2Advantages of CitiesUrbanization = The increase in city size and population.Most cities were in the Northeast, Pacific coast, and on waterways of the Midwest.They were connected by railroad lines and became magnets for immigrants and rural Americans.
3Advantages of CitiesFactory Jobs, new education opportunities, and a growing middle class.Women = take in boarders, do piecework, become servants, and work in factories.More entertainment, possibility to move to the middle class, and increase children’s education.
4Cities grew rapidly Terrible Conditions GROWTH OF URBANIZATION near raw materialsindustrial areastransportation routes.Opportunities in the job market.Terrible ConditionsPoor sanitary and living conditionsTenement apartmentsSweathouses
5Immigrants Move to Cities for Opportunities Some may have went to cities to join family others may not.Different regions and industries may have a majority of their workers from one particular place.Ex: Steel mill workers in Pennsylvania were mostly Polish.New York factories = JewishPacific Northwest fishing industry = Scandinavians
6Migration from Country to Cities Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to citiesMany African Americans in South lose their livelihood1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violenceFind segregation, discrimination in North tooCompetition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tensionThe move to factory work was hard on famers because they now had to face a boss’s restrictions and rules and be confined to a factory and not be outdoors.
8Engineers Build Skyward Skyscrapers = 10 story and taller buildings that had steel frames.Provided office space for cities that had no more room left on the ground.Elisha Otis = Developed safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke.The American Institute of Architecture-1857Required education and licensing to become and architect.Built schools, libraries, train stations, residents and office buildings.
11Electricity Powers Urban Transit Mass Transit = Public transportation systems that could carry large numbers of people inexpensively.First commuter trains were dirty, slow, and unreliable. (Coal Powered)Horse pulled trolleys were slow as well.Electricity was clean, quiet, and efficient.
12Electricity and Mass Transit Electric street cars were reliable and could carry more people than horse carts.Electric cable cars did have problems:The cables used to run the cars could block fire trucks, and traffic congestion blocked them from running on schedule.Boston = first subway system in NYC followed inGrowth of suburbs for those who could afford transit fares away from the city.
14City Planners Control Growth As cities grew architectural firms expanded to offer city planning services to make cities more functional and beautiful.Cities were zoned for different uses. (residential, industrial and financial)Parks, boulevards, buildings and electric street lights were a few of the new developments.Frederick Law Olmstead = Designed Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park, NYC’s Central Park, and similar parks in Detroit, Washington D.C., and California.
22Water and Sanitation Water Sanitation 1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rareFiltration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908SanitationStreets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collectionContractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses often do not do job properlyBy 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments
24Fire and Crime Crime As population grows, thieves flourish Early police forces too small to be effectiveFireFire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heatersMost firefighters volunteers, not always available1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departmentsFire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer
251871 Chicago fire killed nearly 300 people and left more than 100,000 homeless. Police officers in 1900s.