Fig. 10.2 p. 266 (R&W). Urban Population/Total, by Regions See next slide
Urban Population as % of Total MENA Compared to Other Regions Source: WDI and FAOSTAT 195019752006 Middle East & North Africa224457 East and South-East Asia161942 Latin America and the Caribbean426178 South Asia2029 Sub-Saharan Africa92136 Industrial Countries626977 World303749
Fig. 10.3 p. 267 (R&W). Growth of Urban Population, by Regions 1970-2004 E. Asia LA MENA S.Asia SubSAfrica General Decline in growth rate, more rapidly in MENA & Latin America
Table 10.1 p. 265 (R&W). Urban Population, MENA Countries See next slide
Urban Population as % of Total % Urban195019752006 Algeria224064 Bahrain648597 Egypt324443 Iran274667 Iraq356167 Israel658792 Jordan365883 Kuwait598998 Lebanon236787 Libya195785 Morocco263859 Oman23472 195019752006 Qatar648995 Saudi Arabia165881 Sudan61942 Syria314551 Tunisia315066 Turkey214268 UAE248477 WB&Gaza#N/A6072 Yemen61528 Sources: WDI and FAOSTAT
MENA: Populations of Large Cities Sources: Mitchell International Historical Statistics, and Demographic Yearbook
Industrialization in Iran, 1925- 1973 Source: Encyclopaedia Iranica
Economic analysis of migration: International or Rural/Urban Source: Pugel International Economics, Figure 15.4 page 341
W. Arthur Lewis (1915-1990) Nobel Prize Winner, 1979 Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor, 1954 Author and editor of many books. Born in St. Lucia, (Caribbean). Raised in Antigua. Parents were both teachers, and he received much education at home. His father died when he was 7; his mother raised their five children; I have never known someone as focused and hardworking.
Econ Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor: Lewis Rural sector has unlimited supplies of labor at fixed-subsistence-wage. (Peasant) farmers have an average product = subsistence level, suggesting a certain type of economic irrationality on the farm. Growth of (urban) industry will draw in immigrants from countryside, until excess labor in the countryside is used up. Major conclusion for policy: encourage investment in urban industry. Implies that there is no loss from ignoring rural development. This model tended to ignore foreign trade, although Lewis certainly was aware of its importance.
Summary of Migration Theories Standard theory (push-pull) : migration depends on (w urban – w rural – cost). Views migration as helpful – reducing excess rural population. Cost of migration is declining. Complications: who migrates? Brain drain. Remissions. Stage migration. Cultural changes for urban immigrants. Non-econ migration. City lights. Harris-Todaro model: migration depends on probability of getting a job, ratio of employed/(employed + unemployed). Policy implication: if govt makes a job in city to absorb unemployed, more than one person will migrate to city. Similar result for urban benefits like transportation, education, health… Policy-remove urban bias implicit in these policies. Informal sector-not unemployed, but underemployed! People live and work outside of formal (paper trail) sector, so their incomes, health, services, tax payments, etc. are lower. Low skill, low capital. Ease of entry and exit. Low upward mobility.
Migration (ii) – Informal Sector Is the informal sector the result of market forces, or market failures? Govt constraints on markets? (Hernando de Soto: Other Path 1989). Lack of capital/labor substitutability? Part of normal growth of a firm? urban bias: transportation and other infrastructure, health, education. Subsidies for food, jobs, credit. Move the capital Policy issues are: remove informals, or legalize /remove constraints. Informality in jobs and housing – (slums). People co-exist in both. Informality in labor markets: Both genders. Self-employed –manufacturing and services. Less educated. Younger. (mt: Makes unemployment data meaningless) Informality in production; small, self-financing, mt looks at Bazaar/suqs as previous type of informality which is being displaced by modernization. A century ago many jobs were controlled by guilds- maybe thats an earlier example of informality.
The Informal Sector in the Middle East: Labor and Employment Data
Informal Sector Employment / Total Non-Ag. p. 107 Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 107 ~40%-60% There are some indications that this share is falling.
Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, Vol. 12 2010
Changes in Informal Employment in Egypt: 1998-2006 Source: Wahba
Self-employment in the informal sector Source: ILO: Women and men in the informal sector Major factor.
Informal Employment Source: ILO Women and men in the informal sector In MENA, more men than women. Opposite in LAC and SSAfrica.
Who are the informal workers? Egypt Source: Wahba
Probability of Informal Employment in Egypt, by Gender Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 109 Men more likely to work in the informal sector than women. Informality increased in the 1990s.
Probability of Informal Employment in Egypt, by Educational Level p. 109 Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA page 109
Informal Employment, Egypt (I) WDI reports 1998 population as 64.8 million; population between 15 and 65 as 58.7%, or 38 million, and labor force as 18.4 million. Survey reports 1998 population at 60.5 million, and non-agricultural wage earning workers as 9.8 million (p. 127) Using criteria such as working on a contract, paying social security, or having a regular job to define the formal sector, the Informal Sector/Non Ag wage workers was 33% - 46 % (p. 134) Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA
Informal Employment Egypt (II) Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA
Informal Employment Egypt (III) FormalInformal Distribution by Regions (%) Urban73.646.9 Rural26.423.7 Mobile0.029.4 Distribution by Occupation % Tech & Scientific41.45.7 Management4.30.3 Clerical22.21.7 Sales2.431.7 Services14.28.9 Production15.551.8 Source: World Bank (2004) Unlocking the Employment Potential in the MENA
Informal Employment in Egypt (IV) FormalInformal Distribution by Sector of Activity % Agriculture1.80.4 Mining0.40.3 Manufacturing16.222.8 Utilities2.30.0 Construction2.715.9 Trade4.737.2 Transport6.09.6 Finance3.22.2 Services62.811.6
Entrepreneurs of Small and Micro-Enterprises: Lebanon Source: Hamdan (2006) Micro and Small Enterprises in Lebanon
Sources of Initial Capital: Lebanon SMEs Source: Hamdan (2006) Micro and Small Enterprises in Lebanon
يتم استلام المواد الاولية من افضل المناشئ العالمية – سوق مريدي صناعة المشروبات الغازية في العراق العظيم
مرحلة التنظيف بواسطة (تكنلوجيا الاوزون ) والتي تمتلكها الدول المتقدمة فقط
Table 10.3 p. 271(R&W). MENA Slums (see next slide)
Distribution of Worlds Slum Dwellers Slum is defined in terms of five indexes: clean water, improved sanitation, security of tenure, durability of dwellings, and sufficient living area. Source: UN: State of the Worlds Cities 2004/2005
Urban Population: % in Slums, 1990 and 2001 Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have highest levels. Reductions in several countries/regions.
Slum Incidence and Infant Mortality: MENA Slum is defined in terms of five indexes Source: UN: State of the Worlds Cities 2004/2005
Slum Incidence Related to HDI Slum is defined in terms of five indexes Source: UN: State of the Worlds Cities 2004/2005 Slum Incidence and Per Capita GDP
A roadside thieves market in Syria, selling furniture left in homes abandoned by refugees. Source: MERIP (winter 2013)
Cairos Poor: on edge of city of Dead Source: Bayat, Cairos Poor: Dilemmas of Survival and Solidarity
Tehran Smog 3 Source: BBC article, posted on Irans Green Party web-page. Photo is from 1999. Smog shuts Tehran schools TEHRAN, Iran, December 26, 1999 (BBC) – Schools and kindergartens have been closed in Tehran as a blanket of dangerous smog envelopes the city. The blanket of smog shows no sign of clearing Iranian state-radio has urged the city's 10 million residents, especially children, the elderly and the sick, to stay indoors, and for people to use public transport instead of their private vehicles. Parents of small children welcomed the government's decision to close the schools, but high school teachers and pupils were unhappy that their schools were not closed too. For several weeks, the dangerously high levels of air pollution have choked Tehran.
Tehran chokes in thick smog Tuesday 06 December 2005, 14:59 Makka Time, 11:59 GMT Antiquated automobiles account for Tehran's high pollution level. Schools in the Iranian capital have been shut down and the sick or elderly told to lock themselves indoors, with the city continuing to choke on a thick blanket of yellow-brown smog. Tehran's Air Quality Control Unit said on Tuesday the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) - a standard measurement incorporating carbon monoxide, dust and other pollutants - has hovered around the "very unhealthy" level of 160 for several days. Such alerts are becoming increasingly common, with increased traffic causing the sprawling city's air to be deemed unhealthy for at least 100 days of the year. This week the situation is worse due to a total lack of wind. Source: Al-Jazeera.net
IRAN: Experts suggest sanctions are tied to staggering pollution levelsIRAN: Experts suggest sanctions are tied to staggering pollution levels L.A. Times. December 7, 2010 |Are Iran's attempts to deal with international sanctions a cause of the extremely high air-pollution levels afflicting the capital city of Tehran? A report Monday on the Persian-language news website Khabaronline says record pollution choking Tehran for the last month may be the result of low-quality gasoline Iran has been producing to counter the effects of international sanctions.report Monday on the Persian-language news website Khabaronline Iran, one of the world's biggest oil producers, nevertheless had to import much of its refined fuel to satiate the demands of its population. But international sanctions over Iran's' nuclear program are spurring many companies to stop doing business with the Islamic Republic. Not to worry, said Iranian authorities. Iran can make its own high-quality gasoline. But as residents of Tehran are choked by continued stifling smog, consumers are becoming more doubtful. Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Economics, Energy, Environment, Iran, Ramin MostaghimEconomicsEnergy EnvironmentIranRamin Mostaghim Read Later Comments (7) ShareThis MOROCCO: For cheap Saudi oil, Rabat broke ties with Iran, cracked down on Shiites, leaked cable saysMOROCCO: For cheap Saudi oil, Rabat broke ties with Iran, cracked down on Shiites, leaked cable says December 6, 2010 | 7:12 am At Saudi Arabia's urging, Morocco broke ties with Iran and began a domestic campaign against Moroccan Shiites in exchange for economic trade-offs, an Egyptian diplomat told sources at the U.S. Embassy in Rabat, according to a leaked U.S. diplomatic cable published by the Lebanese newspaper Al Akhbar.according to a leaked U.S. diplomatic cable "[The diplomat] said goading Iran, a country with which it had limited economic interests, and demonizing the Shi'a, a powerless minority group, was a small price for Morocco to pay for a strategy that could have major payoffs," the April 2009 cable read. In exchange for active Moroccan support, Saudi Arabia allegedly promised to ensure the flow of subsidized oil and compensate for the loss in direct foreign investment in Morocco resulting from the global financial crisis. Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Iran, Islam, Meris Lutz, Morocco, Saudi ArabiaIranIslamMeris Lutz MoroccoSaudi Arabia Read Later Comments (3) ShareThis IRAN: Nightmarish blanket of brown smog continues to choke TehranIRAN: Nightmarish blanket of brown smog continues to choke Tehran December 4, 2010 | 12:06 pm Even after three days with all government offices closed, the Iranian capital continues to be cloaked in a cloud of noxious, dangerous gas that some are describing as hopeless. On Saturday, normally the start of Tehran's busy week, officials shuttered all kindergartens and primary schools, according to media reports. Officials have tried quick fixes. They imposed rules allowing cars to be driven only on alternating days; drivers with even- and odd- numbered license plates take turns. And about 88,000 fines of $13 each have been issued to violators. Already, only cars with special permits can drive into the center of Tehran. But urban planners say there are too many cars in Tehran and that public transportation options are too limited; toxins in the air are reaching dangerous levels. Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Environment, IranEnvironmentIran Read Later Comments (12) ShareThis IRAN: Contacts between Canadian and Iranian spy services revealed in Wikileaks releaseIRAN: Contacts between Canadian and Iranian spy services revealed in Wikileaks release December 1, 2010 | 1:39 pm Even though Canadian officials told American counterparts that they were "very, very worried" about Iran's ambitions and actions, they continued to maintain contacts between Ottawa and Tehran's spy services, said a secret July 9, 2008, dispatch by the United States Embassy in the Canadian capital.said a secret July 9, 2008, dispatch Jim Judd, retired chief of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, told an American diplomat that his agency had recently talked to Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security after the agency had requested "its own channel of communication" to Canadians. He told Americans, "The Iranians agreed to 'help' on Afghan issues, including sharing information regarding potential attacks." Both Canadians and Americans are part of the international forces attempting to secure Afghanistan. The Canadians were deeply suspicious of the Iranians' motives and appeared to have rebuffed the offer. "We have not figured out what they are up to," Judd was quoted as saying, since the Iranians want the multinational force in Afghanistan in to "bleed... slowly." -- Borzou Daragahi in BeirutBorzou Daragahi Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Afghanistan, Intelligence, IranAfghanistanIntelligence Iran Read Later Comments (1) ShareThis IRAN: Ahmadinejad blames attacks against nuclear scientists on 'Zionist dogs'IRAN: Ahmadinejad blames attacks against nuclear scientists on 'Zionist dogs' December 1, 2010 | 9:34 am Tempers flared in Iran on Wednesday as authorities held a funeral for Iranian nuclear physicians Majid Shahriari, who was killed in one of two reported attacks against the country's atomic brain trust.killed in one of two reported attacks against Iranian officials blamed the West and Israel for the attacks. "They mention the names of our scientists in their [United Nations] resolutions and provide the Zionist dogs with a copy and tell them to kill," President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said in a speech in Mazandaran province, according to the semi-official Fars news agency Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Iran, Israel, Nuclear TechnologyIranIsraelNuclear Technology Read Later Comments (25) ShareThis ISRAEL: New chief named to take over Mossad from Meir DaganISRAEL: New chief named to take over Mossad from Meir Dagan November 30, 2010 | 8:16 pm Monday's announcement of the next chief of Israel's Mossad ended the mystery about who will succeed leadership of the country's spy agency. Tamir Pardo, known to the public until now only as "T" and to his neighbors as the guy next door, was tapped this week to fill the formidable pair of shoes soon to be vacated by Meir Dagan, once dubbed in the Arab press as the "Superman of the Jewish State."Monday's announcement once dubbed Pardo, 57, a father and grandfather, served in the Israel Defense Force's elite Sayeret Matkal unit and took part in the 1976 operation to rescue the hostages on the hijacked Air France plane at Entebbe, Uganda. Yoni Netanyahu, brother of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, was killed in the operation, and Pardo reportedly had remained a close friend of the family.1976 operation Netanyahu's choice of Pardo met with the approval of his defense minister, Ehud Barak, despite his support for GSS chief Yuval Diskin as successor. Pardo is "the right person to lead the organization over the next few years, in light of the complex challenges facing the State of Israel," Netanyahu said. Pardo said he was excited about the appointment. "I have big shoes to fill and a lot of work", he told reporters, and asked that his family's privacy be respected. Mossad and Shin Bet chiefs weren't publicly identified until 1996 (for security, not privacy). Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Babylon & Beyond, Batsheva Sobelman, Hezbollah, Intelligence, Iran, Israel, LebanonBabylon & Beyond Batsheva SobelmanHezbollah IntelligenceIranIsraelLebanon Read Later Comments (2) ShareThis MIDDLE EAST: Arab media play down WikiLeaks reports of support for Iran warMIDDLE EAST: Arab media play down WikiLeaks reports of support for Iran war November 29, 2010 | 8:20 am Well, this is awkward. Many of the same Arab governments that called for an investigation into U.S. war crimes based on the WikiLeaks Iraq war log continue to ignore revelations in the latest trove of leaked documents that show Arab leaders pushed the United States to use military force against Iran.called for an investigation pushed the United States to use military force against Iran Headlines in the heavily state- controlled Saudi media were dominated by news of King Abdullah's ongoing physiotherapy, while the top story in the Emirati newspaper, Al Bayan, centered on Prince Mohamad bin Rashid's praise for the country's progress toward "transparency." Most mentions of the WikiLeaks documents in official Arabic news outlets were scrubbed of any reference to the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, focusing instead on U.S. attempts to control the damage to its diplomatic relations. dominatedphysiotherapyAl Bayanscrubbed of any reference Even the Qatar-based Al Jazeera, considered one of the most credible pan-Arab news outlets, tread lightly in its coverage and generally refrained from repeating the most incendiary quotes from the heads of neighboring states. Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Censorship, Dubai, Intelligence, Iran, Israel, Media, Meris Lutz, Middle East, Nuclear Technology, Persian Gulf, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab EmiratesCensorshipDubai IntelligenceIranIsraelMedia Meris LutzMiddle EastNuclear TechnologyPersian GulfQatar Saudi ArabiaUnited Arab Emirates Read Later Comments (5) ShareThis ISRAEL: WikiLeaks and Israel - - quiet relief, louder vindication, for nowISRAEL: WikiLeaks and Israel - - quiet relief, louder vindication, for now November 29, 2010 | 7:11 am The morning after the first disclosures of WikiLeaks' trove of diplomatic cables, buzz in Israel was somewhere between relief and vindication, and officials were being thankful by keeping quiet. Relations between Israel and the U.S. are based on a tight weave of shared interests, not local incidents, said deputy foreign minister Danny Ayalon. Gradually, more official voices were heard. The revelations show what some of us knew, said President Shimon Peres -- that the Arab countries know they have an enemy, "and it's not Israel." A headline in Haaretz was more direct: "Everybody hates Iran.""Everybody hates Iran." If WikiLeaks didn't exist, Israel would have had to invent it, wrote Sever Plocker, noting the big leak backed Israel's foreign and defense policy and revealed "the shame" that many agree with Israel but "won't admit it openly."wrote Sever Plocker "Sorry we were right," wrote columnist Dan Margalit. Israel wasn't embarrassed "one bit" by the fiasco, writes Aluf Benn. Aluf Benn Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Babylon & Beyond, Batsheva Sobelman, Censorship, Egypt, Gaza, Hamas, Intelligence, Iran, Israel, Media, Middle East, PalestiniansBabylon & Beyond Batsheva SobelmanCensorship EgyptGazaHamasIntelligence IranIsraelMediaMiddle East Palestinians Read Later Comments (11) ShareThis LEBANON: Hezbollah accuses Israel of framing group in Hariri killingLEBANON: Hezbollah accuses Israel of framing group in Hariri killing November 28, 2010 | 1:52 pm Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah was trying to strike back against media reports seeming to implicate his group in the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. But he was forced to admit something big: that his highly secretive organization may have been infiltrated by Israel. During a speech Sunday for recent university graduates, Nasrallah claimed that Lebanese cellphone networks were compromised by Israeli intelligence services that he claimed fabricated data records to cast suspicion on Hezbollah. Many people have been called in as Israeli agents based on telecommunications data, but after they undergo interrogation, it becomes evident they are not," he said. This proves that Israel has full control of our telecommunications sector." Continue reading » Twitter: @latimesworld@latimesworld Facebook: latimesworldlatimesworld More in: Hezbollah, Intelligence, Iran, Lebanon, Meris Lutz, Middle EastHezbollahIntelligence IranLebanonMeris LutzMiddle East Read Later Comments (9) ShareThis Next» Stay connected: Advertisement About the Contributors Maher Abukhater Borzou Daragahi Jeffrey Fleishman Amro Hassan Meris Lutz Ramin Mostaghim Ned Parker Raheem Salman Alexandra Sandels Edmund Sanders Liz Sly Batsheva Sobelman Carnegie Middle East CenterMaher Abukhater Borzou Daragahi Jeffrey Fleishman Amro Hassan Meris Lutz Ramin Mostaghim Ned Parker Raheem Salman Alexandra Sandels Edmund Sanders Liz Sly Batsheva Sobelman Carnegie Middle East Center Recent News IRAN: Four journalists jailed on 'security' charges | December 9, 2010, 6:38 am »IRAN: Four journalists jailed on 'security' charges» WEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freeze | December 8, 2010, 5:44 pm »WEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freeze» WEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalem | December 8, 2010, 12:54 pm »WEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalem» GEORGIA: Leaked memos fuel debate over who started war with Russia | December 8, 2010, 12:04 pm »GEORGIA: Leaked memos fuel debate over who started war with Russia» ISRAEL, GAZA: Israel approves wider export from Gaza | December 8, 2010, 10:45 am »ISRAEL, GAZA: Israel approves wider export from Gaza» Recent Comments RE: WEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalem | comment by me.yahoo.com/a/OdYMp9d2q5 dlq9G1Lkg_U1KFd0xTr9edV9LtWEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalemme.yahoo.com/a/OdYMp9d2q5 dlq9G1Lkg_U1KFd0xTr9edV9Lt RE: WEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freeze | comment by ArielyWEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freezeAriely RE: WEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freeze | comment by barryelWEST BANK: Palestinian reaction to U.S. reversal on settlement freezebarryel RE: WEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalem | comment by barryelWEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalembarryel RE: GEORGIA: Leaked memos fuel debate over who started war with Russia | comment by SamGEORGIA: Leaked memos fuel debate over who started war with RussiaSam RE: WEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East Jerusalem | comment by PeterWEST BANK: Israel expels Hamas lawmaker Muhammad Abu Tir from East JerusalemPeter Categories abu dhabi afghanistan africa al qaeda alex rodriguez alexandra sandels algeria amro hassan arab league armenians art asso ahmad asso ahmed australia aviation azerbaijan babylon & beyond baghdad bahrain barack obama batsheva sobelman becky lee katz books books and literature borzou daragahi business carnegie endowment carnegie endowment for international peacecarnegie endowment for international peace caucasus censorship child brides china christianity dubai economics edmund sanders education egypt energy environment europe fashion and design film food and drink games gaza gert van langendonck haiti haley sweetland edwards hamas health hezbollah human rights intelligence iran iran election iraq islam israel jeffrey fleishman jerusalem jordan judaism julia damianova kurds kuwait labor latin america lebanon lgbt libya liz sly maher abukhater marines marines in afghanistan marines in iraq media meris lutz middle east morocco movies music muslim brotherhood ned parker north africa nuclear technology obama in the muslim world olivia katrandjian oman pakistan palestinians patrick gallagher persian gulf piracy politics pope in mideast qatar ramin mostaghim religion richard boudreaux russia saad fakhrildeen saudi arabia science south asia sports sudan syria taliban technology television the hajj 2007 theater travel tunisia turkey united arab emirates united nations usama redha video games web/tech weblogs west bank women in the middle east yemen Archives More from The Times 24 Frames Afterword All The Rage Awards Tracker Babylon & Beyond Big Picture Booster Shots Brand X Company Town Culture Monster Daily Dish Daily Mirror Dodgers Blog Fabulous Forum Framework Go Mobile Greenspace Hero Complex Homicide Report Jacket Copy L.A. at Home L.A. 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Baron Georges- Eugene Haussmann 1809-1891 Selected by Napoleon III to modernize Paris. During 1853-1870, he built bridges, sewers, new water supplies. Is most famous for changing streets, building wide boulevards. This is said to have affected 60% of Pariss buildings, and dislodged 350,000 people. He was visited by various MENA leaders, who wanted to reproduce this experience.
Illustration of neighborhood effects in Mosul http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/25/weekinreview/20060625_FILKINS_GRAPHIC.html?ex=1170738000&en=a19399ec4e7d6a58&ei=5070
Prob. of Moving into Formal Employment, by Gender and Education
Probability of Mobility out of Informal Employment In Egypt 1998-2006, by Gender Different colors represent different survey sources Source: Wahba (2009) Informality in Egypt: A Stepping Stone or a Dead End?
Share of Informal Employment in Total Non-Agricultural Employment
Self-employed as % of Informal Sector. Source: ILO