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A PILOT STUDY OF PROMOTING INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT for High-density Residential Buildings in Hong Kong 1155019830 LIANG Guanwen.

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Presentation on theme: "A PILOT STUDY OF PROMOTING INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT for High-density Residential Buildings in Hong Kong 1155019830 LIANG Guanwen."— Presentation transcript:

1 A PILOT STUDY OF PROMOTING INDOOR THERMAL COMFORT for High-density Residential Buildings in Hong Kong 1155019830 LIANG Guanwen

2 CATALOGUE Abstract Keywords Introduction Background Literature Review Methods Case Study Discussion Conclusion

3 ABSTRACT Thermal comfort is one of the dominant parts of occupants living comfort. Due to the geographical and human factors that form the unique high-density residential architecture style for Hong Kong, the thermal comfort of residents has been ignored. For better residential building design, the issue of indoor thermal comfort should be emphasized. This paper reviews extensive literature and background information on earlier indoor thermal comfort studies. It seeks to understand the effects on indoor thermal comfort in three categories: air temperature, air velocity and humidity. The paper then tries to find out the determination of the indoor thermal comfort in high- density residential buildings and summarize the key strategies based on the existing cases of current familiar buildings design and standard guidelines.


5 INTRODUCTION There are several types of comfort, which affect occupants in and around buildings: Visual comfort Acoustic comfort Air quality Thermal comfort

6 INTRODUCTION History of thermal comfort research: In 1900: the thermal stress of miners in Britain by Haldane In 1920s: the first thermal comfort measurement effective temperature The in 1950s: the wet-bulb globe thermometer index and equatorial comfort index In 1970s: the commonly known comfort equations of predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) In 2000: the adaptive model of thermal comfort that acts the basis of the new revision of ASHRAE Standard 55-2004

7 INTRODUCTION Current living situation for normal residents in Hong Kong: Population density is 6,544 persons per kilometers 47.8% of residents live in the public housing flats and home ownership scheme flats (high housing price) Average living space per person of public housing flat is under 12.4m 2

8 INTRODUCTION The famous scene of Hong Kong --wall buildings Several high-rise buildings line up like an enormous wall, and cause wall effect and heat island effect, making negative effects on human thermal comfort.

9 BACKGROUND Six primary factors need to be concerned: Metabolic rate Clothing insulation Air temperature Radiant temperature Air velocity Humidity Definition of thermal comfort by ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 Thermal comfort, demonstrates the condition of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.

10 BACKGROUND The ASHRAE thermal sensation scale, which was developed for use in quantifying people's thermal sensation, is defined as follows: +3 hot +2 warm +1 slightly warm 0 neutral -1 slightly cool -2 cool -3 cold

11 BACKGROUND Reasons why high-density residential buildings exist High-density population: 7,071,600 Less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed The land for residential use is just the 6.8% (76 km 2 ) of all. The government relaxes the restrictions of the plot ratio and the building regulation. Lack of proper urban planning and supervisions.

12 BACKGROUND Definition of wall building by Greensense (fulfills 3 of 6): Distance between buildings is not enough (e.g. less than 15 meters) The layout of the buildings is linear arrangement The average floor number of the buildings (include platform) is over 35 The location of the project is special (e.g. seaside, urban center) The wider side of the buildings face to prevailing winds Near lower buildings

13 BACKGROUND The wall effect stops the natural wind pass in and out, which will reduce the air circulation of the surrounding area. The indoor temperature will rise and air movement will slow down, doing harm to human thermal comfort

14 LITERATURE REVIEW Due to the limited amount of specifically the same subject in this realm, relative literatures are chosen for reference purpose. Alfahaid A. F. (2000). Effect of ventilation on human thermal comfort in rooms Sreshthaputra A. Building design and operation for improving thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in a hot-humid climate (Thailand) Yuen B. and Yeh A. G. O. (2011). High-Rise Living in Asian Cities Wang G. and Guan D.S. (2012). Effects of vegetation cover and normalized difference moisture index on thermal landscape pattern: A case study of Guangzhou, South China Zhang F. and Xu J. (2012). Identifying Energy Conservation Potentials for Existed Buildings in Terms of Controlling Thermal Comfort: The Case for the Educational Building in Xi'an Colleges and Universities

15 METHODS Analysis some typical buildings will be analyzed in terms of air temperature, air velocity and humidity. Compare with familiar cities that confront the same challenge. Other than relying on the artificial control, better design of the indoor environment is more suitable for long-term use. Summarize critical issues of the solution in a more economical and environmental way.

16 CASE STUDY The Festival City, Tai Wai, New Territories, Hong Kong A large private estates development project on Hong Kong MTR Tai Wai Station 12 buildings 46-54 layers About 4,328 apartments

17 CASE STUDY Existing problems: Separation between continuous is too short. Apartments back to the prevailing wind gain poor ventilation. Units on upper floor that face to the prevailing winds are sometimes impacted by the draft. Rely on air conditions too much, which will reduce the relative humidity significantly. Natural sunlight receiving imbalance to individual apartments.

18 CASE STUDY Manhattan, New York, United the States A population of 1,585,873 living in a land area of 59.5 km 2, 26,924/km² (6,544/km 2 in Hong Kong) streets width is 10 meters, the total road area is about 9.74 km 2, 16.5% of the administration area Use setbacks to ensure that streets and yards are provided more open space and adequate light and air --sky exposure plane

19 DISCUSSION The planning and designs of Hong Kongs built forms in the direction of high-rise buildings because of the continuously increasing population and limited useful land

20 DISCUSSION Climate: hot and rainy in summer and cold and humid in winter

21 DISCUSSION Typography: mountainous area with limited useful land

22 DISCUSSION Integration of aforementioned literature reviews, ASHRAE standard 55 –Thermal comfort BEAM Plus --IEQ14: Thermal Comfort

23 CONCLUSION Caring about the living quality of occupants especially on psychological level should be highlighted in modern architecture design, especially thermal comfort. The Hong Kong Government should revise the relevant regulations to restrict the plot area and reduce the exemptible construction area, stopping the developers neglecting the human consideration during the architecture design process.

24 CONCLUSION Advice: provide shading device; increase wall and ceiling insulation; increase natural ventilation properly; near mountain

25 CONCLUSION Limitation Based on earlier study and empirical literature Without numerical analysis support. These strategies are just theoretically discussed needed to prove by practical measures and simulation

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