Presentation on theme: "Germany. When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his."— Presentation transcript:
When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide. 90% of Berlin was destroyed during WWII, yet the city remains littered with remnants of Hitler's Third Reich: The Berlin Dom was the scene of many Nazi parades and is still in existence today. Hitler planned to completely rebuild Berlin. The Fehrbelliner Platz is a example of Nazi construction that not only was completed during WWII times but is still in use today.
Reason for Construction: West versus East: Democracy versus Communism. Why Berlin? Centered in Soviet Union occupation zone West: set up a capitalist society resulting in rapid growth of their economy. East: a communist society was established resulting in a dragging economy and restricted individual freedoms. 1950s-people in East Germany began to emigrate to West Germany 1960s-East Germany was rapidly losing labor force and population. Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to prevent citizens from crossing the border.
*Wall stretched over 100 miles *Ran through center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin-cutting off West Berlin from the Rest of Germany. *Evolved from a barbed wire fence to a permanent structure made from concrete blocks, topped with barbed wire. *reached nearly 12 feet high and 4 ft wide with smooth pipe running across the bop to hinder peoples attempts to scale the wall. *1989-wall included a 300 foot no-mans-land, an additional inner wall, soldiers patrolling with dogs, a raked ground that showed footprints, anti-vehicle trenches, electric fences, massive light systems, watch towers, bunkers, and minefields. November 9, East German government allowed for the boarder to be opened. leading to the destruction of the wall October 3, 1990: East and West Germany reunited into a single German State
*March Nazi government established first official concentration camp at Dachau *Established for political prisoners, many served a specific time and were released *Was not a extermination camp like Auschwitz *held a small number of Jews; majority were political prisoners of war *35,000-43,000 prisoners died at Dachau and sub camps *liberated by US Army on April 29, 1945 *1914- Hitler joins the German Army during WWI *1920- Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZIS) *1923- Hitler s rally at Munich beer hall Bavarian capital of Munich: Serves as the birthplace of the Nazi Party. Munich remained, throughout the Holocaust, the capital of the Nazi movement and included: Headquarter buildings museums housing artworks approved by Hitler Nazi shrines where swearing-in ceremonies for new SS members
P icture: 22 Nazi officials in court, defendants seen on right of photo. World Challenge: How to seek legal justice for crimes of the holocaust? The IMT was created as a reaction to the Holocaust. Otober IMT formally indicated that the Holocaust was a crime against humanity. The trials at Nuremberg set precedents in international law, documentation of historical record keeping to aid in the search for justice.
Overview 1871-Present : Germans united, form German Empire under Otto von Bismark : Weimar Republic established, after WWI defeat : Third Reich, totalitarian state under Hitler and Nazi Party. 1945: Fall of Nazi regime, occupation by Allied forces (US, France, United Kingdom, USSR) : Germany divided May 23, Federal Republic of Germany established in West (US, Fr, UK zones). October 7, German Democratic Republic (USSR zone) Present: Germany Reunified as federal republic. German Empire to Federal Republic Government of Germany
German Government Today Type: Federal Republic (federation of states, republican form of government) 16 states Capital: Berlin Constitution: Basic Law, adopted May 23, 1949 (again in 1990 by unified Germany). European Union: one of founding members, joined at formation in 1993.
Branches of Government Five organs outlined by Constitution: Federal President Federal Government, including Chancellor Bundestag (Parliament) Bundesrat (represents the 16 states, or Länder) Federal Constitutional Court
Executive Branch Federal President: largely ceremonial, five-year terms, elected by Federal Convention. Currently: Acting- President Jens Boehrnsen (elected president, Koheler resigned May 31, 2010). Presidents residence: Bellevue Palace (Berlin). Chancellor: Head of Federal Government, issues directives, four year terms, nominated by president and elected by parliament, commands military. Since 2005: Angela Merkel of Christian Democrats Party. German Chancellery Building (Berlin)
Legislative Branch Bundestag (Parliament): Elected by German people, legislative center, elects chancellor, determines federal budget, in charge of deploying military. Meets in Reichstag (Berlin). Bundesrat: Represents the 16 states (Länder) in the legislative process. Meets in Bundesrat building, Berlin.
Judicial Branch Federal Constitutional Court Determines constitutionality of all legislation Meets in Karlsruhe, separate from other governmental branches.
German Military Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army Navy Air Force Joint Support Services Central Medical Services Decisions regarding deployment rests with Parliament (Bundestag). German Chancellor is the commander of deployed forces. Germany spends 1.5% of GDP on military (compare US, 4.06%).
Germanys Current Economy Recently fell into a recession in the deepest since World War II - but is steadily recovering thanks to manufacturing orders and exports, and a relatively steady consumer demand. However the Central Intelligence Agency predicts that an anticipated bump in unemployment, and a tight credit market could cloud Germanys predicted recovery growth for 2010.
Comparison of Recessions Germany Unemployment rate: 8.2% in 2009 Population below poverty line: 11% in 2001 Public debt: 77.2% of *GDP in 2009 Inflation rate: 0% in 2009 Debt-external: $5.208 trillion (USD) in June 2009 United States Unemployment rate: 9.3% in 2009 Population below the poverty line: 12% in 2004 Public Debt: 52.9% of *GDP in 2009 Inflation rate: -0.7% in 2009 Debt-external : $13.45 trillion (USD) in June 2009 *Gross domestic product: measure of a countrys overall economic output
German Currency Euros Current conversion rate $1 = 0.80 USD =EUR Euro and Cent are used as both singular and plural when following a numeral. However, when talking about individual coins, the plurals Euros and Cents are used
Exchanging US Dollars for Euros Taking more than $100 cash or converting money to Euros before hand is NOT recommended Using a card Prepaid visa card or debt card EF tours offers a prepaid visa card Can load and check funds online 24 hours a day Still incurs fees for conversions and ATM withdrawals Debt Card Notify the bank before leaving and be sure to get contact information incase of any mishaps while overseas. Avoid using a card to pay for individual transactions, instead use cash withdrawn from an ATM to prevent stolen card numbers. ATM exchange rates are usually lower than exchange rates at hotels and foreign currency exchange booths
Using an ATM Overseas Be sure to plan for conversion fees and transaction fees, and keep them in mind when making withdrawals Banks may charge anywhere from 1%-3% of the total amount withdrawn or a flat rate between $1- $2.50 per withdrawal Loading fees or adjustment charges, used by banks to convert the currency of the bank account into the local currency may cause the exchange rate to appear high. Due to these fees its best to make as few withdrawals as possible. The lowest ATM fees are available from credit unions, where ATM withdrawals cost as little as $1 per transaction If an ATM doesnt return the card, call your bank immediately to disable the ATM card.
Events in Discovery of Indo-European Language Sir William Jones Amateur linguist Exiled to India Became familiar with Sanskrit 1786 presented paper with resemblance of Sanskrit to Euro language, brought attention of linguists in Europe (Royal Asiatic Society) Jacob Grimm mit brüder Wilhelm Proposed explanation to similarities Grimms Law Parent language bh dh gh b d g p t k Germanic languages (English, Dutch, Swedish, German) b d g p t k f ɵ x (h) no change or other changes Karl Verner Exceptions to Grimms Law p, t, k b, d, g (instead of f, ɵ, x (h)) after unstressed vowel in IE
Indo-European Languages ItalicGermanic LatinOscanUmbrian Portuguese Spanish French Italian Catalan Romansch West East North Gothic WestEast DanishDutch Icelandic Norwegian Low Old English Middle English Modern English High Modern Standard German Old Frisian Old Franconian Old Saxon Frisian DutchFlemishAfrikaans Modern Low German
English-German Cognates English Calendar Cat Debacle Dozen Fabulous Foot Ladder Medicine Monarchy Music Pepper Accordion Alone Bratwurst Camera Creative Dolphin Homage House Kaput *Less obvious cognates; does not closely resemble the English word but are still cognates. **Part of the Consonant Sound Shift (further information below). ***Words in English borrowed from German. August Schleicher ( ) developed the Staummbaumtheorie (family tree theory) which explains the way words can be traced from one language to another or within families using Jacob Grimms Law on sound shifts. German Kalendar Katze Debakel Dutzend Fabulös Fuß * Leiter* Medizin Monarchie Musik Pfeffer** Akkordeon Allein* Bratwurst*** Kamera Kreativ Delphin Hommage Haus Kaputt***
A Few Pronunciation Tips ei vs. ie drei (dry) die (dee) ch (back of the throat) Ich spreche kein Deutsch. ä (eh) Wo ist nächste kirche? Not nackste. ö (hollow oo) Können Sie das bitte aufschreiben? ü (ooh) Drücken r (often in back of the throat) w (v) Was sind Sie von Beruf? ß (ss) Ich heiße Sara. au (ow) Ausfahrt *Pronounce every letter
Taboos Forming the ok hand gesture (making a circle with your index finger and thumb) is an obscene gesture. If you whistle at a performance, it is often a expression of displeasure. When you form a fist by putting your thumb in between you index and middle finger, it is usually considered an obscene gesture. At the end of a performance or presentation, instead of applauding in approval, Germans rappel their knuckles on the tabletop.
Taboos To signify no, you must wave your hand back and forth with your palm facing upward. By facing your palm down and making a scratching motion with your fingers, you would be gesturing for someone to come.
Taboos Using your index figure to point to your own head is considered an insult to another person. Instead of crossing your fingers for luck, such as in America, Germans place their thumb in between their index and middle finger (not allowing the tip of the thumb to show; remember that is an obscene gesture!!!). Germans wear their wedding rings on their right hands, instead of their left hands. Punctuality is very important in Germany! A few minutes is acceptable to be late, but no more! When it comes to giving gifts you must unwrap flowers in the entrance hall of where you are. Also never give 13 or an even amount of flowers.
Taboos and Communication Germans are often quite direct, but still polite. There is often little or no context surrounding the communication. Honesty is appreciated and expected, which is why Germans tend to tell it like it is. Germans tend to guard their personal space, therefore arms length distance is normal. Although this is changing in the younger population, it is traditional to address someone by a title or surname, unless you are a family member or friend, then you use the first name of a person.
Greetings In Germany, when men meet men it is not much different then in the United States. They share a firm and brief handshake, while keeping eye contact. When it is two woman greeting they also shake hands and keep eye contact, if they are first meeting. If they are family or good friends kissing one another on both cheeks is likely. When it is a woman and a man meeting a regular handshake will suffice, if they are not familiar acquaintances. If they are familiar with one another a light hug will do or a kiss on one or both cheeks.
Customs Holidays and Traditions Neujahr (New Year) Karneval (Mardi Gras) Ostern (Easter) Reunification Day Oktoberfest Christmas Birthdays Meal Times: In Germany and in a German home there a definite eating hours. Everyone eats all of their meals with the family, and you should never be late because it is considered very rude. *Lunch time -Twelve is lunchtime for almost everyone in Germany. People all over Germany leave work at twelve to go home and eat with their families. Almost all shops and businesses close at around 12 and they don't reopen until about 1 or 2 pm. -Lunch is the bigger hot meal of the day (similar to dinner in America). After lunch it's the quiet hour. -This is the time that you can't play your radio very loud, and it's polite to hold off calling someone at this time. -German students usually use this time to do their homework, to study or to take a nap. *Dinner -In Germany dinner is a small light meal (similar to the American Lunch), and is eaten at different times in different families. -Dinner is something small like a baguette and other breads, with cheeses, (Jarlsberg, cream cheese, -and some French cheeses)ham, smoked sausages, and a salad.
German Culture Food Spatzle (Egg Noodles) Kartoffelsalat (Potato Salad) Sachertorte (Chocolate-Apricot Cake) Gulaschsuppe (Goulash Soup) Zwiebelkuchen (Onion Pie) Bretzeln (Pretzels) Manners for Eating: You should always have both hands on the table or they should at least be visible. Your plate should always be virtually clean after you eat. If you leave something on your plate it is thought to mean that you didn't like the food. When you are finished with your meal, as a signal to everyone, the fork and knife are placed together, tips toward the middle of the plate and handles toward your right hand.
Fifteen men joined together to plan the implementation of the "Final Solution" against the Jews. The plan was to evacuate Jews from west to east. Supposedly, Jews were to be sent to the East to work in forced labor, though it was understood that "in the course of which action a great part will undoubtedly be eliminated by natural causes." Within only an hour or hour and a half, the implementation of the Final Solution had been planned and the death sentence of millions passed down. January 20, 1942
*Berlin is the capital and the biggest city of Germany. * It has a population of about 3.5 million Mitte: The Heart of Berlin
Checkpoint Charlie Checkpoint Charlie was a checkpoint on the Berlin Wall that was used to enter West Berlin. Checkpoint Charlie was also the most famous checkpoint. The checkpoints on the Berlin wall got their names from the American Alphabet. The other checkpoints were called Alpha and Bravo. The checkpoint is located in Friedrichstadt neighborhood in the heart of Berlin. The main function of the wall was to register and inform members of the Western military forces before they entered East Berlin. Checkpoint Charlie was subject to many movies and appeared in many spy novels in the Cold War Era. In the early years that the checkpoint was erected, it was the sight of a few stand offs between the Americans and the Soviets. Checkpoint Charlie was removed I June of 1990, when the German reunification was complete.
TODAY at Checkpoint Charlie Bricks trace the path of the Berlin Wall. There is a replica of the Checkpoint Charlie booth and a sign over the original site.
Facts about the Castle Building started in 1869, ended Built as a retreat for King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Visitors can reach 6,000/day. No photography/video allowed inside. Castle contains modern elements (heat, running water, etc.) Located about 125km from Munich. Inspiration for the Disney Sleeping Beauty Castle. Guided tours lead visitors through the rooms. *Built by Kind Ludwig II. *Construction began in 1869 Removal from Power: *Kings hallucinations *Bavarian law *mysterious death *Rooms completed by Kings death-14.
Outline and Features a. Staircase Tower e. Hall i. Lower Courtyard b. Knights' Housef. Entrance Hall j. Gateway Building c. Square Tower g. Palas k. Staircase Tower d. Connecting Buildingh. Upper Courtyardl Bower
Through the Castle Throne Hall Doesnt contain a throne. Designed after Byzantine churches. Hall of the Holy Grail
Through the Castle Singers Hall Inspired by another hall used for a singers contest. Room stands as tribute to medieval knights and legends.
Through the Castle Dining Hall Stud y
The Black Forest Schwarzwald Location: Baden-Wurttemberg in southwestern Germany Elevation: 1,493 meters = ft Which is the highest peak: Feldberg Area: 12,000 km² = 4,600 mi² Mostly pines and firs compose the Black forest Regions of the Black Forest has been damaged due to mass logging, which has reduced the forest to only a fraction of its original size. A storm in 1999, Lothar, down hundred of trees and left some of the high peaks and scenic hills bare with only shrubs and young firs Feldberg is the highest mountain in the Black Forest, and in Germany outside the Alps.
Known for more than fairytale inspiration… Home of the cuckoo clock Clocks have been made in the region since the early eighteenth century and much of their development occurred there.
Known for more than fairytale inspiration … Bollenhut: the traditional hats with enormous pompoms. They are particularly distinctive among Germany's traditional costumes. The hat is famous all over the world even though it was originally worn in only three parishes of the Black Forest region and on special occasions only Black Forest Cake ('Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte') which literally means Black Forest cherry torte. – consists of several layers of chocolate cake, with whipped cream and cherries between each layer. Then the cake is decorated with additional whipped cream, maraschino cherries, and chocolate shavings.
Munich Night Life (Day 2,3, and 4) Hofbräuhaus This famous pub is open to locals and tourist friendly! Its unique charm comes from the Bavarian music and the handful of regulars who gather at the bar. Beer and Schmankerl (roast pork with trimmings) complete the set up. In the summertime 'real' locals make for its wonderful courtyard, while the Festsaal room hosts a Bavarian evening with music every night Cost for Admission: EUR 4.50 Cost for Main Meals: EUR Cost for Small Meals: EUR 4.45 Cost of a Liter of Beer: EUR 5.70 Atomic Cafe A small nightclub right in the city centre (mainly frequented by students). Comfy sofas next to the dance floor make for a cozy and unpretentious atmosphere for tourists. Fast Food Theater This restaurant does not serve fast food at all, but you had better eat within the 90 minutes between admission and the start of the performance in order not to miss any detail of the exciting program! Acts include: stand-up comedy and improvisation theatre. Beware, because they are known to put tourists on the spot for an unforgettable night!
What is the Glockenspiel? (Day 3) It is a gigantic clock located in Marienplatz at the heart of Munich. It consists of 43 bells and 32 life-size figures. Every day at 11 a.m. (as well as 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. in summer) it chimes and re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds. The whole show lasts somewhere between 12 and 15 minutes long depending on which tune it plays that day. At the very end a very small golden bird at the top of the Glockenspiel chirps three times, marking the end of the spectacle.
Nuremburg Virtual Tour Nuremburg Virtual Tour 2
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