Presentation on theme: "Immigration & Urbanization Unit 4 USII 4b, d & e."— Presentation transcript:
Immigration & Urbanization Unit 4 USII 4b, d & e
Immigration and Urbanization How did urbanization and industrialization develop together? – Growth in urban populations from immigration provided a steady supply of labor to factories and a market for manufactured goods – Jobs in Cities attracted people from rural areas(emigrate) and other countries (immigration)
Immigration and Urbanization The growth of cities outpaced the ability of local governments – limited clean water, garbage collection, and sewage systems into poorer areas – so conditions in cities deteriorated.
Immigration & Urbanization Problems with city life High rents, low wages, poor services produced misery in the midst of unprecedented economic growth. Slums, poverty and disease – When the upper and middle class moved out of cities slums developed – Tenement Apartments could cram over 4,000 people into one city block – Overcrowding and waste disposal problems in tenement housing promoted the spread of diseases like cholera, typhoid, and tuberculosis
Immigration & Urbanization Cities were large, crowded, and impersonal places devoted to making money. Corruption was rampant – in city government – city services, – in the construction industry, – among landlords – employers.
Immigration & Urbanization Murder was rare in the nation in the late 19th century, but rates rose in cities. Robbery and theft were commonplace, Prostitution flourished more openly than before. Cheap newspapers exaggerated increases in crime with sensational stories. Professional police forces were created in the late 19th century to keep order and to protect property.
Immigration & Urbanization New forms of mass transportation made cities larger – streetcars allowed people to live many miles from their jobs and commercial areas – horse-drawn streetcars were being replaced with electric trolleys, elevated trains and subways – Mass transportation meant people could live farther from a cities commercial centers – Mass transit segregated workers by income – wealthy lived farther from the crime, pollution and poverty of the city – Development of middle and upper class suburbs outside the city
Immigration & Urbanization Skyscrapers Expensive land values in business districts led to the construction of taller buildings In 1885 William Le Baron Jenny built the first skyscraper with a steel frame, the ten story Home Insurance Company Building Innovations that made skyscrapers possible – Abundant steel – The Otis Elevator – Central steam-heating system that put radiators in every room
Immigration & Urbanization Settlement Houses Provided social services to people living in tenement neighborhoods – Taught English to immigrants – Provided daycare/early education – Job training – Neighborhood theaters and music schools HullHouse – The most famous settlement house – Founded by Jane Addams in 1889
Immigration & Urbanization Hull House offered – medical care, – child care – legal aid. – provided classes for immigrants to learn English, vocational skills, music, art and drama. In 1893 a severe depression rocked the country. Hull House was serving over two thousand people a week.
Immigration & Urbanization Jane Addams sits with immigrant children in the courtyard of Hull-House. Miss Addams was a leader in securing schooling for children.
Political Machines Political machines controlled the activities of political parties in the city. Ward bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to ensure that their candidates were elected and that city government worked to their advantage.
Role of the Political Boss The Boss (typically the mayor) controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court system. Precinct captains and ward bosses, often 1 st or 2 nd generation immigrants, helped new immigrants with jobs, housing, and naturalization in exchange for votes. Boss Tweed ran NYC