Presentation on theme: "EXPANDING AND CHANGING CITIES. Advantages of Cities Urbanization = The increase in city size and population. Most cities were in the Northeast, Pacific."— Presentation transcript:
EXPANDING AND CHANGING CITIES
Advantages of Cities Urbanization = The increase in city size and population. Most cities were in the Northeast, Pacific coast, and on waterways of the Midwest. They were connected by railroad lines and became magnets for immigrants and rural Americans.
Advantages of Cities Factory Jobs, new education opportunities, and a growing middle class. Women = take in boarders, do piecework, become servants, and work in factories. More entertainment, possibility to move to the middle class, and increase childrens education.
Cities grew rapidly near raw materials industrial areas transportation routes. Opportunities in the job market. Terrible Conditions Poor sanitary and living conditions Tenement apartments Sweathouses
Immigrants Move to Cities for Opportunities Some may have went to cities to join family others may not. Different regions and industries may have a majority of their workers from one particular place. Ex: Steel mill workers in Pennsylvania were mostly Polish. New York factories = Jewish Pacific Northwest fishing industry = Scandinavians
Migration from Country to Cities Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood 1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence Find segregation, discrimination in North too Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension The move to factory work was hard on famers because they now had to face a bosss restrictions and rules and be confined to a factory and not be outdoors.
Engineers Build Skyward Skyscrapers = 10 story and taller buildings that had steel frames. Provided office space for cities that had no more room left on the ground. Elisha Otis = Developed safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke. The American Institute of Architecture-1857 Required education and licensing to become and architect. Built schools, libraries, train stations, residents and office buildings.
Electricity Powers Urban Transit Mass Transit = Public transportation systems that could carry large numbers of people inexpensively. First commuter trains were dirty, slow, and unreliable. (Coal Powered) Horse pulled trolleys were slow as well. Electricity was clean, quiet, and efficient.
Electricity and Mass Transit Electric street cars were reliable and could carry more people than horse carts. Electric cable cars did have problems: The cables used to run the cars could block fire trucks, and traffic congestion blocked them from running on schedule. Boston = first subway system in NYC followed in Growth of suburbs for those who could afford transit fares away from the city.
City Planners Control Growth As cities grew architectural firms expanded to offer city planning services to make cities more functional and beautiful. Cities were zoned for different uses. (residential, industrial and financial) Parks, boulevards, buildings and electric street lights were a few of the new developments. Frederick Law Olmstead = Designed Philadelphias Fairmount Park, NYCs Central Park, and similar parks in Detroit, Washington D.C., and California.
Housing Conditions Tenements = Low cost multifamily housing designed to fit in as many families as possible. Tenements were not clean, had little windows, poor ventilation, and were dangerous.
Urban Living Conditions
Water and Sanitation Water 1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908 Sanitation Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses often do not do job properly By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments
Fire and Crime Crime As population grows, thieves flourish Early police forces too small to be effective Fire Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters Most firefighters volunteers, not always available 1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer
1871 Chicago fire killed nearly 300 people and left more than 100,000 homeless. Police officers in 1900s.