2 Gilded Age PoliticsChapter 15, Section 1The Gilded Age suggests that there was a glittering layer of prosperity that covered the poverty and corruption that existed in much of society. This term was coined by Mark Twain.In the late 1800’s businesses operated without much government regulation. This is known as laissez-faire economics. Laissez-faire means ‘allow to be’ in French.
3 Urban GrowthWhen cities increased in size after the Industrial Revolution, it was called urban growth.In the West, new town grew out of nothing as railroads expanded.In the East, established cities grew due to industrialization and the job opportunities it created.As industrialization continued, many people left their farms and migrated to the cities for work.
4 ImmigrationThe 2nd half of the 19th century (late 1800s) also saw a dramatic increase in immigration.In the East, most immigrants came from Europe, while on the west coast, many immigrated from China to work on US railway lines.What were the push-pull factors?By the end of the 1800s, nearly 80% of New Yorkers were foreign born.Industrialization was largely responsible for the immigration boom.The US became a land of promise much like it had been for the 1st colonists 300 years before.
5 Ellis IslandTo handle the influx of immigrants into the country, the federal govt opened Ellis Island in 1892A tiny island near the Statue of Liberty in NYC, it became the reception center for immigrants arriving to the US. “The golden door.”The diversity immigrants brought to American inpsired the phrase, “melting pot.”Most immigrants did not want to fully assimilate (become like the US mainstream). They wanted to maintain many of their cultural traditions.In large cities, the nation began to experience a great deal of cultural pluralism (presence of many different cultures within one society).
6 Inscription on the Statue of Liberty "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Emma Lazarus, 1883
7 Who are the immigrants today? How are they regarded?What are the stereotypes?Why do they come here?What do they do?How are they treated by natives?
8 Problems Caused by Immigration Many US citizens felt that immigrants took jobs away from natives, and they often mistrusted foreigners with unfamiliar cultural ways.In 1892, the federal government required all new immigrants to undergo a physical exam.Immigrants with contagious diseases, such as tuberculosis, faced quarantine, a time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease.Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos.Most ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions.Some ghettos formed when ethnic groups isolated themselves because of threats of violence, mostly from whites.
9 What are the similarities? How is 21st century immigration alike or different from 19th century immigration?Did anyone in your family immigrate?
10 Religious Differences Most US citizens were Protestants, while many of the arriving immigrants were Catholics and Jews.The religious practices of immigrants often conflicted with those of natives.Natives also treated immigrants differently depending on where they came from. Before the Civil War, most immigrants were from western Europe, and as such were Protestant whites.In the late 19th and early 20th, centuries, however, many immigrants were from eastern and southern Europe (Poland, Russia, Italy), and were Catholic or Jewish.Racism towards this new crop of immigrants was intense and many faced discrimination b/c of their religious and ethnic differences.There was also conflict among various immigrant groups- people from one nation or ethnic group developed rivalries with others.Gangs of New York
15 NativismAs feelings of nativism grew (racism toward immigrants), anti-immigrant groups formed.Immigrants were often the victims of violence and discrimination.The govt reacted to nativist concerns by attempting to pass laws restricting immigration. Some measures were vetoed by US presidents, but once passed restricting immigration from China.The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigrants from coming to the US and was not repealed until 1943.
16 It’s a Hard-Knock LifeThough industrialization brought innovation and job opportunities, it also created problems for the urban poor.Child labor was common in mills and factories, b/c poor families needed everyone working to get by.Children as young as 5 had to leave school to work- missing out on education continued the cycle of poverty.Workers feared losing their jobs, b/c unemployment and disability didn’t exist. Does child labor still exist?
17 SweatshopsFactory work was monotonous and left employees feeling very little sense of pride.Hours were long, wages were low, and factory conditions were often dangerous and unsanitary.Sweatshops were also hazardous- makeshift factories set up by private contractors in small apartments in or unused buildings.Sweatshops were poorly lit and ventilated and unsafe- they relied on poor unskilled laborers (usually immigrants) who worked long hours for little pay.
18 The GhettoImmigrants and poor urban workers usually lived in urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) in tenements (overcrowded apartments that housed several families).The slums often had open sewers that attracted rats and other disease-spreading pests.The air was dark and polluted with soot from coal-fired steam engines.The tenements were poorly ventilated and full of fire hazards. Often, they were occupied by more than 1 family crammed together into a small apartment.
29 How Cities GrewChapter 15, Section 3Before the Civil War cities were small. Most people walked wherever they needed to go.The introduction of the horse-drawn carriage allowed people to move out of the cites to the suburbs, or residential communities surrounding the cities.Later in the 1800s, motorized transportation made commuting even easier.The first electric trolleys opened in 1868 in New York and the first subway trains appeared in Boston in 1897.Buildings became taller too. The first skyscraper in Chicago was ten stories tall.