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From republic to empire + Daily life in the Roman Empire Project for this chapter

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Presentation on theme: "From republic to empire + Daily life in the Roman Empire Project for this chapter"— Presentation transcript:

1 From republic to empire + Daily life in the Roman Empire Project for this chapter Chapter 34-35

2 Expansion took over 500 years 509 B.C.E. to 14C.E. At the height included most of Europe with North Africa, Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor Rome fought countless wars to defend their territory During this time Rome changed to having an emperor worshiped as a god

3 First period of Expansion 509 B.C.E. Romans drove the last Etruscan king out of power Rome became a republic Next 245 years Rome fought lots of enemies Eventually made allies of former enemies and controlled all of Italy

4 The Second Period of Expansion Carthage in north Africa fought three major wars with Rome Rome gained control of North Africa, much of Spain, and the island of Sicily. Rome conquered Macedonia and Greece

5 Third Period of Expansion 145 to 44 BCE – Rome ruled entire Mediterranean world – Include Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt – Julius Caesar conquered much of Gaul (France) Republic was in trouble Civil wars divided the city Roman generals became dictators Armies against Senate Caesar ruled as a dictator before murdered in 44 BCE Julius Caesar (Part 1 of 3) (7.3) – Men that killed him thought they were saving power of the Senate – Octavian seized power (grandson) was called Augustus or honored one – Rome now an empire ruled by a supreme leader

6 Fourth Period of Expansion Start of the empire and lasted until 14 BCE First emperor was Augustus – Added new territory by expanding to natural borders At height Roman Empire stretched from the island of Britain to the Black Sea Each period involved cost and sacrifice

7 Romes conquest of the Italian peninsula, 509 to 264 BCE 200 years of constant warfare Gradually took control of Italian peninsula Last Etruscan king overthrown in 509 BCE 493 BCE roman leaders signed treaty with Latin neighbors to south (there shall be peace between the Romans and all the communities of Latin's as long as heaven and earth endure) Next hundred years fought Etruscans and tribes in hills around Rome 390 BCE almost end of Rome – Gauls crushed Roman army and surged into the city burned and looted most of it – Romans considered leaving but decided to start over. – Rebuilt city with walls then Roman soldiers on march again. 300 BCE conquered Etruscans and neighboring tribes – In south battled Samnites and several Greek cities 275 BCE controlled Italian peninsula. As area grew had to keep large permanent army to defend ALL lands and more Romans (plebeians) required to be part of Army Rome allowed some captured people to become citizens. Some had limited privileges – had to pay Roman taxes and supply soldiers for Roman armies. – 264 BCE more citizens and well trained soldiers than any other power in Mediterranean world.

8 Overseas expansion during the Punic wars, 264 BCE to 146 BCE 2 nd period three wars with Carthage for control of Mediterranean region Carthage controlled must of trade in western Mediterranean as Rome took these cities became involved with Carthage Wars called Punic Wars first war second war 3 rd war First war mostly at sea 264 BCE – Copied Carthaginians ship designs – 241 BCE Rome won Sicily and other islands and Cartage treasury was given to Rome Second war Hannibal in 218 BCE marched his army from Spain across Alps and into Italy. Carthage attacked Rome – Rode elephants and braved snowstorms, land slides, and attacked by local tribes. Fought for 15 years – In 202 BCE Hannibal returned home to defend Carthage against Roman army – he was defeated in battle that ended the 2 nd Punic War.

9 For 50 years peace between Rome and Carthage. Third war - Cato asked Romans to attack again. – This lasted 3 years – Romans burned Carthage, killed many people and sold others into slavery – Now greatest power in Mediterranean region Victories came with a price – Families mourned – Hannibal destroyed thousands of farms, others neglected – Grain now coming into Roman homes from other areas. Small farms replaced with large estates that planted vineyards and raised livestock Poor farmers had to sell their farms. – Acquired new customs many from Greece (homes and temples) first war (

10 Expansion during the final years of the Republic, 145 BCE to 44 BCE By this time had great wealth in conquests – Republican government under great strain End of third period of expansion republic collapsed More wars Allies resented taxes and fight as soldiers without being citizens 91 BCE rebelled and all Italians could be citizens Slave revolts had 100s of thousands – were treated harshly Spartacus – revolt of 73 BCE – killed Spartacus in battle and hung thousands of rebels on crosses – Carthage was forced to give Spain to Rome along with huge sums of money

11 Trouble in the city – Slaves did all the work so farmers and laborers had nothing to do – Crowded into Rome and became a mob for an ambitious leader Generals used their armies to gain fame in far-off lands and then fight for power in Rome Civil war in 80s BCE killed 200,000 Romans 40 years later – two ambitious generals – – Pompey expanded Rome rule in eastern lands –Syria and island of Cyprus – Julius Caesar conquered much of Gaul Both wanted control of Rome but Pompey had senate support Forbid enter of Caesar into Italy – Caesar disobeyed Caesar into Italy (3.1)

12 3 year fight ended with Caesar named dictator for life – end of the republican form of government – Instituted many reforms and gave work to many Romans making them happy Roads and public buildings Gladiator contests they could watch for free Adopted a new calendar still used today Saw Rome as a great empire Started new colonies and gave citizenship to people in Gaul and Spain March 15, 44 BCE a group stabbed him to death as he was entering the Senate death of Caesar (3.0) very bloody view first They thought they were saving the republic but they were wrong soon they had a true Roman Emperor

13 Rome becomes an empire 44 BCE to 14 CE After Caesars death there were a bunch of civil wars that lasted 10 years Octavian was Caesars grandnephew and adopted son – emperor and start of 4 th period of expansion – To gain power –defeated Marc Antony in a sea battle and they ran home to Egypt and killed themselves – Octavian told people he was restoring their republic – He was given the title of Augustus (honored) – He encouraged education, art, and literature – Repaired more than 80 ruined temples – First police force, firefighters and library – Ruled over 50 million people – Judea and Armenia became Roman provinces – Pushed borders to natural boundaries – Improved trade routes – built harbors, canals, and roads – Made Roman coins – a single system of currency

14 Expansion brought new problems – Tried to reform Roman morals Punished unfaithful husbands and wives Established a private army for his protection (Praetorian Guard) they sometimes murdered future emperors Mostly peace for 200 years (the Pax Romana or Roman Peace) One rebellion lasted 3 years and 100,000 soldiers

15 Summary Conquest of the Italian peninsula – First period of expansion began 509 BCE. The Romans rebelled against Etruscans, Rome became a republic. The Romans conquered central Italy. By 264 BCE, Rome controlled all of Italy Punic wars – 2 nd period from BCE – Rome fought Carthage in the 3 Punic Wars gained North Africa, much of Spain and Sicily. Conquered Macedonia and Greece. Final years of Republic – BCE Rome took control of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Gaul – wars divided republic – Julius Caesar made himself dictator for life. Octavian seized power and became first emperor – Caesar Augustus Rome becomes an empire – 4 th period of expansion- lasted until 14 CE. Emperors added a great deal of new territory. At height 117 CE the empire stretched from Britain to the present day Middle East

16 (family life)(2.1) Rome was connected by thousands of miles of roads, and laws, customs and military might Rome was center of empire – Forum (gathering place) originally was an open area used for merchant stalls, races, games and plays, eventually it was a sprawling complex of government offices, meeting halls, temples, theaters and monuments (the heart of Romes religious, business and government life) Large contrasts between rich and poor – Rome, itself, beautiful temples, stately palaces, flowering gardens Most people had tiny apartments on narrow, crammed, dirty streets

17 Rich – Women with slaves shopped for goods Senators strolled with bodyguards Spent sums of money on silk perfumes, jeweled weapons, musical instruments, fine pottery Emperors gave away food and provided entertainment (gladiator games and chariot races Most people lived in countryside Common and poor Merchants and craftspeople labored at trades Soldiers tramped through streets Slaves (hundreds of thousands) Lived in filthy neighborhoods filled with crime and disease Lucky to live past 10 Some worked own farms while others worked on huge estates Poor faced harsher treatment for a crime than the rich

18 Law and order Senate and assembly were important sources of law – Ultimate source was the emperor Honored old traditions – Senate met – had high statue – own style of clothes with special rings, pins, or togas (robes) even their own bodyguards Bodyguards carried fasces ( bundles of sticks with an ax in the center) – showing governments right to use physical punishment on lawbreakers Crime was rampant stealing, assault, and murder – Police watched rich neighborhood but not poorer sections of the city Rich worn rags in street at night to hide wealth Women and children to stay in house Anyone could accuse someone else of a crime with jury deciding case – they would try to win sympathy

19 Religion Very important – they had adopted Greek gods as well as other cultures gods – From all of these created their own set of gods Felt gods controlled their daily lives At temples made offerings and promises to gods – food animals including bulls, sheep and oxen If a person had a part of their body hurt they would leave something to remind god what they needed ( clay foot) Special festivals and holidays (holy days) to honor gods throughout year Religion part of daily life – each home had an alter to worship own gods and spirits Family hearth was sacred to goddess Vesta – when eating would throw a small cake as an offering into the fire Came to accept the emperors as gods They welcomed new religions as long as didnt encourage disloyalty to emperor

20 Family life Ruled by paterfamilias or father of the family – even grown sons and daughters had to obey him – Men provided for the family – Usually well-paid government positions – In poor families wife and husband worked Wealthy women ran households role of women (2.5) – Bought and trained slaves – Often bought and sold property Babies – usually born at home and only strong, healthy babies were kept others left outside to die – Named in special ceremony at 9 days old. Given a good luck charm (bulla) around neck and they wore this throughout childhood – day in life 10 year old (2.3) – Boys between 14 and 18 celebrated becoming a man – he offered his bulla and childhood toys to the gods – Girls no ceremony married between 12 and 18 Weddings held in temple – bride wore white toga with a long veil – groom wore toga and leather shoes Groom did not become paterfamilias until his father dies

21 Food and drink What you ate depended on whether you were rich or poor – Rich had kitchens in their homes – Poor cooked on small grills or fast food places called thermopolia – Main foods were bread, beans, spices, vegetables, cheese and meats – drink – water wine, with herbs and/or honey Breakfast – bread and a bowl of beans or porridge (oatmeal like cereal Lunch – cheese and bread maybe some olives or celery Dinner – (poor) chunk of fish with asparagus and figs (wealthy) fancier dinners mice cooked in honey, roasted parrots stuffed with dates, salted jellyfish and snails dipped in milk Markets – used monkeys or colorful birds to attract customers – Fruit, live rabbits, chickens, geese, snails, cuts of meat, jars of salty fish sauce

22 Housing Rich Spacious airy Built of stone or marble – thick walls to keep out noises Atrium – family great guests here Indoor pool to keep area cool Opening in roof to get light Many rooms – walls covered with pictures (murals and mosaics) – statues Dining rooms had fountains Guests lay on couches ate food prepared by slaves – listened to slaves on flutes and stringed instruments (lyre and lute) Poor Small and dark, cramped, noisy, and dirty Tall apartment buildings No proper kitchen – cooked on portable grills Filth and disease-carrying rats – Spread disease Buildings made of wood so fire a problem

23 Education (4.0) children education Schooling depended on type of family you were from – Many poor went right to work – i.e. leatherworking and metalworking to earn money for family – Wealthy families boys and girls tutored by fathers or slaves until 6 or 7 then off to school – Schools were in private homes or public buildings many tutors were Greek slaves A typical school day began early in morning – Walked crowed streets carrying supplies in a leather shoulder bay – Stopped at breakfast bar and bought beans, nuts and freshly baked bread – In classroom sat on small stools around tutor – Used a stylus to copy lessons on small wooden boards covered with wax When lesson over rubbed out writing – School day lasted until 2-3 in the afternoon – Learned Greek, Latin, math, science, literature, music, and public speaking Girls trained to become dentists, real estate agents, tutors or midwives Boys became soldiers, doctors, politicians, or lawyers – Boys stayed in school until or if wealthy 16 when they began managing their own properties

24 Recreation how to be a gladiator (3.5) chariot races history (4.2) Ben Hur 1925 (10.0) Many forms of recreation Wealthy had lots of leisure time – slaves did all the work – Public theaters and musical performances – Public baths (swim, exercise, steam bath or massage) they also had gardens, libraries, shops and art galleries Emperors gave poor bread and circuses ( food and entertainment to keep them busy and happy) Festivals for rich and poor – Gladiator games Held in public arenas – Colosseum Both men and women, slaves and prisoners of war Fought each other and animals and death was bloody and painful – and chariot races Held in Circus Maximus that seats 200,000 people Wealthy sat on plush cushion close to track with shade protecting them Poor sat on wooden benches high above Men and women sat in separate sections except in Circus Maximus

25 Country life 90% of people lived in country Wealthy – – Owned estates with homes called villas – Invested money in crops and livestock – A place to relax in summer – Checked on how managed – Time to read and write, hunting, picnicking, and taking long walks – Farms provided food – grains, grapes, olives, goats and sheep, cattle and pigs, bees – Slaves did the work – often treated cruelly Country folk had hard lives – Lived in huts, tried to earn enough to live

26 Summary Rome was a thriving city Magnificent temples surrounded by narrow, dirty streets crowded with citys poor Rich and poor worshiped the same gods and same recreation Rich and poor lived different lives – Wealthy – pleasures – Poor – struggled to survive Rome center of world

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