2Immigration and Urbanization How did urbanization and industrialization develop together?Growth in urban populations from immigration provided a steady supply of labor to factories and a market for manufactured goodsJobs in Cities attracted people from rural areas(emigrate) and other countries (immigration)
3Immigration and Urbanization The growth of cities outpaced the ability of local governmentslimited clean water, garbage collection, and sewage systems into poorer areasso conditions in cities deteriorated.
4Immigration & Urbanization Problems with city lifeHigh rents,low wages,poor services produced misery in the midst of unprecedented economic growth.Slums, poverty and diseaseWhen the upper and middle class moved out of cities slums developedTenement Apartments could cram over 4,000 people into one city blockOvercrowding and waste disposal problems in tenement housing promoted the spread of diseases like cholera, typhoid, and tuberculosis
5Immigration & Urbanization Cities were large, crowded, and impersonal places devoted to making money.Corruption was rampantin city governmentcity services,in the construction industry,among landlordsemployers.
6Immigration & Urbanization Murder was rare in the nation in the late 19th century, but rates rose in cities.Robbery and theft were commonplace,Prostitution flourished more openly than before.Cheap newspapers exaggerated increases in crime with sensational stories.Professional police forces were created in the late 19th century to keep order and to protect property.
7Immigration & Urbanization New forms of mass transportation made cities larger streetcars allowed people to live many miles from their jobs and commercial areas horse-drawn streetcars were being replaced with electric trolleys, elevated trains and subwaysMass transportation meant people could live farther from a cities’ commercial centersMass transit segregated workers by income wealthy lived farther from the crime, pollution and poverty of the cityDevelopment of middle and upper class suburbs outside the city
9Immigration & Urbanization Skyscrapers Expensive land values in business districts led to the construction of taller buildingsIn 1885 William Le Baron Jenny built the first skyscraper with a steel frame,the ten story Home Insurance Company BuildingInnovations that made skyscrapers possible Abundant steelThe Otis ElevatorCentral steam-heating system that put radiators in every room
11Immigration & Urbanization Settlement HousesProvided social services to people living in tenement neighborhoodsTaught English to immigrantsProvided daycare/early education Job trainingNeighborhood theaters and music schoolsHullHouseThe most famous settlement houseFounded by Jane Addams in 1889
13Immigration & Urbanization Hull House offeredmedical care,child carelegal aid.provided classes for immigrants to learn English, vocational skills, music, art and drama.In 1893 a severe depression rocked the country. Hull House was serving over two thousand people a week.
14Immigration & Urbanization Jane Addams sits with immigrant children in the courtyard of Hull-House. Miss Addams was a leader in securing schooling for children.
16Political MachinesPolitical machines controlled the activities of political parties in the city. Ward bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to ensure that their candidates were elected and that city government worked to their advantage.
17Role of the Political Boss The “Boss” (typically the mayor) controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court system. Precinct captains and ward bosses, often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants, helped new immigrants with jobs, housing, and naturalization in exchange for votes.Boss Tweed ran NYC