Presentation on theme: "Urban Growth and Decline"— Presentation transcript:
1Urban Growth and Decline Stage 5 GeographyThis is a quick summary of some of the main elements of an action research project, that addresses the Stage 5 Geography topic Issues in the Australian Environment: Urban Growth and Decline. As an over riding comment I’d say that, teachers who would like to make the fullest use of the tools provided by the DER laptops would be well advised to acquire the complete Microsoft Office and Adobe CS4 suite of tools. At the moment these can be purchased for about $ through the DET Portal. There are many easily accessible training videos available as well, particularly those available for the CS4 suite through lynda.com
2Cities are always changing Urban declineUrban renewalGentrificationUrban consolidationStudents were introduced to content on this topic with a rich set of PowerPoint presentations (PPTs). The principle underlying the development of the PPTs was one of demonstrating excellence, avoiding the more traditional wall of text PPTs and modeling good practice in this mode of communication.Change involves four urban processes
3Focus: ICT in the Stage 5 Geography Syllabus Geography (Mandatory) Stage 5 requires students to:create a formatted, multiple-paged document containing web-links to communicate geographical informationdesign and create a simple database from student researchimport data from other ICT applications into student research findingsMost syllabus documents have mandatory ICT components. Thos applying to Stage 5 Geography formed a set of objectives for this action research project. I attempted to address as many of these as I could.design and create a multimedia presentation or webpage to communicate geographical information to a particular audience, including maps and diagrams as appropriatecritically analyse a website, including the ethics of the siteaccess, collect and interpret electronic information.
4This action research project is to encourage students to: access, collect and interpret electronic information using the Internet, Moodle & SSC Leichhardt Geog BlogImport data from other ICT applications into student research findingsreview models, make notes and gather secondary data on urban structure and process.design and create a simple database from student researchuse ABS - Sydney a Social Atlas 2006, ABS Community profile statistics, Google Maps, Google Street ViewThis action research project, therefore, encouraged students to do the following. The red text is a direct quote from the syllabus. Note also that some of these statements imply the addressing of mandatory ICT requirements, even if the language is different.Maintain a record of all materials studied in a formatted, multiple-paged document containing web-links to communicate geographical information
5This action research project is to encourage students to: use applications ie. Word/ Adobe Portfolio or OneNotecritically analyse a website, including the ethics of the siteconsult & add to a Delicious network using an agreed set of tagsprocess information using applications such as Excel & Photoshopdesign & create a multimedia presentation or webpage to communicate geographical : Wiki
6Implementation of the Program Stage 1 – 31 March to 2 MayStage 2 – 3 May to 23 MayStage 3 – 24 May onwardsThe major part of the project was put into operation within this time range. Although aspects of the project will be ongoing, the basic lesson delivery a subsequent field study activity and follow-up assessment task, are all in this time frame.
7The Research Questions How is the Foreshore being used?How has the land use changed and what is the impact on the biophysical and built environment?What issues have arisen from Urban Growth & Decline?Although the initial part of the topic was more general and concerned the urban processes that have operated in the growth of Sydney students were led towards answering these research questions.Who is affected by these issues?How are the issues being addressed?
8The Research Cycle 1. Identify the aim/purpose of the investigation 9. Where appropriate, take action2. Generate focus questions toGuide the investigation8. Propose individual or group action in response to the findings3. Which primary and secondary data are needed to answer the focus questions7. Select methods to effectively communicate the research findingsFrom the beginning, students were introduced to the idea of the Research Cycle, using this type of PPT presentation. The stages were discussed and clarified. Clear distinctions made between the use of secondary sources in the period leading up to the field study and the primary source material they would have an opportunity to collect in the field.4. Identify the techniques that will be used to collect the data6. Process and analyse the data collected5. collect primary and secondary data
9The Field Study Area Millers Point Walsh Bay Barangaroo Circular Quay This is the area in which the final field study, or student research project, was conducted.Darling Harbour
10Basic content presented in 7 PowerPoints 1. Basic urban processes2. Sydney’s Development3. Government stakeholders and their responsibilities4. Community and commercial stakeholders5. Changes in the study area from the 19th to 21st centuriesSeven content rich PPTs were produced. In addition to demonstrating sound practice in collection of secondary source materials the PPTs were intended to be collections of assets that students could recycle and reuse.6. Field Work7. Processes operating in the study area
11Lesson content provided students with a rich preparation for field activities It’s important to emphasise that the quality of the resources offered to students in lessons had to reflect the focus on quality that was expected from them. Throughout the emphasis was on documenting change, impacts and management. Extensive use was made of both archival and contemporary materials. The National archives, the National Library, the State Archives and the State Library have excellent online resources that may be used for educational research and lesson preparation.Hickson Rd – The Hungry Mile – Darling Harbour
12Smith & Gardiner’s Map of Sydney and Suburbs 1855 Showing Change in the AreaShowing changes in the field study area was an important strategy. The task of locating secondary sources was sometimes challenging but achievable because of the vast amount of archival material that is becoming available on line. It’s not always in a form that immediately useful and must sometimes be processed in various applications to produce the desired effect.Smith & Gardiner’s Map of Sydney and Suburbs 1855
13Robinson’s Aeroplane Map of Sydney 1922 Showing Change in the areaNotice the dramatic changes in the coastline of the field study area in the period 1855 to 1922.Robinson’s Aeroplane Map of Sydney 1922
14Showing Change in the Area Finally today’s outline from Google mapsGoogle Map of Sydney2010
15Built using PhotoshopThese maps were processed using Photoshop
16Scoping the topic with FreeMind At the beginning effective use was made of FreeMind, a simple mind mapping tool that comes along with the DER laptops The strategy was to reflect on and suggest the positive and negative impacts of the urban processes on the biophysical and the built environments. This mind map is incomplete but arose from discussion with students.
17Moodle : supplementing basic content A platform of resourcesOneNote book templateLink to TALE & laptop WrapsThe process of providing basic content and tools for investigating secondary materials was supported by a platform of resources posted on the school’s Moodle site. The list began with a simple OneNote book that followed the sequence of topics and stages within this unit of work. It was zipped and available for students to download and un-zip.Homework posted here
18SSC Geog Blog Providing additional content Aiming to facilitate interactivityNext a Blog was established through Edublogs. The project began earlier in the year before blogED was available. The Blog was intended to provide additional content and facilitate interactivity.
19SSC Geog Blog Provide a additional audio materials Pages added for each part of courseThe Blog was also a good place to locate audio-visual materials, and of course, to add specialised pages like the Glossary, basic definitions of the urban processes
20PowerPoints posted on Blog SSC Geog BlogThe PPTs were also posted on the Blog for several reasons. They were larger than the upload limit on the school’s Moodle site; it was an easy point for dissemination and it added interest to the Bog and gave students a sound reason to go there.PowerPoints posted on Blog
21Stage 1 – Resources and Tools ABS Sydney a Social Atlas 2006ABS Community profile statisticsGoogle Maps & Street ViewModels of Urban developmentSimple Land Use ModelsExcel, Word, Adobe Portfolio or OneNote, Photoshop, CameraDigital ToolsThe first stage of the process can be summarised accordingly– Simple Land Use models of Sydney were introduced drawing on the ABS Social Atlas, Google Maps and Models of Urban development. Excel, Word, Adobe Portfolio or OneNote, Photoshop, Cameras were used as digital tools and both Delicious.com and the SSC Leichhardt BlogWere used for networking and communication. A summary of Stage 1 followsDeliciousSSC Leichhardt BlogWeb2.0 Tools
22Stage 1 - Pre-activity Assessment Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 10 to Wk 1Finding basic dataPreparation of simple community Profile, identify & photograph urban processesWork on pre-topic assessment using neighbourhood data.Prepare a basic community profile.identify & photograph one or more urban processes in own neighbourhoodlocate photograph on a neighbourhood map or satellite image
23Stage 1- Week 2, Term 2 Focus Content Student task Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 2P 1Definition of ProcessesPPT presentation on Urban Processes with examples from Leichhardt MunicipalityDefine Urban Growth, Decline, Renewal, Consolidation and GentrificationSpatial & ecological dimensionsStudents continue work on pre topic assessment organising neighbourhood map & basic community profile, completing placement of photographs illustrating urban processes.P2Sharing of photographs (Bluetooth/USB thumb drive)PPT - patterns of city growth & decline in Australia's urban areasBrainstorm likely issues & the impacts of urban growth on the economy, environment & communities.Discuss impact of Urban Growth & decline on people, economy and environment?Who Are the stakeholders?Lift images from PPT & makes notes using Moodle based resourcesPresent in OneNote or Word & Adobe Portfolio.Post questions/comments on Blog
24Sydney has changed since 1788 Sydney has grown out from a centreReturning to the idea of quality resources. This map was produced using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop. Adobe Illustrator comes with the teachers’ Adobe CS4 package that can be purchased through the DET Portal. I built this because there wasn’t another such map available.
25Cities can be represented by circles The area of first settlementCities grow out from areas of first settlement, and as they grow certain processes occur:Some areas DeclineIn some areas there is RenewalOutward growthThere’s Consolidation of people in some placesSimple models of urban development were also used. This simple concentric zone model was made with Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop as well.In other places change in social and economic status occurs - Gentrification
26Sydney has branched out Of course Sydney’s development hasn’t been as illustrated in the simple models, it’s branched out. Students were asked to reflect on what might have caused this.What might have caused this?
27Railways greatly influenced Sydney’s development Of course, using ABS base maps of Sydney, edited in Photoshop the obvious answer is easy to illustrate.1850
28A sliding array of railway network maps from 1850 to the present show just how closely related Sydney’s early development was to the growth of railways.2004
29George St, 1950sBy 1950 Sydney was a city that relied little on automobiles and motor lorries and was confined to the corridors traced by the extensive suburban train and tramway network. The character of life, particularly the traffic free streets reveals a Sydney with a very different pace of life.Trams began to be phased out from the 1950s onwards as car and truck transport developed
30Car & Trucks and BusesBy the 1960s this had changed, with the growth of cars, trucks and bus, plus the end of trams Sydney began to grow away from corridors defined by the suburban train and tramway network, to spread outwards and to fill in the spaces between the fingers of development to the north, south and west.By the 1960s cars, trucks and buses were major forms of transport in Sydney
31Lessons: provided basic content Visible air pollutionWaterfrontcargo storagePort ActivitiesMajor traffic thoroughfareAppropriate use of archival material was used to stimulate student, extend skills in the interpretation and analysis of photographic materials and illustrate effective use of ‘call-outs’ in PPT as a way of highlighting details.Horse drawn freezer/meat vanCargo unloaded directly to wharfPyrmont bridge: 1903
32Lessons: provided basic content No visible air pollutionWaterfront Hotels &apartmentsPort activities confined to ferries and Private boatingComparisons with the present allowed students to appreciate the dynamism of Sydney and develop ideas about presentation.Tourism activities on wharfPyrmont bridge: 2009
33View across Darling Harbour 1880s Some views were so dramatically different, the changes so complete that nothing of the past can now be seen. This view is from the approximate location of the Novotel Darling Harbour
34View across Darling Harbour 2010 The same view today.Can you see anything from the 1880s?
35Living and Working Conditions Walsh Bay WharvesWarehouseWool Store19 Gloucester Street, The RocksPort and factory workers lived close to workWhat follows is a series of early photographs showing conditions within the field study area from the late 19th to the early 21st centuries. These provided a rich opportunity for analysis of secondary materials.Late 19th century view from Windmill St, Millers Point, looking over Walsh Bay
36Living and Working Conditions Millers Point19 Gloucester Street, The RocksCoal powered steam engineCoal train rolling stockEarly 20th century Darling Harbour coal loader – ships needed coal for fuel
37Living and Working Conditions Horse and cartUnsealed streets and horse manure a breeding ground for bacteriaChildren barefootedUrban decline in the 19th century
38Living and Working Conditions 19 Gloucester Street, The RocksHydrated lime barrel.Hydrated lime was used as a disinfectant because it produced a dry & alkaline environment that retard bacterial growthIn the 19th Century streets were often unsealed and unsanitary
39Living and Working Conditions 19 Gloucester Street, The RocksBlocked drainage being clearedBones, horns and old piles unearthedUrban renewal – cleaning out 19th century drains in 1900
40Living and Working Conditions 1900 Demolition of sub-standard housing19 Gloucester Street, The RocksA bubonic plague outbreak led to demolition of some decaying urban areas
41Living and Working Conditions 19 Gloucester Street, The RocksSigns of global industry emergingAround 1900 retailing was still largely through corner stores and local businesses
42Living and Working Conditions PyrmontBalmain19 Gloucester Street, The RocksWalsh Bay finger wharvesLarge areas of housing demolished to build the Sydney Harbour bridgeDarling HarbourIn the 20th century the area was still a mix of docks, warehouses, industry & housing
43Living and Working Conditions 19 Gloucester Street, The RocksStill a working portRailway lines removedUrban decline – old industrial areaEmpty Wool StoresNow converted to apartments & parkingDarling Harbour immediately before the Darling Harbour Urban renewal Project
44How is land in the study area now used? High rise office blocksWestern DistributorModern apartments – urban consolidationMillers Point heritage houses built from 1820 to 1930Heritage buildings remaining on Gas Works siteNo shipping of cargo,Port abandoned
45How is land in the study area now used? Low energy buildings with small carbon footprintTourist HotelsRestaurants and barsMoorings for private ferries, cruise and charter boatsNo longer finger wharves at King St
46How is land in the study area now used? Urban consolidationUrban Renewal - Maritime MuseumPublic Access to foreshore
47Stage 2 – Resources and Tools Government, Corporate and Community websites & reportsImages – photos, videos, maps, statistical maps, graphsProcesses, Stakeholders, Decisions, FutureExcel, Word, Adobe Portfolio or OneNote, Photoshop, CameraDigital ToolsIn Stage 2 we began to examine the stakeholders who are involved, those affected by urban change and the management strategies they adopt to steer, influence and regulate them. More details notes follow.DeliciousSSC Leichhardt BlogWeb2.0 Tools
48Stage 3- Week 3, Term 2 Focus Content Student task Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 3P 1Stakeholders and Their PerceptionsPPT Identifying three levels of government stakeholders in Stakeholder levels of govt. CBD & Darling harbour areas?Introduce websites view policies & approaches to the development of Sydney - CBD and Darling harbour areas.Prepare a diagram or table in OneNote or Excel and Adobe Portfolio, based on lesson, summarising the responsiblities of govt in urban issues.Use PPT posted on the Blog & other websites identified through Delicious or Internet.Wk3P2PTT introducing stakeholder commercial & community organisations interested in urban processes Which have a stake in CBD & Darling harbour areas? Determine their position on the development of Sydney - CBD and Darling harbour areasPrepare a diagram or table outlining the commercial interests and concerns of the different groupsUse the PPT & other websites from Delicious or the Internet, Present in OneNote or Excel and Adobe Portfolio
49Stage 3- Week 4, Term 2 Focus Content Student task Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 4P 1Decisions making processes and managementPT and notes plus some film footage Blog addressing change in City West, Darling Harbour, Millers Pt & Walsh Bay areas in 19th & early to mid 20th centuries.Use the PPT posted on the Blog plus other websites you identify through Delicious or on the Internet, to prepare notes in OneNote or Word & Adobe Portfolio, answering the questions addressed in today's lesson.P2PT and notes plus some film footage Blog addressing change in City West, Darling Harbour, Millers Pt & Walsh Bay areas in the late 20th & early 21st centuries.
50Stage 2- Week 5, Term 2 Focus Content Student task Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 5P 1Implications and the FuturePPT showing Issues and Implications of Urban Growth & Decline Issues highlighting - Processes, Indicator & Impacts of urban growth and declineList of issues arising from Urban growth & decline under headings Process, Indicator Impact + or -Process, Indicator Impact, who is affected by Urban Growth and decline? Who Are the stakeholders?(Enables students to gather secondary data they will soon investigate in the field)P2PPT & notes & some video already posted on Blog about Barangaroo, addressing :Nature & scope of the projectProject as urban renewalStakeholders & Environmental,Economic & Community impacts Also Sydney's transport system. Plans for the futureDescribe the:Economic & Community impactsUsing delicious and Internet presented in OneNote or Word & Adobe Portfolio.
51Government Stakeholders Planning NSWNSW HousingNSW Road Transit Authority (RTA)NSW MaritimeAust Dept of Customs & ExciseNSW Dept of Environment Climate Change & WaterAust Dept of Immigration & CitizenshipNSW Transport &InfrastructureLevels of government are quite important. Colour coding and the simple wheel display were used to convey much information succinctly.Sydney CityCouncilFederal Government NSW Government Local Government
52NSW Road Transit Authority There is a cross city tunnel ventilation stack located in the Darling Harbour area near Druitt St.The city’s major north south traffic route.Its colour, cladding and architecture were determined in consultation with other Government Departments & stakeholdersThe RTA is obviously a big stakeholder in the field study area.RTA’s major stakes in the area are the Cross City Tunnel, the Western Distributor and the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
53Planning NSW – NSW Department of Planning Sydney Harbour Foreshore AuthorityBarangaroo Delivery AuthoritySo too is Planning NSW and its three key agenciesNSWHeritage CouncilPlanning NSW’s three agencies have a major role in managing the areas
54Barangaroo Delivery Authority The NSW Government’s is committed to the delivery of Barangaroo in a coordinated and financially responsible manner.Established under the Barangaroo Delivery Authority Act 2009This is a massive Public Private Partnership that will have major implications for the area. There are excellent video materials available that students can edit and re-purpose.Barangaroo will extend from King St Wharf, along the eastern side of Darling Harbour to Millers Point and around to Walsh Bay. It’s a very large area of around 15 central city blocks but most is on the old Patrick's Wharf site in Darling Harbour.
55NSW Maritime a State Government Authority responsible for: marine safety, regulation of commercial & recreational boating and oversight of port operationsproperty management of submerged lands in Sydneyremoval of rubbish in the interests of the tourist industry, harbour-side local government, the recreational boating public, operators of commercial vessels, waterfront property holders and the public using Sydney Harbour.
56Storm Water Management in the Study Area SQID Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices. Managed by Sydney City Council under the CBDSQID Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices. Managed by Sydney Water in Blackwattle BaySydney Water works in conjunction with local councils to manage stormwater quality
57NSW Transport & Infrastructure Sydney FerriesSydney ferries remains the main provider of commuter services in both the inner and outer harboursSydney Ferries is a NSW Government agency operating regular ferry passenger services on Sydney Harbour and its tributaries
58Visitors – Darling Harbour 31%54%9%The biggest group of stakeholders are the visitors. Until retrieving these figures I had no idea just what an important destination Darling Harbour is for international visitors.5%Almost 150 million people have visited Darling Harbour since it opened in 1988.Source: Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre | fact file February 2009
59Darling Harbour Tenants Who is the main stakeholder?There are many private stakeholders both commercial and community. One of the biggest will be Lend Lease who with construct the Barangaroo Project of 10 to 15 years at an initial cost of $6 billion. There are lots of small businesses as well.The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority manages 97 tenancies in Darling HarbourSource: The Darling Harbour Authority -
60Cruise Boat and Charter Operators Some of them are on the water as well as on the land.Who are the stakeholders?
61Millers Point Residents’ Action Group Millicent Chalmers OAM, ChairWho are the stakeholders?All of the housing in Millers point is Heritage listed. The community is aging, but it retains a long and intergenerational cultural connections with Sydney as a working port. 47.2% of the housing is rented from a state housing body, in short it’s public housing.“Rather than just saying ‘don’t do that’, we try saying ‘what about this’. It doesn’t always work and sometimes we just have to grin and bear it. But it’s much harder for them (the council and government) to deny an idea if you offer other real alternatives.”
62Stage 3 – Resources and Tools Board of Studies examples of student work – on MoodleTeamworkRoles and responsibilities definedResearch Action Plan integrating primary & secondary dataExcel, Word, Adobe Portfolio or OneNote, Photoshop, Audacity, Premier Elements, GPS, CameraDigital ToolsFinally the day of the field study arrived. In the period before this the field study students worked through strategies for sampling prepared data in the field and then did it very smoothly.. The only disappointing aspect of this otherwise overwhelmingly positive experience was that I bought the wrong sort of microphone for use with Audacity. It seems I should have bought a condenser microphone. The mike I bought is better used for recording a podcasts not for its sensitivity to environmental noise.DeliciousSSC Leichhardt BlogWeb2.0 Tools
63Stage 3 - Week 6, Term 2 Focus Content Student task Wk PerFocusContentStudent taskWk 6P 1Fieldwork: integrating Primary & Secondary dataIntroduce Research Action Plan as an animated PPTPPT on Secondary data - reviewing sources already usedPPT on Primary data collection - cameras, digital video, gathering noise samples, measuring wind speed, temperature, GPS.Review Field Work FormatAllocate data collection tasksPractice:Testing sound levels (Audacity)Taking photos with camerasUsing digital videoP2FieldworkWk 7onFollowing FieldworkOngoing:Interested students to edits video Interested students post findings to Wiki
64The Research Cycle 1. Identify the aim/purpose of the investigation 9. Where appropriate, take action2. Generate focus questions toGuide the investigation8. Propose individual or group action in response to the findings3. Which primary and secondary data are needed to answer the focus questions7. Select methods to effectively communicate the research findingsThe data gathered, the students sat for a pen and paper test. Chatting with the HOD we reasoned that next time we’d have to build a different assessment tool, one that also included having specific data gathering and processing tasks involving digital tools, not just a written field report.4. Identify the techniques that will be used to collect the data6. Process and analyse the data collected5. collect primary and secondary data
65Stage 3 – Resources and Tools Assembling of primary materialsStudents writing and posting findings to WikiStudents post to DeliciousConstruction of Wiki & Delicious TagsExcel, Word, Adobe Portfolio or OneNote, Photoshop, Audacity, Premier Elements, GPS, CamerasDigital ToolsDeliciousSSC Leichhardt BlogSSC Leichhardt WikiWeb2.0 Tools
66A Student’s Work from the Field Study New high rise apartmentsThe Bond Building. 6 Green Star ratingPart of the old gasworks on Hickson RdThe next task is t build the Wiki, with examples of student work as the resources base. I’m hoping this becoming a useful resources that students want to own as their own.The process is Urban Consolidation shown by apartments, building with small ecological footprint and preservation of heritage8. Processes, indicators, impacts and managementPhoto by Gieun
72Blog VisitsThe statistics on visits to the Blog show a slow uptake on interest. This raises the importance of beginning early, by introducing early years to the processes and practices of Blogging. The idea of individual Blogs comes to mind. With this approach students in Stage 5 geography are likely to be better equipped to make effective use of such a potentially valuable Web2.0 tool
73Timetable & Calendar Issues 15 Periods available for Issues in the Australian EnvironmentWith all action research the limits of time tables and the vicissitudes of school calendars can have a dramatic impact. Four Geography classes were spread over a two week timetable. In the second week two classes fell on the same day, a Friday. This was a popular day for excursions held by other faculties or co-curricular interests.. 25% of possible teaching days were lost. This meant that the teaching had to be compressed into a small teaching time as assessment tasks had been allocated to days that would allow report writing to be completed well before the end of term two.