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4Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this course, participants will be able to:Participants will learn how the ASHRAE 90.1 energy standard has evolved in recent years up to the current version that has been adopted.Participants will be able to distinguish the major amendments to the standard that have led to substantial energy improvements from the last version.Participants will learn how the changes to 90.1 and its Appendix G will affect the latest version of LEED and consequentially building energy models.Participants will learn how the changes to the standard will impact the building industry and particularly how it will impact commissioning providers.
51.0 Evolution First drafted in 1975 Major re-write of the standard in 1999Continuous maintenance began in 2001 (every 3 years)ASHRAE updated from 2004 via 44 addendaASHRAE updated from 2007 with more than 100 addenda
61.1 ASHRAE GoalSet out to achieve a 30% energy savings when compared to ASHRAEGoal achievement proven by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)Substantial energy efficiency improvement when compared to earlier iterationsSidenote: Significant implications for LEED pursuit in LEED v4
71.2 Major Sections 5.X Envelope 6.X Mechanical 7.X Service Water Heating8.X Power9.X LightingAppendix G (Performance Rating Method)
81.3 Compliance 5.X Envelope 6.X Mechanical 7.X Service Water Heating 8.X Power9.X LightingAppendix G (Performance Rating Method)
112.0 Envelope Changes Continuous air barrier Cool roofs Constraints on glazing
122.0.1 Air BarriersA properly functioning air barrier system provides a barrier against both the air leakage and the diffusion of air caused by wind, stack, and mechanical equipment pressures.According to the ABAA, air leakage can result in increased energy costs of up to 30-40% in heating climates and 10-15% in cooling climatesThe additional benefit to air barriers is that they keep unconditioned, moist air out of the building and reduce the possibility of mold growth
132.1.1Continuous Air Barrier Permeance ≤ cfm/sfIndividual materials: plywood, insulation board, metalPermeance ≤ 0.04 cfm/sfAssemblies or materialsAll air barrier components must be clear on documentsAll joints, penetrations must be detailedBarrier must extend over all envelope surfacesBarrier must be design to resist positive AND negative pressures
142.1.2 Continuous Air Barrier Construction of barrier must include sealing, caulking, gasketing, or weather-stripping:Joints (windows and doors)Junctions of walls to foundation or roofsOpeningsAny penetrations through vapor retardersExceptions:Semi-heated spaces in Climate Zone 1 through Zone 6
152.2 Cool Roofs Required in Climate Zone 1 through Zone 3 Certified by ASTM3 year aged solar reflectance ≥ 0.55 and emmittance ≥ OR3 year aged SRI ≥ ORIncreased insulation of TableNumerous exceptions are noted
162.3 GlazingWindow Wall Ratio ≤ 40% of gross wall area (prescriptive path)Skylight roof ratio ≤ 5% of roof areaMajor changes for SHGCs over which apply to all orientationsSHGC reductions through use of overhangs
173.0 HVAC Changes Efficiency ratings on equipment Energy recovery EconomizersDuct sealing/leakageFan powerReheat
183.1 Simplified Approach Option Only applies to HVAC sectionAcceptable for buildings that are 1 to 2 stories and < 25,000 sfMust also meet 17 separate criteria
193.2 Efficiency Updates Unitary AC and heat pumps Single zone VAV Water-cooled unitsPackaged units and heat pumpsWater-to-water heat pumpsCRAC unitsVRFChillersCooling towersHeat exchangersHeat pump pool heatersFurnaces and water heating
203.3 Economizers Comfort cooling Computer rooms Exempt: Not required for 1A and 1BRequired for all other zones where the cooling capacity is ≥ 54,000 Btu/hComputer roomsNot required in 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 4ARequired in other zones dependent on tonnageExempt:If able to prove efficiency improvement for the climate zone
213.4 WatersideTwo-position valves in water-cooled units (i.e. SWUD units)Variable flow/pumpingPump pressure optimizationNo regulation downstream of booster pumpsMaximum flows in nominal pipe sizesSignificant insulation upgrades, particularly for steam and hot water systems
223.5.1 Airside Ventilation optimization Supply air temp reset Limitation on damper leakageDual maximum for VAV terminal unitsOverhead heating temp limitLab VAV exhaust airDemand control ventilationFan power limitation
244.0 Lighting Changes Lighting power density improvements Exterior building lighting updatesGrounds lighting
254.1 Lighting Power Density Most spaces defined in standard have lower LPDs than 2007 and reductions are substantialImportant to keep in mind impact of these requirements on cooling and heating load calculationsAverage reduction of 16.2% in LPDs versus
264.2 Auto Shutoff/DimmingTime clock with separate shutoff for each floor or building > 25,000 sf OROccupancy sensors set to 30 minutes ORSeparate signal from controls indicated the space is unoccupiedDaylight switching for daylit areas > 250 sf
274.3 Exterior Lighting Turn off when adequate daylight available Façade and landscape lighting off between closing or midnight and 6 am or openingReduced lighting of advertising overnightReduction in lighting power densities, depending on zone
285.0 LEED EAp2 ImpactLEED v2009 requires a 10% energy cost savings when compared to the baseline building as defined by ASHRAELEED v4 requires a 5% energy cost savings when compared to the baseline building as defined by ASHRAE
306.0.1 Energy Modeling Impact Appendix GSection G1.4 has been revised to include a more detailed list of required documentation to be submitted to the rating authority.Section G2.5 has been revised to more clearly explain the Exceptional Calculation Method procedure and what documentation is required to justify the results.Section G3.1.1 includes new exceptions for additional system types for kitchens and heated only spaces (new Baseline system types 9 and 10).Section G through Section G provide new guidance for modeling district heating and cooling systems.
316.0.2 Energy Modeling Impact Appendix G (continued)Table G3.1(14) includes new guidance regarding “exterior conditions” (adjacent structures and terrain, ground temperatures, and water main temperatures).Section G has been revised to more clearly explain how to take credit for improved ventilation systems (i.e. demand control ventilation)Section G includes new provision for sizing supply air volumes in the Baseline model for laboratories.Section G includes additional requirements for VAV minimum setpoints in the Baseline model for laboratories.
327.0 Impact on Building Industry Jump in energy performance requirements to drive vendors to be more aggressiveArchitects, engineers and contractors will have a learning curve on new requirementsInitially expect increased cost of construction while industry catches upEven more importance now on technical competence across all trades, but specific focus on controls technicians that are required to implement more complex strategies
337.1 Impact on Commissioning Elevated performance requirements leading to more complex building systemsHVAC and ControlsLighting controlsIntegration of other systemsCommissioning providers required to be knowledgeable on optimization requirements stipulated in energy codeOpportunity for commissioning professionals to provide guidance and lessons learned on success of optimization strategies to design engineers
35Conclusion Knowledge acquired: Participants learned how the ASHRAE 90.1 energy standard has evolved in recent years up to the current version that has been adopted.Participants are able to distinguish the major amendments to the standard that have led to substantial energy improvements from the last version.Participants learned how the changes to 90.1 and its Appendix G will affect the latest version of LEED and consequentially building energy models.Participants learned how the changes to the standard will impact the building industry and particularly how it will impact commissioning providers.
36Please feel free to ask any questions you may have for today’s course presenters.
38About Us Epsten Group Services: Established in 1991 Commissioning Retro-CommissioningBuilding Envelope ServicesRoofing & Waterproofing ConsultingArchitecture & Interior DesignLEED ConsultingEnergy ModelingEstablished in 1991Multi-Disciplinary5,500 LEED Reviews in 50+ Countries8(a) Certified; Small Disadvantaged Business; 8(m) WOSB