Presentation on theme: "CH 16-18 Gilded Era Issues & Progressive Era Reforms."— Presentation transcript:
CH Gilded Era Issues & Progressive Era Reforms
Living Conditions When workers werent working they often lived in tenements, run-down apartment buildings. Since workers were so poor families would cram into apartments together were people would often cook, eat, & sleep in the same room) Disease & crime were common, and fire was always a danger
The Rise of Cities (Urbanization) By 1890 the US Census Bureau called the West closed, by 1900 there were 45 states, and people stopped heading West. People now took to the cities for new opportunities (where the factories were). The Industrial Revolution had lead to an increased number of factories. – US Factories produced $2 Billion in 1865, and by 1900 produced $13 Billion making it the largest economy in the World
In 1800 only 6% of Americans lived in cities, by 1900 nearly 40% lived in cities Between 1870 & Million Immigrants would move to the USA, many of whom made up the US workforce : Great Migration- About 6 Million blacks will move from the South to NE Cities, Midwest, & West
Living Conditions Many workers lived in Slum Tenements. Shoddy, cramped apartments, with multiple families living in the same space NYC- 90,000 /sq mi (PSL 2,056/sq mi ) Infrastructure in many of these large cities was inadequate – Sewage problems, no indoor plumbing, lack of clean water, power outages, fire traps, disease, unpaved roads, etc
Environmental Issues Before the Industrial Revolution natural resources in the US had been used only minimally The Boom would cause mineral deposits, forests, animals to be used a drastically new way The US experienced water & air pollution problems for the first time in their history
Political Machines Full-time politicians whose main goal was to get & keep political power, and the money & influence that went with it Machines were groups associated with political parties who sought to limit competition & guarantee power Ward & Precinct Bosses would find the poor, sick, & needy and help them on the condition that when it came time to vote that they vote the right way.
Tammany Hall Run by William Boss Tweed Cheated NYC out of an estimated $200 Million Horrible for the political system, but acted as a social welfare next for the poor who needed it the most
Progressive Era s The boom of society leading up to and into the 1900s created many social problems. The effort to fix them would be taken up by progressives, who became activists, and the time period known as Progressive Era.
Social Gospel Progressives were influenced by two movements: – Populism – Social Gospel: Religious Movement. Social Reform and Christianity should go hand in hand. Applied Christian beliefs to social and economic problems.
Muckrakers Writers who investigated and published truthful reports, and performed an auditing or watchdog function. Often given months or a year to investigate & develop their stories. Yellow Journalism: publishers sought to increase news paper circulation through scandal, war, gossip, etc Upton Sinclair: (The Jungle) wrote of unsanitary conditions in the meat packing industry. Would help lead to the Food & Drug Administration
Ida Tarbell: (The History of the Standard Oil Company) Depicted Rockefeller/Standard Oil as a cheap, money- grabbing, and viciously effective at monopolizing the oil trade Nellie Bly: (Ten Days In The Mad-House) reported on abuse of mental patients Lincoln Steffens: (The Shame of Cities) reported on early corruption of city politics
Improvements Housing – Tenement Housing Act 1901: (NY) Mandated a central court yard, windows, & ventilation in housing. [Jacob Riis] Child Labor – National Child Labor Committee: passed child labor laws stopping those under 14 from working & limited hours – Hull House: (Jane Addams) advocated for the better living conditions of immigrants in Chicago. Also provided basic services- education.
Work Place Safety – Working hours for Woman restricted – Workers Compensation Laws: 2/3 of states passed laws saying if workers were hurt at work they received some wages Political Reform (Senator Robert La Follette- WI) – Secret Ballot: Didnt know who you voted for – Introduction of Primary Elections – Introduction of Recalls (bad leaders were removed) – Direct Initiative: Voters could propose and pass laws without legislative involvement
Womens Right to Vote – First demanded right to vote in 1848 – 1890 formed National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) to help push for Womens right to vote – By 1898 four states had approved Womens suffrage – By 1918 fifteen states approved suffrage – By 1920 it was it was added to the constitution as the 19 th Amendment
Black equality – Booker T Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute, a vocational school for Blacks in Alabama Advocated for the slow integration of Blacks into society – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) fought for the end of segregation through the courts – W.E.B Du Bois (founding member of the NAACP) Advocated for the immediate and unconditional integration of Blacks into society
Three Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt – Fought against monopolies, trust, and other big industry – Believed in a Square Deal, that workers, businessmen, and consumers should get fair and honest treatment – Started the National Park System
William Howard Taft – Continued to limit big corporations – Added land to the National Park System – Raised Tariffs (Anti-Trust Move) Woodrow Wilson – New Freedom: wanted to eliminate all trusts because he believed it denied economic freedom to small businesses and consumers – Had reform laws passed on banking and tariffs – Gave a greater voice to the common citizen
FLORIDA!!!!!! There are a bunch of random Florida People and concepts you need to know according to the EOC because well…. You live in Florida. Please refer to the hand out.