Presentation on theme: "CH Gilded Era Issues & Progressive Era Reforms"— Presentation transcript:
1 CH 16-18 Gilded Era Issues & Progressive Era Reforms
2 Living ConditionsWhen workers weren’t working they often lived in tenements, run-down apartment buildings.Since workers were so poor families would cram into apartments together were people would often “cook, eat, & sleep in the same room)Disease & crime were common, and fire was always a danger
3 The Rise of Cities (Urbanization) By 1890 the US Census Bureau called the West “closed”, by 1900 there were 45 states, and people stopped heading West.People now took to the cities for new opportunities (where the factories were).The Industrial Revolution had lead to an increased number of factories.US Factories produced $2 Billion in 1865, and by 1900 produced $13 Billion making it the largest economy in the World
4 In 1800 only 6% of Americans lived in cities, by 1900 nearly 40% lived in cities Between 1870 & Million Immigrants would move to the USA, many of whom made up the US workforce: Great Migration- About 6 Million blacks will move from the South to NE Cities, Midwest, & West
5 Living Conditions Many workers lived in Slum Tenements. Shoddy, cramped apartments, with multiple families living in the same spaceNYC- 90,000 /sq mi (PSL 2,056/sq mi )Infrastructure in many of these large cities was inadequateSewage problems, no indoor plumbing, lack of clean water, power outages, fire traps, disease, unpaved roads, etc
6 Environmental IssuesBefore the Industrial Revolution natural resources in the US had been used only minimallyThe Boom would cause mineral deposits, forests, animals to be used a drastically new wayThe US experienced water & air pollution problems for the first time in their history
7 Political MachinesFull-time politicians whose main goal was to get & keep political power, and the money & influence that went with it“Machines” were groups associated with political parties who sought to limit competition & guarantee powerWard & Precinct Bosses would find the poor, sick, & needy and help them on the condition that when it came time to vote that they vote the right way.
8 Tammany Hall Run by William “Boss” Tweed Cheated NYC out of an estimated $200 MillionHorrible for the political system, but acted as a social welfare next for the poor who needed it the most
9 Progressive Era sThe boom of society leading up to and into the 1900s created many social problems.The effort to fix them would be taken up by progressives, who became activists, and the time period known as Progressive Era.
10 Social Gospel Progressives were influenced by two movements: Populism Social Gospel: Religious Movement. Social Reform and Christianity should go hand in hand. Applied Christian beliefs to social and economic problems.
11 MuckrakersWriters who investigated and published truthful reports, and performed an auditing or watchdog function.Often given months or a year to investigate & develop their stories.Yellow Journalism: publishers sought to increase news paper circulation through scandal, war, gossip, etcUpton Sinclair: (The Jungle) wrote of unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry. Would help lead to the Food & Drug Administration
12 Ida Tarbell: (The History of the Standard Oil Company) Depicted Rockefeller/Standard Oil as a cheap, money-grabbing, and viciously effective at monopolizing the oil tradeNellie Bly: (Ten Days In The Mad-House) reported on abuse of mental patientsLincoln Steffens: (The Shame of Cities) reported on early corruption of city politics
13 Improvements Housing Child Labor Tenement Housing Act 1901: (NY) Mandated a central court yard, windows, & ventilation in housing. [Jacob Riis]Child LaborNational Child Labor Committee: passed child labor laws stopping those under 14 from working & limited hoursHull House: (Jane Addams) advocated for the better living conditions of immigrants in Chicago. Also provided basic services- education.
14 Political Reform (Senator Robert La Follette- WI) Work Place SafetyWorking hours for Woman restrictedWorkers’ Compensation Laws: 2/3 of states passed laws saying if workers were hurt at work they received some wagesPolitical Reform (Senator Robert La Follette- WI)Secret Ballot: Didn’t know who you voted forIntroduction of Primary ElectionsIntroduction of Recalls (bad leaders were removed)Direct Initiative: Voters could propose and pass laws without legislative involvement
15 Women’s Right to Vote First demanded right to vote in 1848 1890 formed National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) to help push for Women’s right to voteBy 1898 four states had approved Women’s suffrageBy 1918 fifteen states approved suffrageBy 1920 it was it was added to the constitution as the 19th Amendment
16 Black equalityBooker T Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute, a vocational school for Blacks in AlabamaAdvocated for the slow integration of Blacks into societyNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) fought for the end of segregation through the courtsW.E.B Du Bois (founding member of the NAACP)Advocated for the immediate and unconditional integration of Blacks into society
17 Three Progressive Presidents Theodore RooseveltFought against monopolies, trust, and other big industryBelieved in a Square Deal, that workers, businessmen, and consumers should get fair and honest treatmentStarted the National Park System
18 William Howard Taft Woodrow Wilson Continued to limit big corporations Added land to the National Park SystemRaised Tariffs (Anti-Trust Move)Woodrow WilsonNew Freedom: wanted to eliminate all trusts because he believed it denied economic freedom to small businesses and consumersHad reform laws passed on banking and tariffsGave a greater voice to the common citizen
19 FLORIDA!!!!!!There are a bunch of random Florida People and concepts you need to know according to the EOC because well…. You live in Florida.Please refer to the hand out.