Presentation on theme: "Urbanization Increase in the number of cities and the people living in them."— Presentation transcript:
1UrbanizationIncrease in the number of cities and the people living in them
2Advantages of Cities Job opportunities. Opportunities for women. Money Advantages of Cities Job opportunities? Opportunities for women? Money? Education? Entertainment? What is rural-to-urban migration?JOBS: Factories & service industriesWOMEN: Women’s opportunities increasedDomestic servants, teachers, secretariesMONEY: Saving money – Why?EDUCATION: Education for childrenENTERTAINMENT: Theaters, social clubs, museumsRURAL-to-URBAN MIGRATION: Farmers/Rural Americans move to cities
3Cities grew rapidly Terrible Conditions GROWTH OF URBANIZATION near raw materialsindustrial areastransportation routes.Opportunities in the job market.Terrible ConditionsPoor sanitary and living conditionsTenement apartmentsSweathouses
4Migration from Country to Cities Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to citiesMany African Americans in South lose their livelihood1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violenceFind segregation, discrimination in North tooCompetition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tensionThe move to factory work was hard on farmers because they now had to face a boss’s restrictions and rules and be confined to a factory and not be outdoors.
5Urban Technological Improvements Key inventions. Inventors Urban Technological Improvements Key inventions? Inventors? What problems did they solve?Skyscrapers (overcrowding)Safety Elevator (Elisha Otis)Electric streetcars (cleaner, quieter)Subways (overcrowding)
6Engineers Build Skyward Skyscrapers = 10 story and taller buildings that had steel frames.Provided office space for cities that had no more room left on the ground.Elisha Otis = Developed safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke.The American Institute of Architecture-1857Required education and licensing to become and architect.Built schools, libraries, train stations, residents and office buildings.
7Electricity and Mass Transit Electric street cars were reliable and could carry more people than horse carts.Electric cable cars did have problems:The cables used to run the cars could block fire trucks, and traffic congestion blocked them from running on schedule.Boston = first subway system in NYC followed in 1904.Growth of suburbs for those who could afford transit fares away from the city.
8Issues of Urban Living Major problems. What are tenements Issues of Urban Living Major problems? What are tenements? What were the living conditions?MAJOR PROBLEMS: Overcrowding, poverty, poor sanitationTENEMENTS: Low-cost, multi-family housingLIVING CONDITIONS: Poor water quality, potential for fire, overcrowdingOTHER PROBLEMS: Dangerous streets, crime, tension between urban groups (gangs)
9THE EXPANDING CITY AND ITS PROBLEMS Urban problemsHousingPublic healthCrimeImmoralityExpansion of industry was main cause of urban growth1890: one person in three lived in a city1910: nearly one in twoIncreasing proportion of urban population was immigrants
10Housing ConditionsTenements = Low cost multifamily housing designed to fit in as many families as possible.Tenements were not clean, had little windows, poor ventilation, and were dangerous.
11TEEMING TENEMENTSAs cities grew, sewer and water facilities could not keep upFire protection became increasingly inadequateGarbage piled up in streetsStreets crumbled under increased trafficHousing was inadequate and encouraged disease and disintegration of family lifeFAMILY IN ATTIC WITH DRYING LAUNDRY,Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection
12Water and Sanitation Water Sanitation 1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rareFiltration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908SanitationStreets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collectionContractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses often do not do job properlyBy 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments
13Fire and Crime Crime As population grows, thieves flourish Early police forces too small to be effectiveFireFire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heatersMost firefighters volunteers, not always available1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departmentsFire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer
14City Planners start to control growth As cities grew, architectural firms expanded to offer city planning services to make cities more functional and beautiful.Cities were zoned for different uses. (residential, industrial and financial)Parks, boulevards, buildings and electric street lights were a few of the new developments.Frederick Law Olmstead = Designed Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park, NYC’s Central Park, and similar parks in Detroit, Washington D.C., and California.
15These characteristics and issues of urbanization caused… … These cultural trends in America during the Gilded Age…
16Conspicuous Consumerism How did lifestyles change Conspicuous Consumerism How did lifestyles change? How available did goods become? What new amenities emerged?People buying more goods than ever (increase in consumerism)Purchasing goods for the purpose of impressing othersPeople are able to buy more than they ever have in the pastPeople now working for wages (instead of on farms)NEW AMENITIES: Department stores, advertising, mail-order catalogs
17Mass Culture Boom What is it. How was it spread Mass Culture Boom What is it? How was it spread? Who were some key people in it?WHAT?: Similar cultural patterns in a societySPREAD by transportation, communication, & advertisingWHO?: Literature criticized society – Mark Twain & Horatio AlgerCompulsory schools, increased literacy rateCollege for women and African Americans
18AdvertisingRowland H. Macy = opened one of the first department stores in N.Y. in 1858 and it became the largest in America.Methods used = advertising, goods organized into departments, and high quality goods for fair prices.New concepts at other stores = money back guarantee, newspaper advertisements, lower shipping rates, distinctive logos, and long distance shipping.
19Newspapers Helped create mass culture. Between newspapers increased from 600 to more than 1600.Joseph Pulitzer- The World and the Evening World.Believed it was his job to inform people and stir up controversy.Included comics, exposure of political corruption, sports and illustrations.William Randolph Hearst- Morning Journal. Competitor to Joseph Pulitzer.Special interest newspapers soon began to spring up in ethnic neighborhoods as well.
20Education Literacy rate rose to about 90% in 1900. More schools being built for children.Science, woodworking, drafting, civics, business training, English.John Dewey- new methods of teaching that allowed students to answer their own questions.Higher education institutions became specialized to train in urban careers.Teaching, social work, and nursing were some of the new careers.Led to an advancement in women’s colleges.
21New Entertainment What were the new types of entertainment New Entertainment What were the new types of entertainment? What event, shows, and spectator sports emerged?Amusement parks, performances, eventsTheatres, shows, motion pictures (Nickelodeons)Spectator sports – baseball, horse racing, boxing, football, basketball
22Amusement Parks 1884= First Roller Coaster (Lamarcus Thompson) First ride to open at Coney Island.Parks offered a new getaway for people who would otherwise go on a picnic for a daily adventure.