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Population and Culture

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1 Population and Culture
Russia Population and Culture

2 Ethnic Russians are part of a larger ethnic group known as Slavs.
Population Patterns The People Russia has grown from a small territory to an empire that stretches from Europe to the Pacific Ocean, and includes many different ethnic groups. During the Soviet era political boundaries reflected the locations of major ethnic groups. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia became an independent country. Although 32 ethnic groups have their own republics within Russia, 80 percent of the population is still ethnically Russian. Slavs Ethnic Russians are part of a larger ethnic group known as Slavs. A branch of Indo- European people that includes the Poles, Serbs and the Ukrainians Russia’s politics and culture have been dominated by Russian Slavs Caucasian This group earns its name because it lives in the Caucasus region of Russia. Includes the Chechens, Dagestanis, and Ingushetians Turkic Peoples This group lives in southwestern Russia, the Caucasus area and in the middle Volga area, however, most numerous are the Tatars. Most of the Tatars live in the Tatarstan region, an area that has been under Russian rule since the mid- 1550s. Another group are the Sakha, a combination of local groups and Turkic people.

3 Density and Distribution
The rich soil, waterways and mild climate of western Russia is home to 85 percent of all Russians. This area is also home to Russia’s major industrial cities East of the Ural Mountians, the population becomes much more dispersed. Siberia accounts for two- thirds of the regions land area, but only 15 percent of the population. Due the regions frozen tundra, mountains and forests Many ethnic Russians migrated to non- Russian republics of the Soviet Union during the early years of the Soviet era. However, since the fall of the Soviet Union this trend has reversed and many are returning. Many are moving to southwestern Russia. Culture Language and Religion Russian is the country’s official language, despite the more than 100 languages spoken there. Many non- Russians are bilingual, speaking there own ethnic language as well. During the Soviet era, the government discouraged against religious practices, instead actively promoted atheism.

4 Since the late 1980s the government has relaxed on its restrictions.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the region experience an influx of missionaries from Western Christians denominations Led by lawmakers to place restrictions that gave only Russian Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism Buddhism full liberty in Russia. Christianity Before the Communist Revolution in 1917, Eastern Orthodox Church had been central to Russian culture. The Orthodox religion was adopted by Prince Vladimir, leader of Kievan Rus, in 988. When the Byzantine Empire fell in 1453, Russia asserted itself as the leader of the Orthodox world. Today, most Russians religious affiliation is to the Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics and Protestants have also reemerged in the region Islam Islam has the second- largest following in Russia, with the majority living in the Caucasus region. Most follow the Sunni branch of Islam Judaism Jews have long been persecuted in Russia During czarist times, Jews could not settle in certain areas, could not own land and were even targets of massacres.

5 Also a small number who live in the large cities.
Many Jews migrated to Israel or the U.S. because of the tragic events that took a toll in the 20th century. Buddhism There are a large number of Buddhists that live in the areas near the Caspian Sea. Also a small number who live in the large cities. Education and Health Care Education in the Soviet Union was free, but it was also mandatory. The Soviet government put an emphasis on math, science and engineering. Produced technology- focused officials, who combined with prominent leaders to form the intellectual elite. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s curriculum was drastically altered. Now includes subjects like history, language and literature However, low budgets lead many teachers to abandon education. Because of the unstable economy students are more focused on making money, and not education. As Russia’s health care has worsened, the region has experienced a decline in demographics. This has led the life expectancy in Russia has dipped to 66 years. As infant mortality rates and death rates sore, Russia has experienced a period of negative population growth. Various other factors have affected the well- being of Russia’s people. Russia has a aging population, rising infertility and an increasing rate of infectious disease.

6 The Arts Art was often inspired by religion Churches had onion- shaped domes that symbolized heaven The focus changed to known religious themes in the early 1700s This happened when Peter the Great introduced European culture. From the early 1800s into the 1900s, Russia experienced a artistic golden age. Viktor Vasnetsov and Pyotr (Peter) Tchaikovsky are just a few of well known Russian artists. Other writers have made Russian literature famous. During the Soviet reign, the government limited artistic expressions, and forced artists to glorify government achievements in their work. Known as social realism, and those who did not follow were punished. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, activity in the arts renewed as government control loosened. Family Life and Leisure Living conditions are poor in Russia, and often have affect family life. Most families live in large apartments blocks that are usually very small Many newly married couples are forced to live with their parents Concerts, ballet and theater provide popular entertainment Sports are popular with all age groups Tennis, track and field, and ice hockey experience great success. Traditional religious holidays have reemerged since the fall of the Soviet Union.

7 History and Government

8 His realm is what eventually became Russia.
Early History Kievan Rus During the 800s, Scandinavian warriors settled near the Dnieper and Volga Rivers They eventually assimilated with the local Slavs, adapting there language and customs. These Slavic communities were eventually organized into a loose union of city- states. This united area became known as Kievan Rus, and was ruled by princes. The leading city- states was Kiev However, fighting amongst these city- states weakened the Kievan Rus. The Mongols invaded Kiev and other Slav territory in the early 1200s They controlled the area, but still allowed the Slavs to self- rule. The Rise of Russia Those Slavs who did not want to remain under Mongol control, fled and settled the Moskva River One of these settlements eventually grew into the city of Moscow, the center of the Muscovy territory. This area was linked to major trade route, and was surrounded by good land. This region was able to keep peace with the Mongols, but a peace that did not last. When Ivan III (later the Great”)came to Muscovy’s thrown, he united several Slavic territories under his control. His realm is what eventually became Russia. He built a huge fortress in Moscow, called the Kremlin, and filled the city with churches and palaces.

9 Ivan’s grandson, Ivan IV, became Russia’s first crowned czar in 1547.
He earned the title Ivan the Terrible by crushing opposition and expanded the realm into non- Slavic territory. Following the death of Ivan, Russia faced decline and invasion. In 1613, the Romanov dynasty came to power and tightened its grip on the people. By 1650, many peasants were lowered to the position of serfs. Romanov Czars and the Empire As Russia was left struggling, Europe continued to advance. Peter I was crowned czar with the hope of modernizing Russia. Under Peter, Russia grew in territory, developed a strong military and developed trade with western Europe. He acquired land along the Baltic Sea as a way to gain more seaports Peter established St. Petersburg as the new capital of Russia, giving Russia access to the west. Catherine the Great continued to expand the empire during the 1700s. Gained several warm water ports on the Black Sea. During the Romanov expansion, the non- Russians were brought under the Russian rule.

10 During this time a cultural gap developed between the nobility and the serfs.
In 1891, Russia began expanding into Siberia while under Czar Alexander III. Did this with the construction of the Trans- Siberian Railroad. Consists of nearly 6,000 miles, and connects Moscow to Vladivostok. Once opened up, the railroad opened up Russia’s interior. Revolution and Change The Russian Revolution When Czar Alexander II came to the throne he introduced limited reforms that led to many former serfs to move to the cities. When the government introduced the policy of Russification, people of non- Russian descent experience intense prejudice Those who refused were persecuted harshly As a result many Russian workers and thinkers turned to socialism. Karl Marx was one of the biggest proponents of this movement. Advocated for public ownership and an equal sharing of wealth. As discontent continued to grow, strikes and demonstrations broke out in the early 1900s. WWI forced many soldiers and workers to the street demanding bread and freedom. This forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne , bringing czarist rule to an end. This ended Europe’s last absolute rulers, and led to the rise of communism.

11 The Soviet Era The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin easily rose to power. This group believed in communism based off of Marx’s ideas It called for a violent overthrow of government, and the creation of a society led by workers. The Bolsheviks withdrew Russia from WWI, surrendering territory to Germany. They used their power to take over industry, control food distribution, and establish an eight hour work day. In 1922 the Bolsheviks won a civil war that broke out between the Bolshevik Red Army and the anti- Bolshevik White Army. After the victory, they established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union. Eventually regained Ukraine, Belarus and parts of the Caucasus region and Central Asia Joseph Stalin became the leader of the Communist Party following Lenin’s Death in 1924. Stalin turned the USSR into an industrial giant by taking control of farms and factories. He killed million, and millions more died from hunger, physical hardships or brutal conditions. A Super Power Following WWII, The USSR achieved superpower status. By 1949, most of Eastern Europe had become satellite countries of the Soviet Union.

12 For the next four decades the Soviet Union and the U. S
For the next four decades the Soviet Union and the U.S. struggled for world influence and power. Referred to as the Cold War, and pitted communism vs. capitalism. The two world powers used propaganda, the threat of force and aid to developing countries as weapons against each other. Movement for Change The Fall of the Soviet Union Various problems eventual led to the breakup of Soviet Union. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev rose to power in the Soviet Union, and instituted a policy of economic restructuring. Also implemented a policy of greater political openness. In 1989 many of the Soviet Unions satellite countries overthrew their Communist rulers, and by 1991 all the republics had declared their independence. 12 of these new countries became members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Only the three Baltic countries did not join. Boris Yeltsin was elected the first president of the new Russian republic. A New Russia This new Russia moved towards a market economy by closing factories and restructuring agriculture. This resulted in massive unemployment.

13 However, by 2000 the economy was on the mend, and inflation was falling.
When Vladimir Putin became president in 1999, he inherited a series of conflicts. Separatist movements and ethnic conflicts threatened Russian stability. Putin helped stabilize the economy by instituting reforms in labor, banking and private property. He also got Russia involved with NATO through the NATO- Russia Council.

14 The Economy

15 Changing Economies The Soviet Command Economy Under Communist leaders, the government made all key economic decisions. They owned everything and determined how much of each item to produce. Also controlled the pricing of goods and where they could be sold. Under this system unemployment was nearly nonexistent, however, wages were minimal. Many people could not afford goods needed for everyday use. Some of these could only be found on the black market. The Market Economy When Gorbachev came to power, he reduced some government controls, allowed small businesses and encouraged foreign investment. Yeltsin expanded this process. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin encouraged a change to privatization. This favored people who could afford to purchase large companies . However, many invested their profits outside the country. Through the 1990s, the economy experienced ups and downs. More goods were available, but many were too expensive to buy. The GDP fell and the Russian currency lost 71 percent of its value. When Putin came to office the country lacked a strong banking system, and the military needed improvements. Reforms to the budget, increase in the number of small businesses and a growing middle class created progress.

16 Economic Activities Agriculture During the time of the Soviet Union, farms were organized into Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes. The government controlled the prices and production in both systems. The system suffered because workers were not motivated by it. President Yeltsin began restructuring the farm system in order to help them function at a better rate. Many famers refused to adapt to the new system because they like the stability of the Soviet system. Many farmers could not afford to buy their own land. These concerns led progress to stall and production to fall. In 2002 a new land code was issued making it easier to buy or sell land. Industry Russia’s industry has began to rebound after it collapsed with the fall of the Soviet Union. Under Soviet control, aerospace and military industry were primary focus of the economy. In recent years these sectors have become privately owned. The Russian government has encouraged foreign investment by selling ownership to companies and opening its markets. Today, petroleum is Russia’s most important industry, and it ranks amongst the world’s leading producers.

17 Oil also provides Russia’s other industries with a vital source of energy.
Other major minerals include: manganese and nickel Russia produces one- fifth of the world’s wood because if the regions huge forests Transportation and Communications Transporting Goods The Vastness of the Russian territory, transportation systems must move products over great distances Many of the region’s roads are in very poor condition. Melting snow often makes many roads impassable. For most of its transportation needs, Russia depends on railroads and waterways. The Trans- Siberian Railroad is the world’s longest continuous rail line, and it links major cities and waterways. Pipelines are an effect way to transport petroleum, and provide many Russian cities with fuel. People in the republics of Chechnya and Dagestan are fighting for self-rule, jeopardizing these areas oil reserves and pipelines. Transporting People Public transportation is vital in Russia because most of the population lives in cities and do not own cars.

18 Since the 1990s private car ownerships has doubled, but public transportation is still important.
Many of these systems are in desperate need of repairs and improvements. Airplanes were used for passenger travel during the Soviet era, but high prices have caused many Russian airports to close. Mass Communication All mass communication systems were owned and controlled by the Soviet government. All print and broadcasting materials were reviewed However, since the fall of the Soviet Union there has been a rise in new voices and views Telecommunications has experienced a boom in recent years. Cell phone service has doubled, with now nearly 1/4th of the population owning one. Russia is above the world average in internet use. Trade and Interdependence Trade Energy and fuels account for over 50 percent of the country’s exports Energy is expected to remain the most important export for the Russian economy.

19 International Relations
Russia has become a member of the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the World Trade Organization as a way to strengthen industry International Relations Russia occupies the former Soviet Unions seat in the United Nations Security Council. Economic problems have drained the military despite Russia’s success internationally. International communities provide loans to Russia and make industry plausible. With this aid , Russia can create secure and workable systems.

20 People and Their Environment

21 Human Impact Nuclear Wastes The Soviet Union set off more than 600 nuclear explosions. Throughout the Cold War they developed and stockpiled weapons These weapons are still a concern for the international world. Another concern is Russia’s dumping of nuclear waste. The Soviets have placed some waste in storage facilities, while dumping the rest into the surrounding sea’s. Chernobyl Past and Present Tons of radioactive particles were leaked into the local environment after a fire broke out in the town of Chernobyl in 1986. Thousands of square miles of farmland and forests were exposed . Millions of people were exposed to deadly levels of radiation following the fire. This resulted in the death of thousands of people, and caused and drastic increase in cancer and other health conditions. Nearly 350,000 people were displaced from their homes. This accident led Soviet leaders to improve nuclear safety standards and shut down dangerous plants. The final reactor at Chernobyl was shut down in 2000, and work began to replace work began to replace the old structure.

22 Farm runoff, sewage and nuclear waste contribute to this problem.
Water Quality Many of Russia’s lakes and rivers have been polluted by industrialization. Farm runoff, sewage and nuclear waste contribute to this problem. One- fifth of the world’s freshwater supply is found in Russia’s Lake Baikal Is the world’s oldest and deepest lake, and is home to more than 1,500 native species Has been polluted by factories that lie on it’s banks, but recent actions have been take to reverse this trend. Soil and Air Quality Russia’s soil has been poisoned by years of toxic leaks, breaks in oil pipelines and overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. All parts of Russia have been affected by poor air quality In 1990, only 15 percent of Russia’s urban population lived with acceptable air quality. Acid rain is also a major concern for the area. Has reduced Russia’s forests drastically. Managing Resources Russia is using the World Bank’s Sustainable Forestry Pilot Project to manage its forest. They are doing things such as planting new trees and increasing private trees.

23 People have began to work together to help control mining operations.
Demand that companies meet strict environmental standards. The local fishing industry have supported this movement as a way to protect the area’s salmon spawning. However, regions have continued to be developed because of economic pressures.

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