead end leg)OV to protected stair (AOV wheresingle stair)AOV and OV(to corridors etc)1.5m²OV (stairs)1.0m²Or BS12101 test data forEquivalent area air flow
19 NATURAL VENTING ~ SMOKE SHAFTS ADB2 (Section 2.26) now containsdetailed criteria for smoke shafts:Outline =verticalmax 4m length offset max 30°)closed base1.5m² area (min 0.85m l)head 2.5m above top ceiling levelleast 0.5m above roofFR construction and E30S ventsAFD activation on fire floor and head2.5mSmoke high level1.5m²
20 SMOKE CONTROL VIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION ADB2 Section 2.27 allows for mechanical ventilation to BS EN :2005(which covers ± pressure systems)Travel Distance guidance remains the sameThis approach is very effective,but does not seem to be overly popular with designers or clients
21 EXTENDED CORRIDOR SYSTEM # 1 Means of Escape PhasePoweredInlet Air15 – 20min any one zonePoweredSmokeExhaustSmoke exhaust ensures reasonably tenable conditions to escape route (much better than ADB base standards)AFD activated – typically 2m³/s exhaust rate – shafts approx. 0.6m² area- system needs maintenance (regular) – sensor selected and reversible fan operation
22 EXTENDED CORRIDOR SYSTEM # 2 Fire Fighting PhasePoweredSmoke ExhaustPoweredSmokeExhaustFans purge smoke from corridor and staircase(Fire Brigade switch both fans to extract and leave stair doors open)Natural Air Inlet
23 No travel distance limitations BALCONY APPROACH # 1BS5588-1: 1990Worth a revisit –How open?Traditionally single aspectHow close can blocks bewithout creating smoke logging?Can there be some enclosureand still provide equivalentsmoke/fire venting ?No travel distance limitationsbut 60m for fire fighting
24 BALCONY APPROACH # 2 Open Balconies Enclosed Balconies ? Smoke Curtains /DownstandsAO Louvresequiv. H x LH x LEnclosed Balconies ?
25 SPRINKLERS IN TALLER APARTMENT BLOCKS Apartment blocks with any floor more than 30m above GLmust have sprinkler coverage to all dwelling accommodation areasat all levelsADB2, Section 8.14Installations can be toBS9251:2005(despite integral 20m ht limit)Also watch for high fire loadand 180m² room sizelimitationsRiser duct sizesSpace for tanks/pumpsCeiling service zone depths
26 COMPENSATORY ALLOWANCES NOT FULLY RECOGNISED BY ADB SPRINKLERSCOMPENSATORY ALLOWANCES NOT FULLY RECOGNISED BY ADBIncreased travel distances – alternative ventilation – openings to atria – decreased fire ratings –open spatial duplexes ! ! ! LEFT TO FIRE ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
27 and project specifically VERY TALL BLOCKSDesign Holisticallyand project specificallyIssues:“Defend in Place” – Safe to Stay – realistic emergency proceduresEvacuation Fire Fighting – Single Staircases – Lift redundancyIdentify and consider all risks (including extreme)
28 FIRE FIGHTING ~ APARTMENTS Fire Brigade access to within45m of all points within each dwelling
29 45m RULE ~ APARTMENTS 45m from fire appliance to all points of all flats( +10% tolerance ?)Consider fire fighting technique– hose runs from fire appliance into building– along corridors– up stair flights– along landings– along corridors/lobbies on fire floor– into flatSay min 13m within flatSay min 7.5m travel distance + landings = 22mDepending upon storey height and pitch = 5-6m per storey+ landing lengthsDepending on fire park position outside buildingALWAYS needs measuring but highly likely that 3+ stories will now need FIRE MAINS !
30 (and visible position) FIRE MAINSTo be onface of buildingFire access to within18m(and visible position)Wet risersif over 50mheight
31 FIRE FIGHTING SHAFTS ~ APARTMENTS Greater clarity of Fire Fighting Shaft provisions for Apartments ( required if >18m above approach level)Wet Risers if over 50m (was 60m)If sprinklered all accommodation to be within 60m of riser outletIf not sprinklered then 45m max hose run from riser in ordinary protected stairway but 60m if from riser in a FFS120 mins FRFR as required for building(max 60 mins for flat compartment walls ADB2 Table A1)Flat entrance doors FD30S+ all other relevant requirements ofBS5588-5:2004
32 FIRE FIGHTING ~ HYDRANTS New Requirement:applies to new building with acompartment > 280m²Sited > 100m froman existing fire hydrantSee ADB2, Section 15.7/8If building fitted with fire mainsHydrant within 90m of inletNo fire mainsThen hydrant within 90m ofentrance, 90m centresIf no water mainsthen SWS supply
33 DISABLED PEOPLE IN FLATS “Inclusive escape “ required in an overall sense by ADB1 and 2ADB guidance does not require provisions for ordinary apartments( Because of : - compartmentation – “defend in place” – simultaneous evacuation possible, but not often needed – no history of problems)Specific designs including Wheelchair Disabled Units might generate a need for consideration of Refuge provision (in staircore or lobby)Refuge numbers do not necessarily need to equal disabled populationConsider Risk Assessment andmanagement needsLifetime Homes?
34 FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT ADB – Volume 2 – Section 0.13:“Building Regulations do not impose any requirements on the management of a building. However, in developing an appropriate fire safety design for a building it may be necessary to consider the way in which it will be managed.A design which relies on an unrealistic or unsustainable management regime cannot be considered to have met the requirements of the Regulations.Once the building is in use the management regime should be maintained and any variation in that regime should be the subject of a suitable risk assessment. Failure to take proper management responsibility may result in the prosecution of an employer, building owner or occupier under legislation such as the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.”Consultation and Compatibility required acrossDESIGN MANAGEMENT FIRE AND EVACUATION PLANS
35 Thank You CONCLUSIONS Centred around traditional layouts Better GuidanceEasier to use for standard layoutsBut not ground breakingCentred aroundtraditional layoutsPoised to beovertaken byFire Engineering ?Thank You