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Population 050 000100 000150 000200 000250 000 Tree Cover (percent) 15 20 25 30 35 40 Figure 30.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan.

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Presentation on theme: "Population 050 000100 000150 000200 000250 000 Tree Cover (percent) 15 20 25 30 35 40 Figure 30.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Tree Cover (percent) Figure 30.1 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

2 ForestGrasslandDesert Tree Cover (percent) ParkVacantResidential Commercial Industrial Tree Cover (percent) Forest Grassland Desert Ecoregion Figure 30.2 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

3 business buildings, shopping centers, parking lots Contour from 1 o C to 7 o C by 1 o C 4 October August Contour from 1 o C to 3 o C by 1 o C 3 1 km Legend detached houses and apartments Figure 30.3 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

4 Sky View Factor Population Maximum Urban-Rural Temperature Difference ( C) Europe North America Figure 30.4 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

5 Time of Day (hours) Air Temperature ( C) Rural (23.8 C) Urban (25.5 C) Mixing Ratio (g kg -1 ) Time of Day (hours) Rural (14.5 g kg -1 ) Urban (14.0 g kg -1 ) Figure 30.5 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

6 Population Average Urban-Rural Temperature Difference ( C) Daily mean Daily minimum Daily range Figure 30.6 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

7 S S L 858 W m W m -2 L L 300 W m -2 L 468 W m W m -2 E 209 W m -2 H 84 W m -2 H 70 W m -2 G 168 W m -2 G 447 W m -2 S 209 W m -2 S 300 W m W m -2 Field (1200 hours) Parking Lot (1200 hours) Air temperature 25 C T s 32 C T s 48 C Winds calm albedo: 0.25 R n : 461 W m -2 Bowen ratio (H/ E): 0.40 Evaporative fraction ( E/R n ): 0.45 albedo: 0.06 R n : 517 W m -2 Bowen ratio: - Evaporative fraction: 0 Figure 30.7 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

8 Energy Flux (W m -2 ) Bowen Ratio Net Radiation Sensible Heat Latent Heat Storage Bowen Ratio Rural Time Of Day (hours) Energy Flux (W m -2 ) Net Radiation Sensible Heat Latent Heat Storage Suburban - Rural Energy Flux (W m -2 ) Bowen Ratio Net Radiation Sensible Heat Latent Heat Storage Bowen Ratio Suburban Figure 30.8 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

9 Storage 12 W m -2 Latent Heat 187 W m -2 Sensible Heat 86 W m -2 Sensible Heat 129 W m -2 Latent Heat 101 W m -2 Storage 65 W m -2 Net Radiation 283 W m -2 Net Radiation 295 W m -2 Suburban: 25% building, 11% paved, 64% greenspace Rural: managed grassland albedo: 0.20 Bowen ratio (H/ E): 0.46 Evaporative fraction ( E/R n ): 0.66 albedo: 0.13 Bowen ratio: 1.28 Evaporative fraction: 0.34 Figure 30.9 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

10 wall sky wall road sky wall sky wall sky road Road view factors Wall view factors Building Height, H Street Width, W Building Height, H Street Width, W Building Height, H Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

11 Canyon H/W Ratio View Factor Sky Wall Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

12 Figure Roof Wall Canyon H/W Ratio Net Longwave Radiation (W m -2 ) Road Canyon Emissivity: Roof = 0.90 Road = 0.94 Wall = 0.85 Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

13 small wood lot 5-story building complex with paved courtyard (32 m 42 m) grass lawn Time of Day (hours) Air Temperature ( C) Time of Day (hours) Surface Temperature ( C) Courtyard Grass Woods Courtyard Grass Woods Figure court yard Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

14 Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

15 NW Residential Area Rock Creek Park Urban/Industrial Area East of Rock Creek 16th St Business Area Downtown Parks 2315 hours Air Temperature ( C) Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

16 Park Size (hectares) Urban-Park Temperature Difference ( C) Temperate Arid Tropical Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

17 Figure CBD IND RES RUR Vegetated Cover (%) H / E U1 U2 U3 S1 R1 R2R Vegetated Cover (%) H / R n Łódź Basel CBD IND RES RUR U1 U2 U3 S1 R1 R2 CBD IND RES RUR U1 U2 U3 S1 R2 R3 R H / W Ratio H / R n S1 CBD IND RES RUR U1 U2 U3 R2 R3 R H / W Ratio H / E Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

18 +5% 0% -5% +5% 0% -5% 0% -5% +5% +10% St. Louis North 40 km Contour from -5% to +15% by 5% +15% Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

19 SunMonTueWedThuFriSat Daily Precipitation (mm) Daily Mean CO+O 3 Index Precipitation CO+O 3 Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

20 Pervious Curve Number Composite Curve Number 30% impervious 0% to 100% unconnected 10% impervious Impervious Area (percent) Composite Curve Number CN 30 CN 40 CN 50 CN 60 CN 70 CN 80 CN 90 CN 98 Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

21 100 mm 87 mm 13 mm 50 mm 83 mm 17 mm 31 mm 69 mm ForestPasture ResidentialBusiness District CN=55CN=69 50% impervious CN pervious =61 CN composite =80 90% impervious CN pervious =61 CN composite =94 Figure Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan

22 Recurrence Interval (years) Impervious area = 20% 3 20 Impervious Area (percent) Recurrence Interval (years) Figure Urban-to-rural discharge ratio Ecological Climatology © 2008 G. Bonan


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