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1 Local sustainability strategies – a case study in the Baltic Sea region Lars Rydén Director Baltic University Programme Uppsala University SHARING Jurmala.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Local sustainability strategies – a case study in the Baltic Sea region Lars Rydén Director Baltic University Programme Uppsala University SHARING Jurmala."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Local sustainability strategies – a case study in the Baltic Sea region Lars Rydén Director Baltic University Programme Uppsala University SHARING Jurmala May 2005

2 2 Strategy tools may be used on many contexts/levels Resources Products Industries Local communities Nations

3 3 Materials (resource) management strategies Materials management strategies for improved material flows I. Reducing the flow - use less material for a service 1. Use the material more efficiently. By raising the transmission voltage in a copper wire it is possible to reduce the amount of copper needed to transmit a certain current. 2. Increase the quality of the material. By increasing the strength of a metal, e.g. by using an alloy, less material can be used for the same purpose. It has been estimated that the Eiffel tower in Paris today could be built with one seventh of the steel content it actually has. 3. Miniaturization - use a smaller equipment. By making an equipment smaller less material is used. Computers, now based on miniaturized electronic components, such as silicon chips, provides a dramatic example. A much smaller computer serves the same functions as a large machine earlier. 4. Multi-functionality - Let the equipment serve several purposes. Multi-functional use of products offers another opportunity for reducing the need for materials for a given function. For example, a roof-mounted solar collector can also function as roofing. II. Slowing down the flow - make the material last longer 5. Improve the quality to make the equipment last longer. By making the products last longer, for example by increased quality, the same amount of materials can provide services for longer and therefore the amount of materials for a given service can be reduced. 6. Protect the material in the equipment better. Materials can be protected from wear or corrosion. Modern cars last much longer than those from before due to a better protection of the surface. 7. Better maintenance. By regular maintenance and by using equipment that can be maintained properly the equipment or material can be used longer. 8. Reparability - Make the equipment more easy to repair. Reparability, for example through a modular construction of equipment, will increase the longevity of the materials used. III. Closing the flow - use the material again 9. Reuse the goods itself. Most goods or equipment are of course used more than once. In some instances a proper strategy is required to make this happen, as with glass bottles that may be refilled. 10. Recycle materials in production processes. Many different strategies are applicable in the industrial production process to reduced material intensity. This is part of waste management strategies. Thus manufacturing waste can fed back into earlier material-processing steps, as when for example copper scrap in the manufacturing of copper wires is fed back into the process. 11. Recycle materials in consumer goods - true recycling. Materials in consumer goods may be recycled. This is particularly important for materials that is toxic, such as heavy metals, or materials that are expensive to produce, such as aluminium. Important cases are thus recycling of the metal in aluminium cans and the lead in lead- acid batteries. Recycling of the material to the same use once again is true recycling. 12. Cascading or down-cycling of materials. In many cases the there is an inevitable loss of quality in materials when it is used. However it may be apt for a different use requiring less quality. This is down-cycling or cascading. The typical example is paper where the fibres in the paper itself is going through a wearing process, which limits the use to about six cycles. The chain might start with high quality paper going over newspaper to cardboard paper. The chain or spiral ends when the material is used for energy production in combustion. IV. Substitute the flow - Use a different, less harmful, material 13. Substitute a harmful material for a less harmful one. Transmaterilization means that one material is exchanged for another. An impor­tant aspect is when a hazardous material is exchanged for a less harmful one. The exchange of mercury in a number of applications, from barometers to teeth repair, belongs to this category as does the exchange of many solvents used for painting. 14. Substitute a scarce material for a less scarce one. Sometimes it is important to find a less scarce material for a particular use. When substituting cooper wires in telephone connections for fiberoptic cables this one example. 15. Substitute a non-renewable material for a renewable one. The non-renewable materials will in the end necessarily be exchanged for renewable one. Important example is when fossil fuels are exchanged for renewable fuels, such as biomass. An important case is the exchange of petrol in cars for alcohol from biomass.

4 4 Development of Industrial production Cleaner Production technologies Environmental auditing EMS, IMS TQM etc Estimation of economic viability follows well known tools Tools for estimating social viability is less well developed

5 5 Product development Calculation of total environmental impact follows from Life Cycle Assessment, LCA Estimation of economic viability follows well known tools Tools for estimayting social viability is less well developed

6 6 Product development Ecodesign strategy wheel

7 7 Product Think Chair was developed by the company Steelcase Inc. in close collaboration between researchers, manufacturers and designers. The Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of Think Chair, created according to ISO LCA, accounts for resource depletion, waste, global warming potential,

8 8 What about a city?

9 9 How to design a sustainable city ?

10 10 Sustainable Development of Local communities Policy instruments EMS, IMS, TQM etc Estimation of economic viability follows well known tools Tools for estimating social viability is less well developed

11 11 Baltic University Urban Forum The Baltic University Urban Forum is a cooperation between cities/towns and universities in the Baltic Sea region to develop strategies for sustainable development for cities and towns.

12 12 Baltic University Urban Forum 40 Project partners, 20 teams 2 networks, Baltic University Programme and Union of Baltic Cities (BUP 183 universities; UBC 104 cities) 20 cities (municipalities) in 9 countries 15 universities working with the cities 3 NGOs The 40 partners form 20 teams, one for each city Business partners, may be invited by hosts for the conferences

13 13 Partner cities/towns Uppsala, Sweden Enköping, Sweden Örebro, Sweden Hällefors, Sweden Norrtälje, Sweden Nacka, Sweden Hågaby, Sweden Turku, Finland Hamburg, Germany Tartu, Estonia Jelgava, Latvia Livani, Latvia Tukums, Latvia Kaunas, Lithuania Sopot, Poland Kosakowo, Poland Lodz, Poland Kaliningrad, Russia Novgorod, Russia, Minsk, Belarus

14 14 The SUPERBS reports

15 15 Best Practice Conferences Water management, Enköping, Sw Sept 7-8, Urban green structures, Kaunas, Lt Oct 10-12, 2003, 3. Urban-Rural Cooperation, Jelgava, Lv Mar 3-5, Socio-economic development, Livani, Lv Mar 5-7, Energy management, Uppsala, Sw Apr 21-23, Education and information, Nacka, Sw Apr 23-25, Rebuilding the city and restoration of brownfields, Hamburg, De June 4-6, Traffic and transportation, Örebro, Sw, Sept 1-3, Integration of management of the sustainble city, Hågaby, Sw, Sept 3-5, Waste management, Åbo/Turku, Fi Oct 28-30, 2004

16 16 BUUF Conferences spring 2005 The second round of best practice conferences more workshop character - presentations and implementation discussion, 1. Tartu and Tukums 6-9 April 2005 Integration of Water-Energy-Waste flows Water-Energy-Waste management Jurmala conference May 2005 Integration of sustainability strategies, Sharing experiences One BUUF workshop/parallel session on indicators 2. Lodz 5-8 June 2005 Integration of Traffic-Rebuilding-Green structures Traffic-Rebuilding-Green structures management 3. Norrtälje-Hällefors 31 August- 4 September 2005 Integration of Socio-economic development (education & urban-rural cooperation)

17 17 Three sectors of urban management Urban flows 1. Energy management 2. Water management 3. Waste management Urban planning 4. Traffic and transport 5. Urban Green structures and culture 6. Rebuilding the city, brown fields Urban development 7. Socio-Economic development 8. Urban rural cooperation 9. Information and education Integration of urban management

18 18 Topics of urban management Structure Infrastructures Organisation Process Flows Materials

19 19 Urban flows Water-Energy-Waste Water is connected to material flows and resulting in waste, such as BOD, N, P and sludge Energy is connected to material flows, and resulting in waste, such as carbon dioxide, ash etc Waste as carrier of energy and material

20 20 The metabolism of the city is like that of us. Energy, water and matter goes in; Waste goes out. Energy is carried by matter. It is one system.

21 21 The apple contains energy, matter and water; It generates waste

22 22 The systems approach - energy content in waste water - energy content in soil waste - energy content in air from ventilation - the waste in water flows (e.g. nitrogen and phophorus) - the waste in air flows (e.g. sulphur)

23 23

24 24 Urban flows strategies observed in the BUUF project Reduction Using less energy Using less water Replacing Using renewables, fossil free municipalities Using less toxic, e.g. outphasing Hg Rescaling – downscaling and upscaling Upscaling heating – district heating Downscaling heating – heat pumps, individual boilers Upscaling water flows – sewage, WWTP Recycling Recycling waste flows (product reuse, material recycle, incinerate) Recycle nutrient flows (compost, production of biogas, nutrients to fields)

25 25 Strategies of local sustainability StrategyReduceReplaceRescaleRecycle Urban flows Resource efficiency Resource choice Household/ municipality Integrate flows Urban planning Urban healing/densifi cation New usesOne family/ multifamily apartments Multifunction al neigh- boorhoods Urban deve- lopment Reduced consumption Different consumption Local production Local markets

26 26 A special case of recycling – Integrated resource flows

27 27 Integration of urban flows Cases 1. Organic waste fermented to produce biogas to be used for buses (several Swedish municipalities) 2. Wastewater to energy forests to produce wood chips for energy (Enköping) 3. Wastewater to mussel banks to canned mussel to food (Varberg) Cycling 1. Carbon cycle is closed 2. Carbon cycle is closed, in addition linear nitrogen and phosphorus flows decreased, and cadmium decreased 3. Nitrogen flows closed Gains Environmental gains: flows closed Economic gains: money flows stays in the local community Welfare gains: better environment, better water,

28 28 A special case of rescaling - Localised resource flows

29 29 Localisation - Local resource flows Local energy provision - Solar panels (households or fields) - Bio energy from close-by farmers - Heat pumps - Local hydro-, wind-, wave power Local nutrient flows - urine from separating toilets to local farmers - sludge to local uses (composting / fermentation) - wastewater to local uses (energy forests etc) Local markets - municipalities buying from local companies - recycling arrangements - local currencies - locally produced food

30 30 Both recycling and localised resource flows are systems approaches

31 31 The Swedish LIP programme Local Investment programme, MSEK (65 MEuro) to 161 municipalities for 577 local projects 29 waste energy projects 230 district or near heating projects tonnes of oil replaced with biomass

32 32 Experiences from the LIP Waste energy from local factories goes to district heating 7 industries cooperated in heat production Biogas production from organic waste Smart solutions often possible Stake holder cooperation recommended Industries could save energy to 50 % Residential areas could save energy by 38 % tonnes of oil replaced with biomass Very large economic savings possible Why is it not done? The role of public and business

33 33 Alternative energy strategies Housing sector (About 30 % of energy budget) -Energy efficient houses more common -Biomass in increasing -Heat pumps increasing in Sweden -Solar panels slowly increasing -Value of increased efficiency 19 BSEK in Sweden alone

34 34 How to implement sustainabilty strategies Management systems Management centres

35 35 Incentives Economy Dominating incentive for households A municipality can accept investments also with low interest rates Quality Especially for water, it is important Heating it is as well important Environmental Legally required in many cases (EU directives) Recycle nutrient flows (compost, production of biogas, nutrients to fields)

36 36 Evaluation of urban flows Evaluate the process by consequences for economy and health - Save money; taking care of energy - Improve health and wellbeing; less pollution, better waste management, will lead to better health

37 37 Monitoring -indicators Indicators developed for each of the nine categories Monitoring for urban management Often required for EU directives Used for reporting, e.g. GRI (Global Reporting Initiative)

38 38 Management systems EMS (environment management systems) e.g. ISO 14001) IMS (integrated management systems) health and economy can be included Private/public choice

39 39 The A Mobility Centre is the operating unit at the urban/regional level, where Mobility Services are initiated, organised and provided. The establishment of a Mobility Centre is an important milestone and serves as a crystallisation point for Mobility Management. There are two basics for a Mobility Centre: - a multi-modal approach in the provision of services - individual access for the public via personal visit, phone, fax, , information terminals or online services A Mobility Centre concentrates all services and thus serves as a platform - a place for communication and exchange. Its presence can give Mobility Management a public face and, thus, promote its presence in the transport marketplace.. entre A Mobility Centre

40 40 Typical Mobility Management projects Car sharing Car pools Audio conferencing instead of meetings Coordinated deliveries of goods Distance work Supporting local shops Supporting biking Supporting public transport

41 41

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