Point of View First Person Second Person Third Limited Third Omniscient
First Person Point of View Being told by a character in the story. Uses first person pronouns such as I and me. Tells the reader only what he/she thinks and experiences.
1 st Person POV Example Oh, man! Just as I was finally dozing off, he starts playing that stupid saxophone. Ive already been fired from one job because I fell asleep on the night shift. Now its going to happen again. I dont know which sounds worse, that tone-deaf saxophonist or that yowling dog. Im going to call the police.
Second Person Point-of- View The second-person point of view is commonly used in step-by-step instructions. Explains how to do or make something. Example "Put on your jeans and look in the mirror. With the pen, mark one leg an eyeballed two inches above the knee if you want Bermuda shorts, four inches above the knee for short shorts. Take off the jeans, lay them flat on a table, and cut off the leg even with the mark. Don't worry if your cutting is a little crooked. You can correct it later."
Third Person Limited Point-of-View The narrator gives one characters thoughts and reactions. Uses third person pronouns – he, she, they Tells little about other characters.
3 rd Person Limited POV Example He found a good spot in front of Park View Apartments and started playing soulfully on his sax. He wanted an audience and needed money. After one song, he spotted a cute girl at a window, applauding madly. A dog howled with the music, but the sax player let him stay, hoping the dog might attract some donations. Then he heard a man yelling about calling the policeclearly not a music lover.
Third Person Omniscient Point-of-View NOT a character in the story. Knows ALL the characters thoughts and reactions. Can tells us everything about every character.
3 rd Person Omniscient POV Example One day a young woman looked out her apartment window and saw a man playing a saxophone. Cool, she thought as she swayed to his tune. A big brown dog joined the man and howled along with the music. Then a man in pajamas yelled from another window, complaining that the noise woke him up and he was going to call the police. This man, who worked the night shift and had to sleep all day, liked cats better than dogs anyway. The young saxophonist left.
Limited vs Omniscient Limited POV The narrator only focuses or knows about ONE character. Only knows the thoughts and reactions of one character. Look for he, she, they… Omniscient The narrator knows about ALL the characters in the story. Knows the thoughts and actions of more than one character.
Theme The message or lesson of the passage. NOT what the story is about. Examples: The theme of The Landlady was dont be fooled by appearances. The theme of Flowers for Algernon was intelligence doesnt always make one happy. Example Question: What is one theme that relates to two different passages?
Setting The TIME and/or LOCATION of a story. Can be a place (city, house, boat) or a time (years, days, months). Examples: The setting of The Escape was over 60 or more years ago in a prison cell. The setting of The Monkeys Paw was the Whites house in the 1800s.
Dialogue The words that characters speak aloud are called dialogue. Lets the reader know about the characters: Qualities Personality Traits Reactions to other characters
Dialogue Example After reading a passage you will be asked, Which line of dialogue demonstrates the relationship between Holmes and Watson? I am afraid, my dear Watson, that most of your conclusions were erroneous.
Situational Irony Occurs when a character or the reader expects one thing to happen but something entirely different takes place. Be able to identify situational irony in a passage. Example: In The Landlady, Billy thinks the old lady is a sweet and kind old lady but in the end she is the exact opposite and is a crazy murderer.
Summary Being able to recall the main ideas of a piece of writing in a persons own words, while omitting (getting rid of) unimportant details. Being able to retell or paraphrase something you just read. Question on final: What is the BEST summary of the passage?
Context Clues Hints of suggestions that may surround unfamiliar words or phrases and clarify their meaning. If you dont know what something means use the words or sentence to figure it out. Can be a: Definition, synonym, an example, a comparison/contrast, or any other expression that enables readers to infer the words meaning.
Context Clues Example Well, Watson, what do you make of our visitor s stick? Let me hear you reconstruct the man by an examination of it. T he author uses the word reconstruct to suggest Watson should: A. form a mental picture of the doctor B. build a sculpture of the doctor C. use wood to make a new stick D. look outside to find the doctor
Supporting Details B e able to go back into a text/reading passage and find supporting details that describe a character. E xample Question: C harlie (Flowers for Algernon) would BEST be described as: A. mean B. lazy C. motivated D. arrogant W hat details from the story support this? C harlie did everything the Doctors told him - he kept journals, he raced Algernon, and he came in for his weekly visits.
Which of the following details from the passage BEST supports the idea that Narcissus found himself to be very beautiful? When you see questions like this you have to go back into the reading passage and look for details that support your answer. Look for details that explains how Narcissus describes himself to be beautiful. *Hint look for the word beautiful being used in the reading passage.
Analogy A comparison between two dissimilar/unlike things. An author uses an analogy to help the reader become more familiar with the less familiar object. On the final you will be asked about an analogy between a character and an object. Think about what the two objects have in common.
Main Idea The most important point that a writer wishes to express. The central idea of a piece of writing. The main point of a reading passage. Example Question: What is the main idea of paragraph 4? Go back to paragraph 4 RE-READ then figure out the main idea of THAT PARAGRAPH!
Theme vs Main Idea Theme The lesson learned from the passage. A message from the passage. Example: Monkeys Paw You can not control your fate. Main Idea What the passage is about. Tells what happens in the story. Example: Monkeys Paw The White family was given a Monkeys Paw which granted them three wishes. The outcome of their wishes was not good.
Rising Action Refers to events in the story that keep the story moving forward. The rising action builds events up to the climax.
How is one character similar to another character? Be able to compare characters from one reading passage to another. What qualities or characteristics do they have that are similar? Example Question: Marco is most similar to which character from the previous passage?
Thesaurus A reference used to find synonyms for different words. If you were writing an essay and kept using the word valuable over and over you would use a thesaurus to look up other synonyms for the word valuable.
Dictionary A reference used to determine the correct spelling of a word. If you did not know how to spell the word valuable you would use a dictionary to find out how.
Which sentence is correct? If your grandma made cookies, it is a good thing! If your grandma making cookies, it would be a good thing! If your grandma makes cookies, it is a good thing? If your grandma make cookies, it will be a good thing.
Which sentence is correct? Im telling you; she can burn water. Im telling you, but she can burn water. Im telling you, so she can burn water. Im telling you? She can burn water!
Which sentence is correct? Whats the matter with you. she asked Whats the mater with you! she asked. Whats the matter with you? she asked. Whats the matter with you she asked.
Which sentence is correct? H e had drawn when he was five years old the pictures. H e had drawn the pictures when he was five years old. T he pictures were drawn by him when he was five years old. W hen he was five years old, the pictures had been drawn by him.
I f Colin felt any smaller at that moment, he would be disappearing. I f Colin had felt any smaller at that moment, he would have disappeared. I f Colin was feeling any smaller at that moment, he would have disappeared. I f Colin were feeling any smaller at that moment he will disappear.
A ll wearing helmets cyclists should travel around the city. W hen wearing helmets, traveling around the city, all cyclists. A ll cyclist should wear helmets when traveling around the city. W hen wearing helmets all cyclists, travel around the city.
C ars pass by cyclists while they are biking. W hile biking passed by cars are cyclists. W hile biking, cars are passed by cyclists. C ars, while biking, pass by cyclists.
T his is one way protect the bikes from theft. T his is one way to protect the bikes from theft. T his is one way protected the bikes from theft. T his is one way have protected the bikes from theft.
Active Sentences In an active sentence the subject is performing the action. Look for the subject doing something in the sentence.
Which sentence is ACTIVE? T he tray was pulled out of the oven by her and the oven mitts were also pulled on. T he oven mitts were slipped on by her, then the tray was pulled out of the oven. S he slipped on two oven mitts and pulled the tray out of the oven. O ut of the oven, the tray was pulled by her and her oven mitts.
Imperative Sentences A sentence that starts with a verb. Often times the sentence is a command.
Which sentence is imperative? S he was visiting Colin for the first time. I t was covered with crayon drawings. Thats really mean. Stop that, Colin.
Infinitives An infinitive is to + a verb. Examples: I want to run to the high school and back for my exercise today. I want to shop early, so Im going to bed right now.
Gerund A verb used like a noun ending in –ing. Example: Running is not fun but I do it for exercise. Shopping is exhausting but fun.