2History of Germany by Location: Beginning at its Darkest Hour Berlin:When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide.90% of Berlin was destroyed during WWII, yet the city remains littered with remnants of Hitler's Third Reich:Hitler planned to completely rebuild Berlin. The Fehrbelliner Platz is a example of Nazi construction that not only was completed during WWII times but is still in use today.The Berlin Dom was the scene of many Nazi parades and is still in existence today.
3Berlin Wall Consequences: Reason for Construction: West versus East: Democracy versus Communism.Why Berlin?Centered in Soviet Union occupation zoneConsequences:West: set up a capitalist society resulting in rapid growth of their economy.East: a communist society was established resulting in a dragging economy and restricted individual freedoms.1950s-people in East Germany began to emigrate to West Germany1960s-East Germany was rapidly losing labor force and population.Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to prevent citizens from crossing the border.
4Fall of the Berlin Wall: Size and Scope:*Wall stretched over 100 miles*Ran through center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin-cutting off West Berlin from the Rest of Germany.*Evolved from a barbed wire fence to a permanent structure made from concrete blocks, topped with barbed wire.*reached nearly 12 feet high and 4 ft wide with smooth pipe running across the bop to hinder peoples attempts to scale the wall.*1989-wall included a 300 foot no-mans-land, an additional inner wall, soldiers patrolling with dogs, a raked ground that showed footprints, anti-vehicle trenches, electric fences, massive light systems, watch towers, bunkers, and minefields.Fall of the Berlin Wall:November 9, East German government allowed for the boarder to be opened. leading to the destruction of the wallOctober 3, 1990: East and West Germany reunited into a single German State
5Munich Dachau *1914- Hitler joins the German Army during WWI *1920- Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZIS)*1923- Hitler ‘s rally at Munich beer hallBavarian capital of Munich: Serves as the birthplace of the Nazi Party.Munich remained, throughout the Holocaust, the capital of the Nazi movement and included:Headquarter buildingsmuseums housing artworks approved by HitlerNazi shrines where swearing-in ceremonies for new SS membersDachau*March Nazi government established first official concentration camp at Dachau*Established for political prisoners, many served a specific time and were released*Was not a extermination camp like Auschwitz*held a small number of Jews; majority were political prisoners of war*35,000-43,000 prisoners died at Dachau and sub camps*liberated by US Army on April 29, 1945
6Nuremberg: Trials and Legacy Picture: 22 Nazi officials in court, defendants seen on right of photo.World Challenge:How to seek legal justice for crimes of the holocaust?The IMT was created as a reaction to the Holocaust.Otober IMT formally indicated that the Holocaust was “a crime against humanity.”The trials at Nuremberg set precedents in international law, documentation of historical record keeping to aid in the search for justice.
7Government of Germany Overview 1871-Present German Empire to Federal RepublicGovernment of GermanyOverview 1871-Present: Germans united, form German Empire under Otto von Bismark.: Weimar Republic established, after WWI defeat.: Third Reich, totalitarian state under Hitler and Nazi Party.1945: Fall of Nazi regime, occupation by Allied forces (US, France, United Kingdom, USSR): Germany dividedMay 23, Federal Republic of Germany established in West (US, Fr, UK zones).October 7, German Democratic Republic (USSR zone).1990-Present: Germany Reunified as federal republic.
8German Government Today Type: Federal Republic (federation of states, republican form of government)16 statesCapital: BerlinConstitution: “Basic Law,” adopted May 23, 1949 (again in 1990 by unified Germany).European Union: one of founding members, joined at formation in 1993.
9Branches of Government Five organs outlined by Constitution:Federal PresidentFederal Government, including ChancellorBundestag (Parliament)Bundesrat (represents the 16 states, or Länder)Federal Constitutional Court
10Executive Branch Federal President: largely ceremonial, five-year terms , elected by Federal Convention.Currently: Acting-President Jens Boehrnsen (elected president, Koheler resigned May 31, 2010).President’s residence: Bellevue Palace (Berlin).Chancellor:Head of Federal Government, issues directives, four year terms, nominated by president and elected by parliament, commands military.Since 2005: Angela Merkel of Christian Democrats Party.German Chancellery Building (Berlin)
11Legislative Branch Bundestag (Parliament): Elected by German people, legislative center, elects chancellor, determines federal budget, in charge of deploying military.Meets in Reichstag (Berlin).Bundesrat:Represents the 16 states (Länder) in the legislative process.Meets in Bundesrat building, Berlin.
12Judicial Branch Federal Constitutional Court Determines constitutionality of all legislationMeets in Karlsruhe, separate from other governmental branches.
13German MilitaryDecisions regarding deployment rests with Parliament (Bundestag).German Chancellor is the commander of deployed forces.Germany spends 1.5% of GDP on military (compare US, 4.06%).Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):ArmyNavyAir ForceJoint Support ServicesCentral Medical Services
14Germany’s Current Economy Recently fell into a recession in the deepest since World War II - but is steadily recovering thanks to manufacturing orders and exports, and a relatively steady consumer demand.However the Central Intelligence Agency predicts that an anticipated bump in unemployment, and a tight credit market could cloud Germany’s predicted recovery growth for 2010.
15Comparison of Recessions GermanyUnemployment rate: 8.2% in 2009Population below poverty line: 11% in 2001Public debt: 77.2% of *GDP in 2009Inflation rate: 0% in 2009Debt-external: $5.208 trillion (USD) in June 2009United StatesUnemployment rate: 9.3% in 2009Population below the poverty line: 12% in 2004Public Debt: 52.9% of *GDP in 2009Inflation rate: -0.7% in 2009Debt-external : $13.45 trillion (USD) in June 2009*Gross domestic product: measure of a country’s overall economic output
16German Currency Euros Current conversion rate $1 = € 0.80 USD = EUR 1 0.8154.04108.081512.122520.215040.4110081500404900727German CurrencyEurosCurrent conversion rate$1 = € 0.80Euro and Cent are used as both singular and plural when following a numeral. However, when talking about individual coins, the plurals Euros and Cents are used
17Exchanging US Dollars for Euros Taking more than $100 cash or converting money to Euros before hand is NOT recommendedUsing a cardPrepaid visa card or debt cardEF tours offers a prepaid visa cardCan load and check funds online 24 hours a dayStill incurs fees for conversions and ATM withdrawalsDebt CardNotify the bank before leaving and be sure to get contact information incase of any mishaps while overseas.Avoid using a card to pay for individual transactions, instead use cash withdrawn from an ATM to prevent stolen card numbers.ATM exchange rates are usually lower than exchange rates at hotels and foreign currency exchange booths
18Using an ATM OverseasBe sure to plan for conversion fees and transaction fees, and keep them in mind when making withdrawalsBanks may charge anywhere from 1%-3% of the total amount withdrawn or a flat rate between $1- $2.50 per withdrawalLoading fees or adjustment charges, used by banks to convert the currency of the bank account into the local currency may cause the exchange rate to appear high.Due to these fees it’s best to make as few withdrawals as possible.The lowest ATM fees are available from credit unions, where ATM withdrawals cost as little as $1 per transactionIf an ATM doesn’t return the card, call your bank immediately to disable the ATM card.
19Events in Discovery of Indo-European Language 1786 Sir William JonesAmateur linguistExiled to IndiaBecame familiar with Sanskrit1786 presented paper with resemblance of Sanskrit to Euro language, brought attention of linguists in Europe (Royal Asiatic Society)1822 Jacob Grimm mit brüder WilhelmProposed explanation to similarities“Grimm’s Law”Parent language bh dh gh b d g p t kGermanic languages(English, Dutch, Swedish,German) b d g p t k f ɵ x (h)no change or other changes1875 Karl VernerExceptions to Grimm’s Lawp, t, k b, d, g (instead of f, ɵ, x (h)) after unstressed vowel in IE
20Indo-European Languages GermanicItalicWest East NorthLatin Oscan UmbrianHighPortuguese Spanish French Italian CatalanGothicRomanschModern Standard GermanWestEastDanish DutchIcelandic NorwegianLowOld EnglishOld Frisian Old Franconian Old SaxonDutch Flemish AfrikaansFrisianModern Low GermanMiddle EnglishModern English
21English-German Cognates KalendarKatzeDebakelDutzendFabulösFuß *Leiter*MedizinMonarchieMusikPfeffer**AkkordeonAllein*Bratwurst***KameraKreativDelphinHommageHausKaputt***EnglishCalendarCatDebacleDozenFabulousFootLadderMedicineMonarchyMusicPepperAccordionAloneBratwurstCameraCreativeDolphinHomageHouseKaputAugust Schleicher ( ) developed the Staummbaumtheorie (family tree theory) which explains the way words can be traced from one language to another or within families using Jacob Grimm’s Law on sound shifts.*Less obvious cognates; does not closely resemble the English word but are still cognates.**Part of the Consonant Sound Shift (further information below).***Words in English borrowed from German.
22A Few Pronunciation Tips *Pronounce every letterei vs. iedrei (dry) die (dee)ch (back of the throat)Ich spreche kein Deutsch.ä (eh)Wo ist nächste kirche?Not nackste.ö (hollow oo)Können Sie das bitte aufschreiben?ü (ooh)Drückenr (often in back of the throat)w (v)Was sind Sie von Beruf?ß (ss)Ich heiße Sara.au (ow)Ausfahrt
23TaboosForming the “ok” hand gesture (making a circle with your index finger and thumb) is an obscene gesture.If you whistle at a performance, it is often a expression of displeasure.When you form a fist by putting your thumb in between you index and middle finger, it is usually considered an obscene gesture.At the end of a performance or presentation, instead of applauding in approval, Germans rappel their knuckles on the tabletop.
24TaboosTo signify no, you must wave your hand back and forth with your palm facing upward.By facing your palm down and making a scratching motion with your fingers, you would be gesturing for someone to come.
25TaboosUsing your index figure to point to your own head is considered an insult to another person.Instead of crossing your fingers for luck, such as in America, Germans place their thumb in between their index and middle finger (not allowing the tip of the thumb to show; remember that is an obscene gesture!!!).Germans wear their wedding rings on their right hands, instead of their left hands.Punctuality is very important in Germany! A few minutes is acceptable to be late, but no more!When it comes to giving gifts you must unwrap flowers in the entrance hall of where you are. Also never give 13 or an even amount of flowers.
26Taboos and Communication Germans are often quite direct, but still polite. There is often little or no context surrounding the communication.Honesty is appreciated and expected, which is why Germans tend to tell it like it is.Germans tend to guard their personal space, therefore arms length distance is normal.Although this is changing in the younger population, it is traditional to address someone by a title or surname, unless you are a family member or friend, then you use the first name of a person.
27GreetingsIn Germany, when men meet men it is not much different then in the United States. They share a firm and brief handshake, while keeping eye contact.When it is two woman greeting they also shake hands and keep eye contact, if they are first meeting. If they are family or good friends kissing one another on both cheeks is likely.When it is a woman and a man meeting a regular handshake will suffice, if they are not familiar acquaintances. If they are familiar with one another a light hug will do or a kiss on one or both cheeks.
28Customs Meal Times: *Lunch time *Dinner Holidays and Traditions Neujahr (New Year)Karneval (Mardi Gras)Ostern (Easter)Reunification DayOktoberfestChristmasBirthdaysMeal Times:In Germany and in a German home there a definite eating hours. Everyone eats all of their meals with the family, and you should never be late because it is considered very rude.*Lunch time-Twelve is lunchtime for almost everyone in Germany. People all over Germany leave work at twelve to go home and eat with their families. Almost all shops and businesses close at around 12 and they don't reopen until about 1 or 2 pm.-Lunch is the bigger hot meal of the day (similar to dinner in America). After lunch it's the quiet hour.-This is the time that you can't play your radio very loud, and it's polite to hold off calling someone at this time.-German students usually use this time to do their homework, to study or to take a nap.*Dinner-In Germany dinner is a small light meal (similar to the American Lunch), and is eaten at different times in different families.-Dinner is something small like a baguette and other breads, with cheeses, (Jarlsberg, cream cheese, -and some French cheeses)ham, smoked sausages, and a salad.
29German Culture Food Manners for Eating: Spatzle (Egg Noodles)Kartoffelsalat (Potato Salad)Sachertorte (Chocolate-Apricot Cake)Gulaschsuppe (Goulash Soup)Zwiebelkuchen (Onion Pie)Bretzeln (Pretzels)Manners for Eating:You should always have both hands on the table or they should at least be visible.Your plate should always be virtually clean after you eat.If you leave something on your plate it is thought to mean that you didn't like the food.When you are finished with your meal, as a signal to everyone, the fork and knife are placed together, tips toward the middle of the plate and handles toward your right hand.
30The House Of the Wannsee Conference January 20, 1942“Fifteen men joined together to plan the implementation of the "Final Solution" against the Jews.”“The plan was to evacuate Jews from west to east. Supposedly, Jews were to be sent to the East to work in forced labor, though it was understood that "in the course of which action a great part will undoubtedly be eliminated by natural causes."“Within only an hour or hour and a half, the implementation of the Final Solution had been planned and the death sentence of millions passed down. “
31Current Berlin Mitte: Districts The Heart of Berlin *Berlin is the capital and the biggestcity of Germany.* It has a population of about 3.5 millionMitte:The Heart of Berlin
32Checkpoint CharlieCheckpoint Charlie was a checkpoint on the Berlin Wall that was used to enter West Berlin.Checkpoint Charlie was also the most famous checkpoint.The checkpoints on the Berlin wall got their names from the American Alphabet. The other checkpoints were called Alpha and Bravo.The checkpoint is located in Friedrichstadt neighborhood in the heart of Berlin.The main function of the wall was to register and inform members of the Western military forces before they entered East Berlin.Checkpoint Charlie was subject to many movies and appeared in many spy novels in the Cold War Era.In the early years that the checkpoint was erected, it was the sight of a few stand offs between the Americans and the Soviets.Checkpoint Charlie was removed I June of 1990, when the German reunification was complete.
33TODAY at Checkpoint Charlie Bricks trace the path of the Berlin Wall.There is a replica of the Checkpoint Charlie booth and a sign over the original site.
35Facts about the Castle Building started in 1869, ended 1892. Built as a retreat for King Ludwig II of Bavaria.Visitors can reach 6,000/day.No photography/video allowed inside.Castle contains modern elements (heat, running water, etc.)Located about 125km from Munich.Inspiration for the Disney Sleeping Beauty Castle.Guided tours lead visitors through the rooms.History:*Built by Kind Ludwig II.*Construction began in 1869Removal from Power:*Kings hallucinations*Bavarian law*mysterious death*Rooms completed by Kings death-14.
36Outline and Featuresa. Staircase Tower e. Hall i. Lower Courtyard b. Knights' House f. Entrance Hall j. Gateway Building c. Square Tower g. Palas k. Staircase Tower d. Connecting Building h. Upper Courtyard l Bower
37Through the Castle Throne Hall Doesn’t contain a throne. Designed after Byzantine churches.“Hall of the Holy Grail”
38Through the Castle Singer’s Hall Inspired by another hall used for a singer’s contest.Room stands as tribute to medieval knights and legends.
40The Black Forest Schwarzwald Location: Baden-Wurttemberg in southwestern GermanyElevation: 1,493 meters = ftWhich is the highest peak: FeldbergArea: 12,000 km² = 4,600 mi²Feldberg is the highest mountain in the Black Forest, and in Germany outside the Alps.Mostly pines and firs compose the Black forestRegions of the Black Forest has been damaged due to mass logging, which has reduced the forest to only a fraction of its original size.A storm in 1999, Lothar, down hundred of trees and left some of the high peaks and scenic hills bare with only shrubs and young firs
41Known for more than fairytale inspiration… Home of the cuckoo clockClocks have been made in the region since the early eighteenth century and much of their development occurred there.
42Known for more than fairytale inspiration… Black Forest Cake ('Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte') which literally means “Black Forest cherry torte.”consists of several layers of chocolate cake, with whipped cream and cherries between each layer. Then the cake is decorated with additional whipped cream, maraschino cherries, and chocolate shavings.Bollenhut: the traditional hats with enormous pompoms.They are particularly distinctive among Germany's traditional costumes. The hat is famous all over the world even though it was originally worn in only three parishes of the Black Forest region and on special occasions only
43Munich Night Life (Day 2,3, and 4) HofbräuhausThis famous pub is open to locals and tourist friendly! Its unique charm comes from the Bavarian music and the handful of regulars who gather at the bar. Beer and Schmankerl (roast pork with trimmings) complete the set up. In the summertime 'real' locals make for its wonderful courtyard, while the Festsaal room hosts a Bavarian evening with music every nightCost for Admission: EUR 4.50Cost for Main Meals: EUR 10-15Cost for Small Meals: EUR 4.45Cost of a Liter of Beer: EUR 5.70Atomic Cafe A small nightclub right in the city centre (mainly frequented by students). Comfy sofas next to the dance floor make for a cozy and unpretentious atmosphere for tourists.Fast Food TheaterThis restaurant does not serve fast food at all, but you had better eat within the 90 minutes between admission and the start of the performance in order not to miss any detail of the exciting program! Acts include: stand-up comedy and improvisation theatre. Beware, because they are known to put tourists on the spot for an unforgettable night!
44What is the Glockenspiel? (Day 3) It is a gigantic clock located in Marienplatz at the heart of Munich. It consists of 43 bells and 32 life-size figures. Every day at 11 a.m. (as well as 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. in summer) it chimes and re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds. The whole show lasts somewhere between 12 and 15 minutes long depending on which tune it plays that day. At the very end a very small golden bird at the top of the Glockenspiel chirps three times, marking the end of the spectacle.
48NuremburgNuremburg Virtual TourNuremburg Virtual Tour 2
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