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Chapter 5: An Industrial Nation

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1 Chapter 5: An Industrial Nation
In the 60 years following the civil war, the U.S. became the world’s leading industrial nation. New inventions drove a second industrial revolution, in which new systems of transportation and communication transformed American life. Economic opportunity drew millions of immigrants and the United States expanded its territories westward.

2 Section 1: Main Idea: As Native Americans gradually lost their battle for their lands in the West settlers brought new enterprises-mining, ranching, and farming.

3 Bell Ringer What would you do to save your culture?
Moved from their land and their homes and deprived of the Buffalo that were the center of their lifestyle, Native Americans saw their traditional cultures dying out. A note of hope came from a Paiute shaman named Wovoka, who said he saw a vision in which he spoke to God. Wovoka told Native Americans that if they did not lie or steal or go to war, and if they performed the Ghost Dance for five days in a row, a messiah would come and save them. The Ghost Dance gave Native Americans hope, but for some, it led to tragedy.

4 Conflicts with Native Americans
Plains Indians in the mid-west thrived due to their reliance on wild buffalo, which provided food, clothing, tools and shelter; did not believe land should be bought or sold. White settlers believed that land should be divided & claims given to people to farm or establish businesses; if Native Americans did not settle in one place, lands were available for the taking

5 Government Policies Before this time, U.S. Army had forcible removed Native Americans & relocated them in the west Current policy, Native American land was seized and Native Americans were sent to reservations Most Americans agreed with this policy to deal with Native Americans

6 The Indian Wars Tensions between plains indians, settlers, and the army began to increase Sand Creek Massacre of 1864 U.S. Army convinced a group of Cheyenne to stop raiding farms and return to their Colorado reservation peacefully On their way, U.S. Army attacked killing 150 Native Americans

7 Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876
Government ordered all Sioux to leave North Dakota Large group of Native Americans including Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho led by Chief Sitting Bull gathered near the Little Bighorn River Army General George Armstrong Custer led an attack, Custer and his men were slaughtered Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 Army troops captured some of Sitting Bulls followers Army used machine guns to kill 300 Sioux men, women, children

8 Resistance Ends in then West
In 1877, Government ordered the Nez Perce to move to a smaller reservation in Idaho On the way, a few angry Native Americans killed several white settlers Nez Perce and their leader, Chief Joseph fled toward Canada When they finally surrendered, Chief Joseph stated he would resist no longer In the Southwest, Army moved the Apache to a reservation in Arizona Apache leader, Geronimo fled the reservation and led raids for years until their capture

9 Reading Focus Question #1
How did changing government policies lead to conflicts with Native Americans in the West? As the government began to seize lands that had been home to Native Americans and force them onto reservations, native groups fought back.

10 Reservation Life Goal of reservations: Americanization, abandoning the traditional Native American culture and lifestyle and forcing Native to live like white settlers Bureau of Indian Affairs, the government organization that managed reservations set up schools for Native American children Children had to speak English and could not wear traditional clothing The Dawes Act of 1887 broke up some reservations and gave land to individuals Typically, government sold the best land and left the rest for the Native Americans

11 Mining and Ranching In 1859, prospectors found silver mines in the Nevada Territory Yielded $500 million worth of silver over the next 20 years 1896 was the last major gold strike at the Canada-Alaska border That year 100,000 Americans made the trip to the Yukon territory in search of gold

12 Mining Communities Most prospectors were men
Came from the U.S. and other countries Started out as simple camps of tents or shacks, but grew into towns with dirt roads, wooden sidewalks, stores, and saloons Eventually, schools, churches and newspapers developed

13 Mining as business At first, miners worked individually with hand tools After surface gold was depleted machinery was needed to mine goal Miners then went to work for mining companies Dug mine shafts, built tunnels, and drilled out ore Work was dangerous with threats of cave-ins, explosions, and floods Workers occasionally tried to organize for better working conditions, but mining companies resisted

14 Ranching on the Plains Cattle ranching became a new industry in the great plains First cattle ranchers were the Spanish, then the Mexicans Ranchers interbred the Spanish and English cattle to produce the Texas Longhorn which were hardy, did not need much water, and could live on grass alone Spanish also brought sheep ranching to the plains Cattle and sheep ranchers often clashed for control of the land

15 Cattle Drives Demand for beef began to increase after the civil war due to population increase A steer worth $4 in Texas was worth $40 in the east so ranchers began to hire cattle herders to move herds of cattle east to towns with railroads where they could be shipped to meat packing plants in places like Chicago Major cattle trails began to develop such as the Chisholm Trail, which ran from San Antonio to Kansas Cattle drives usually lasted about 3 months, cattle travelled miles per day First cowboys were year old boys

16 Reading Focus Question #2
How did mining and ranching influence the development of the west? Mining camps grew into communities; large-scale companies provided jobs; cattle ranching grew into big business

17 Farmers on the Great Plains
Initially the Great Plains were considered unfit for habitation In 1862 ,Congress passed the Homestead Act, which allowed any head of household over age 21 to claim 160 acres of land Each homesteader was required to build a house on the land, make improvements on the land, and farm it for 5 years before receiving full ownership In the Pacific Railway Act government gave millions of acres to railroad companies to build railroads and telegraph lines The Morrill Act, gave states land to build colleges to teach agriculture and mechanic arts & was the 1st federal government assistance for higher education

18 The Oklahoma Land Rush In 1879m a lobbyists discovered 2 million unclaimed acres that had not been assigned to any one nation In 1889, this land was opened to settlers ON April 22, 1889 settlers lined up on the Oklahoma border, at the signal, 50,000 people rushed into OK claiming land

19 The New Settlers Why did people go to Oklahoma? Push/Pull factors.
Push factors are reasons why people left their homes Pull factors are reasons why they settled in the west

20 African American Settlers
White Settlers Most were middle class farmers or business people who could afford supplies and transportation African American Settlers Most left because of discrimination, Black codes, and violence in the south European Settlers Were attracted by economic opportunity Chinese Settlers Had relocated west for the gold rush or to work on railroads Laws barred Asians from owning land so most became workers not owners

21 Challenges and Solutions
Climate was harsh with bitter cold weather, high winds, and snow. Summers were hot and water was scarce Most families depend on wells powered by windmills Some settlers learned irrigation techniques from Hispanic and North Americans Wood for houses was scarce so homes were initially dugout of hills, homes were eventually built from blocks of soil

22 New technology included plows with sharper edges, combine harvesters that cut wheat and seperated grains Large companies started bonanza farms with expensive machinery, professional managers, and workers In 1890 the U.S. census bureau issued a momentous report that declared the frontier closed

23 Reading Focus Question #3
What opportunities and challenges did farmers face on the Great Plains? Land was available, but conditions were harsh and water was scarce. New technologies helped, and railroads took porduce to eastern markets

24 Section 2: Main Idea: During the late 1800’s, new technology and inventions led to the growth of industry, the rise of big business, and revolutions in transportation and communication.

25 Bell Ringer How did oil fuel the Second Industrial Revolution?
Seeking a new source for oil- which was refined into kerosene to light lamps, Edwin L. Drake drilled into rock in Pennsylvania, hit a deep crevice, and saw oil seep to the surface. Drake had drilled the first commercial oil well. The discovery inspired efforts to find oil in other places. Some oil prospectors, known as wildcatters, found oil at Spindletop Hill in Texas. That site produced 17 million barrels of oil in 1902 before production slowed. Though short-lived, the Texas oil boom changed the nation, giving a start to major oil companies that would refine crude oil into gasoline and other products and transform transportation and industry.

26 Review Questions: What was oil used for during the time that Edwin Drake drilled the first commercial oil well? The discovery of oil at Spindletop Hill set off an oil boom in which state?

27 Making Steel Bessemer process made steel making cheaper and easier in the 1850’s By 1910 the U.S. was the world’s top producer of steel in the world Was used to make railroads, higher bridges, and taller buildings Made newer more productive machinery Was cheap enough to make it practical for everyday items such as nails and wire

28 Railroads Expand Between , the miles of railroad tracks jumped fivefold Expansion was helped by federal grants of land and cheap steel Congress authorized2 companies to build railways west For 6 years the 2 companies competed to complete the first transcontinental railroad Union Pacific built from Omaha, NE west while Central Pacific built from the west coast eastward Which group faced more challenges? On May 10, 1869 two groups met in Utah Territory connecting the two railroads to form one continuous rail

29 Effects of railroads Promoted trade and provided jobs
Sped up the settlement of the west Led to the adoption of standard time Until then, people kept time according to the position of the sun but running a railroad required accurate timekeeping A New York School Principal suggested Standard Time Zones In 1918, Congress adopted standard time zones

30 Reading Focus Question #1
How did industry and railroads lead to the Second Industrial Revolution? Factories equipped with steel could produce more manufactured goods; railroads promoted trade and provided jobs

31 The Rise of Big Business
Big Business prospered in the late 1800’s because of entrepreneurs, people who assume economic risks to start new businesses Capitalism, or free enterprise, a system in which businesses are privately owned Laissez-Faire Capitalism, free enterprise system in which companies operate without government intervention Under this system there are huge inequalities

32 An attempt to explain the inequalities of Capitalism was Social Darwinism
Based on Charles Darwin’s idea of Survival of the fittest Stronger members adapt to the environment and will survive, while weaker members will gradually die out

33 New Business Organizations
Corporations, businesses with the legal statues of an individual began during this time Are owned by people who buy shares or stock in a company Board of directors makes decisions, while corporate officers run day to day operations Can raise money for their company by selling stock Due to competition, some companies merged to form a trust When a trust gained total control over an industry, it held a monopoly

34 Industrial Tycoons Cornelius Vanderbilt John D. Rockefeller
Began investing in railroads and made a fortune John D. Rockefeller Owned Standard Oil, an oil refinery Also purchased companies that would assist his oil business such as pipelines and railways (vertical integration) Also took over other competing companies (horizontal integration) Gave away huge amounts of money to charities

35 George Pullman Andrew Carnegie
Made his fortune making railway cars that were sleeper cars making travel more comfortable Andrew Carnegie Was a poor Scottish Immigrant who came to the U.S. at age 12 Worked for PA Railroad Began to invest, then began purchasing his own steel company Devoted his time and fortune to building public libraries and financing education

36 Mass Marketing To increase sales, manufacturers tried to increase sales through marketing techniques, clever names, and advertisements This was also the start of department stores where you could buy many different types of products in one place instead of travelling from store to store In rural areas, people could purchase the same goods from catalogs

37 Reading Focus Question #2
How did entrepreneurs and public attitudes help the rise of big business in the late 1800s? Entrepreneurs were willing to risk large sums of money in ventures, and many felt that fierce competition was perfectly natural

38 Workers Organize Most industrial workers were making less than $500 per year, while business owners got richer Government began to get concerned about the growing power of corporations, so they passed the Sherman Antitrust Act which made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade

39 The American Workforce
Factory workers included Europeans, rural Americans and children Worked 12 to 16 hours per day, no paid vacation, sick leave, or compensation for injuries 1/6 of kids age held a job African Americans were generally hired as household help By late 1800’s workers began to organize 1st Labor Union: Knights of Labor in Philadelphia Included unskilled workers, women, and African Americans Worked for 8 hour workday, end of child labor, and equal pay

40 Reading Focus Question #3
What conditions prompted workers to organize in the late 1800s? Low wages, long hours, unsafe working conditions, no benefits

41 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Railroad workers protested cuts in wages, & blocked the movement of trains Led to numerous deaths Was ended by the Army Haymarket Riot of 1886 1,500 different strikes over wage cuts Workers gathered in Haymarket Square in Chicago 11 people died, hundreds were injured 8 union members with foreign sounding names were blamed, tried, and 4 were hanged.

42 Setbacks for Organized Labor
Employers forced employees to sign papers that they wouldn’t join unions; blacklisted union members In 1866 Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Workers Successfully won wage increases and shorter work weeks Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh seized the plant 16 people ended up dead after a 14 hour battle

43 Pullman Company laid off 1/3 of its workforce & cut the wages of the rest
Workers went on strike Government ordered union to call off the strike b/c it interfered with delivering the mail Federal troops responded and the strike collapsed Workers who took part in the strike were fired or blacklisted

44 Advances in Transportation
Streetcars By the 1830’s horsecars and streetcars were pulling along the streets carrying large numbers of people along established routes Cable cars were soon developed which latched onto a moving cable underground By 1900, most cities had electric streetcars or trolleys pulled by overhead electrical wires Subways Boston opened the 1st subway in 1897 to overcome crowding on city streets

45 Automobiles Airplanes
In 1893, Charles and Frank Duryea built the first practical American Motorcar First cars were only owned by the wealthy Airplanes In 1903, Frank and Orville Wright built the first successful airplane which flew in Kittyhawk North Carolina

46 A Communications Revolution
Telegraph Invented by Samuel Morse Could send messages by tapping out patterns of long and short signals over electric wires Wires were strung along train tracks Became the fastest way to send messages Telephone Invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 Typewriter Invented in 1867 by Christopher Lantham Could produce readable documents quickly Opened up a major job opportunity for women

47 Thomas Edison One of America’s most amazing inventors
Opened his own research laboratory in New Jersey Invented the first phonograph (record player), safe electric light bulb, and a lighting system powered by his own power plant Later invented the motion picture camera and projector

48 Reading Focus Question #3
What advances in transportation and communication were made in the late 1800s? Streetcars, subways, automobiles, telegraph, telephone, and typewriter

49 Section 3: Main Idea: A new wave of immigrants came to America in the late 1800s and settled in rapidly changing cities where political corruption was common and minorities faced discrimination

50 Bell Ringer What was it like to move to the United States during the turn of the century? For millions of southern and eastern Europeans, America meant hope for a new home and a better life. In American cities, immigrants tended to settle near others from their home countries, and families from the same town sometimes moved to the same street. Living conditions could be difficult, but immigrants banded together to help each other and to maintain their familiar cultural traditions. In New York, Mulberry Street became the center of the Italian community which still survives today.

51 Review Questions: Why did millions of Europeans move to the United States at the turn of the twentieth century? Why do you think immigrants would have wanted to maintain some of their cultural traditions after leaving Europe?

52 New Immigrants Native Americans are the only group who did not come to the U.S. from somewhere else “Old Immigrants” were from northern and western Europe Between 1880 and 1910 there were 18 million new immigrants By 1910, 1 of every 7 Americans was foreign born Most came from Southern and Eastern Europe (Greece, Italy, Poland, and Russia) Also were diverse in religion (Catholic, Orthodox, and Jewish

53 Coming to America Reasons why immigrants came to U.S.
Jewish people cane from Russia to escape religious persecution Many left Southern and Eastern Europe to escape poverty and little economic opportunity In 1892 U.S. Government opened an immigration station on Ellis Island in New York Doctors scanned each immigrant for signs of serious disease or injury

54 Immigrants faced many hardships
After 1910, immigrants from Asia passed through Angel island, an immigration station in San Francisco Because of discrimination, many Chinese immigrants were held in prison-like conditions for weeks or months to await a decision whether or not they could stay Immigrants faced many hardships Lived in tenements and took low-paying unskilled jobs Most settled near other immigrants from their own countries with the same language and culture Established churches and synagogues, formed organizations to help other immigrants with money, jobs, healthcare, and education

55 Reading Focus Question #1
Who were the new immigrants of the late 1800s and what challenges did they face? Most from southern and eastern Europe; a few from East Asia; faced discrimination; many took low wage jobs and lived in crowded tenements

56 Prejudice against immigrants
Native-born Americans “Nativists” saw immigrants as a threat and blamed them for social problems like crime and poverty Wanted all immigrants to pass a literacy test Congress passed this bill despite Woodrow Wilson’s veto West Coast, prejudice against Asians CA passes laws restricting Asians from holding certain jobs & living in certain places In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese exclusion act Banned immigration for 10 years and barred Chinese immigrants from becoming citizens

57 Urban Life in America As cities built up, there was less buildable space Architects began to build taller buildings with steel frames Also worried about the lack of “green space” so city planners began to plan for parks in cities

58 How different classes lived
Wealthy Made their money in industry and business Built houses that resembled castles & Italian palaces Middle Class Made up of corporate employees such as accountants, managers, teachers, lawyers, & doctors Working Class Earned low wages, lived in rundown tenements, or rundown apartments Environment was unhealthy, (lack of ventilation and light) Tenements had no running water or plumbing Neightborhoods were filled with trash and raw sewage

59 Reading Focus Question #2
What was urban life like at the turn of the twentieth century? Upper class flaunted wealth, occupational standards forming, poor lived in tenements, paid low wages

60 The Settlement House Movement
In 1883 London reformers founded the first settlement house, a place where volunteers offered immigrants services such as Language education, job training, clubs, and sports Jane Addams founded the first settlement house in the U.S. in Chicago called the Hull House Most settlement house workers were college-educated women Came out of the idea of Social Gospel, the idea that faith should be expressed through good works

61 Political Scandal and Reform
American cities had problems such as crime, bad housing, and poor sanitation Machine bosses won support by giving people jobs or helping families Using their positions to gain money, accepting bribes in exchange for city contracts

62 Scandal in Government Ulysses S. Grant became President in 1869
His presidency was marred by scandals In 1880, Reformer James A. Garfield became President Was assassinated Chester Arthur became President Chester Arthur helped pass Pendelton Civil Service Act, which required that promotions be based on merit, not political connections

63 Reading Focus Question #3
How did political scandals lead to reform in the late 1800s? Political machine bosses were convicted and sent to prison and sent to prison; Pendelton Civil Services Act required jobs to be awarded based on merit

64 Farmers Reform Movements
Times were difficult for farmers Crop prices were falling Farmers were in debt Organized to persuade legislatures to regulate railroad rates Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 which called for Reasonable Railroad Rates

65 Silver versus gold Farmer’s Alliance group wanted the government to print more money Believed farmers could charge more for goods if there was more money in circulation Money was originally redeemable for either gold or silver In 1873, Congress put the U.S. on the gold standard meaning paper money could only be redeemed for gold This reduced the amount of money in circulation and hurt farmers, farmers wanted money to be backed by silver Created a political party called the Populist Party

66 Election of 1896 Silver was an issue in the election of 1896
Republicans supported the gold standard Democrats supported the silver standard Business leaders contributed millions of dollars to the Republican campaign and McKinley won the election

67 Legalized Discrimination
Whites tried to prevent African Americans from voting using poll taxes and literacy tests Most African Americans were too poor to pay the tax and had been denied the education to pay the tax Southern States passed Jim Crow Laws, laws to create and enforce segregation Examples: separate railroad cars for blacks and whites, segregated schools and public places

68 Lynching, murder of an individual by a group or individual
In 1890 Homer Plessy, an African American, sat in a whites only train car to test the law, He was arrested. In Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court upheld segregation and ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th amendment African Americans were expected to behave in a lower social position to whites in all situations Lynching, murder of an individual by a group or individual Nearly 900 African Americans were lynched

69 Opposing Discrimination
Booker T. Washington Believed African Americans needed to accept racism temporarily African Americans cold best improve their situation through acquiring skills Founded the Tuskegee Institute to teach African Americans skills W.E.B. Dubois Believed African Americans should strive for full rights immediately Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

70 Other groups face discrimination
Hispanic Americans Most Mexican-Americans were farmers, many had to take low paying jobs Many became stuck in jobs by a system called debt peonage, in which they could not leave their job until they paid debts they owed their employers Asian Americans Lived in segregated neighborhoods Laws were passed that made it illegal for whites and Asian Americans to marry Native Americans Had to face Americanization policies Had few economic opportunities on reservations

71 Reading Focus Question #4
What types of segregation and discrimination did African-Americans and other minorities encounter? Separate public facilities and schools, denied the right to vote; strict rules of behavior towards whites; lynching

72 CST Practice Questions
The development of which of the following products led to advances in the transportation industry in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s? Oil and steel Oil and cotton Coal and steel Cotton and steel

73 Answer The development of which of the following products led to advances in the transportation industry in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s? Oil and steel Oil and cotton Coal and steel Cotton and steel

74 What effect did industrialization have on working conditions in the United States in the 1800’s?
Workers enjoyed income equality across classes Laborers worked 8 hour days in well-paying jobs Employers paid benefits to workers such as vacation and sick time Workers labored long hours in poor conditions at low paying jobs

75 Answer What effect did industrialization have on working conditions in the United States in the 1800’s? Workers enjoyed income equality across classes Laborers worked 8 hour days in well-paying jobs Employers paid benefits to workers such as vacation and sick time Workers labored long hours in poor conditions at low paying jobs

76 CST Practice Questions
In the late 1800’s, the settlement house movement grew largely out of The Social Gospel Social Darwinism Political machines Conspicuous consumption

77 CTS Practice Question Unlike earlier immigrants, most immigrants who came to the United States in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s Did not pass through Ellis Island Came from Northern and Western Europe Came from Southern and Eastern Europe Settled in open areas where well paying jobs were plenitful

78 Answer: In the late 1800’s, the settlement house movement grew largely out of The Social Gospel Social Darwinism Political machines Conspicuous consumption

79 CST Practice Question Americanization refers to:
Programs designed to acculturate Native Americans Laws dissolving reservations and evicting Native Americans The policy of concentrating reservations away from American urban centers A plan to forcibly remove Native Americans from all land held by the United States

80 Answer: Americanization refers to:
Programs designed to acculturate Native Americans Laws dissolving reservations and evicting Native Americans The policy of concentrating reservations away from American urban centers A plan to forcibly remove Native Americans from all land held by the United States

81 CST Practice Question Corporate trusts and monopolies such as John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil, were extensions of business practices grounded in Philanthropy Mass marketing Laissez-faire capitalism Governmental regulation

82 Answer: Corporate trusts and monopolies such as John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil, were extensions of business practices grounded in Philanthropy Mass marketing Laissez-faire capitalism Governmental regulation

83 CST Practice Question Social Darwinists and the Social Gospel Movement
Worked together to address societies problems Began as responses to the settlement house movement Held conflicting views on society’s obligations to the poor Required different forms of service in fulfilling obligations

84 Answer: Social Darwinists and the Social Gospel Movement
Worked together to address societies problems Began as responses to the settlement house movement Held conflicting views on society’s obligations to the poor Required different forms of service in fulfilling obligations


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