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The Renaissance Cultural Awakening & Church Response.

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance Cultural Awakening & Church Response."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance Cultural Awakening & Church Response

2 Foundational Concepts Name: Renaissance – Implies a rebirth Locus – Broadly: 1350-1650 in Western Europe – Narrowly: 14 th Century in Italy Name: Renaissance – Implies a rebirth Locus – Broadly: 1350-1650 in Western Europe – Narrowly: 14 th Century in Italy

3 Foundational Concepts Theo-centric concentration Anthropocentric view of life Corporate-sacred focus Individualistic-secular focus Pessimistic (fearful/superstitious) Optimistic way of living (experimental/hypothesizing) Futuristic thinking Present thinking Nature

4 Foundational Concepts Sources 1.Economic transformation 2.Centralizing governments 3.Rise of Italian merchant cities as independent republics 4.Proliferation of written materials 5.Nominalism replaced realism as philosophical foundation Sources 1.Economic transformation 2.Centralizing governments 3.Rise of Italian merchant cities as independent republics 4.Proliferation of written materials 5.Nominalism replaced realism as philosophical foundation

5 Renaissance and Humanism Tendency to place humans (humanity) at the center of the universe In 14-16th c. humanism implied a literary methodology Term evolved to mean the study of the humanitie s Tendency to place humans (humanity) at the center of the universe In 14-16th c. humanism implied a literary methodology Term evolved to mean the study of the humanitie s

6 Expressions/forms of Humanism Literary Scientific Classical Italian (cultural/artistic humanism) Literary Scientific Classical Italian (cultural/artistic humanism)

7 Contributions of Humanism 1.New curriculum in universities 2.Preserved classical literature 3.Textual criticism emerged as important science (Lorenzo Valla) 4.Historical Awareness 5.Literary form and style 6.Revolutionized science (Galileo) 7.Repositioned foundation of cultural morality (Machiavelli) 1.New curriculum in universities 2.Preserved classical literature 3.Textual criticism emerged as important science (Lorenzo Valla) 4.Historical Awareness 5.Literary form and style 6.Revolutionized science (Galileo) 7.Repositioned foundation of cultural morality (Machiavelli)

8 Figures of Italian Renaissance Petrarch (1304-1374) –Founder of Renaissance humanism Boccaccio (1313-1375) –Launched Greek classic revival ( Decameron ) Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) –Director of Platonic Academy in Florence Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) –Wrote The Dignity of Man Petrarch (1304-1374) –Founder of Renaissance humanism Boccaccio (1313-1375) –Launched Greek classic revival ( Decameron ) Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) –Director of Platonic Academy in Florence Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) –Wrote The Dignity of Man

9 Renaissance flowering in arts Giotto (1266-1336) – The Death of St. Francis Giotto (1266-1336) – The Death of St. Francis

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11 Renaissance flowering in arts Giotto (1266-1336) – The Lamentation of Christ Giotto (1266-1336) – The Lamentation of Christ

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13 Renaissance flowering in arts Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – Last Supper

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15 Renaissance flowering in arts Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – Mona Lisa

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17 Renaissance flowering in arts Raphael (1483-1520) – Julian Apartments at St. Peters Raphael (1483-1520) – Julian Apartments at St. Peters

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19 Renaissance flowering in arts Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Sculptures : David, Moses, Pieta Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Sculptures : David, Moses, Pieta

20 David Moses Pieta

21 Renaissance flowering in arts Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Paintings : Sistine Chapel Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Paintings : Sistine Chapel

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23 Renaissance flowering in arts Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Structures : St. Peters Basilica Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Structures : St. Peters Basilica

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25 Renaissance flowering in arts Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Clothing : Papal Swiss Guard Michelangelo (1475-1564) –Clothing : Papal Swiss Guard

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27 Renaissance flowering in arts Bernini (1598-1680) –St. Peters Chair, Baldacchino –St. Peters Square – Colonnades –Palazzo Senatorio – Ecstasy of St. Teresa Bernini (1598-1680) –St. Peters Chair, Baldacchino –St. Peters Square – Colonnades –Palazzo Senatorio – Ecstasy of St. Teresa

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30 BaldacchinoSt. Peters Cathedra

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32 Ecstasy of St. Teresa

33 Renaissance – Papal Ambitions Nine Infamous Popes of the Renaissance 1.Nicholas V (1447-55) 2.Calixtus III (1455-58) 3.Pius II (1458-64) 4.Paul II (1464-71) 5.Sixtus IV (1471-84) 6.Innocent VIII (1484-92) 7.Alexander VI (Borgia) (1492-1503) 8.Julius II (1503-1513) 9.Leo X (1513-1521) Nine Infamous Popes of the Renaissance 1.Nicholas V (1447-55) 2.Calixtus III (1455-58) 3.Pius II (1458-64) 4.Paul II (1464-71) 5.Sixtus IV (1471-84) 6.Innocent VIII (1484-92) 7.Alexander VI (Borgia) (1492-1503) 8.Julius II (1503-1513) 9.Leo X (1513-1521)

34 Renaissance Adaptation: Northern Humanism Links bridging two expressions of humanism –Foreign correspondence of Italian humanists –Printed books, originating in places like Aldine press in Venice –European scholars Links bridging two expressions of humanism –Foreign correspondence of Italian humanists –Printed books, originating in places like Aldine press in Venice –European scholars

35 Renaissance Adaptation: Northern Humanism Three Ideals 1.Concern for bonae litterae (good/fine literature) 2.Emphasized religious program directed towards revival of the Christian church 3.Struck a pacifistic note in most areas Three Ideals 1.Concern for bonae litterae (good/fine literature) 2.Emphasized religious program directed towards revival of the Christian church 3.Struck a pacifistic note in most areas

36 Key Figures: Northern Humanism John Colet (1467-1519) Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522) Erasmus (1466-1536) – Handbook of the Christian Soldier (1503) – Praise of Folly (1511) –Greek New Testament (Lorenzo Valla influence) (1516) – Colloquies (1518) – On Free Will (c. 1524) Laid the egg that Luther hatched John Colet (1467-1519) Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522) Erasmus (1466-1536) – Handbook of the Christian Soldier (1503) – Praise of Folly (1511) –Greek New Testament (Lorenzo Valla influence) (1516) – Colloquies (1518) – On Free Will (c. 1524) Laid the egg that Luther hatched

37 Renaissance Resistance: Mystical Alternative Quest –Direct contact with God / Practice the presence of God Two Forms –Psychological – emotional union –Philosophical – essential union Causes –Reaction against scholastic excesses of rationalism –Nominalisms emphasis on individual and limits of reason –Protest against troubled times in the church and society Quest –Direct contact with God / Practice the presence of God Two Forms –Psychological – emotional union –Philosophical – essential union Causes –Reaction against scholastic excesses of rationalism –Nominalisms emphasis on individual and limits of reason –Protest against troubled times in the church and society

38 Influential Mystics John (Meister) Eckhart (1260-1327) –Father of German mysticism Julian of Norwich (1342-1423) –Greatest woman mystic of middle ages Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) –Latin mysticism (emotional) at its best John of Ruysbroeck (1293-1381) –Influenced mystical movement in Holland Gerard Groote (1340-1384) –Modern Devotion movement / Brethren of Common Life Thomas AKempis (1380-1471) – Imitation of Christ John (Meister) Eckhart (1260-1327) –Father of German mysticism Julian of Norwich (1342-1423) –Greatest woman mystic of middle ages Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) –Latin mysticism (emotional) at its best John of Ruysbroeck (1293-1381) –Influenced mystical movement in Holland Gerard Groote (1340-1384) –Modern Devotion movement / Brethren of Common Life Thomas AKempis (1380-1471) – Imitation of Christ

39 Consequences of Mysticism 1.Emphasis on subjectiveness of Gospel message 2.Tended to substitute inner authority for the Bible (minimized doctrine) 3.Could become too passivistic -- no outward action to match inward reflection 1.Emphasis on subjectiveness of Gospel message 2.Tended to substitute inner authority for the Bible (minimized doctrine) 3.Could become too passivistic -- no outward action to match inward reflection I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying. The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus (1515-1582)

40 Renaissance Resistance: Ultra-Conservatives Garolano Savonarola (1452-1498) Background Ministry Career Political entanglements Penitential city of Florence –Burning of the Vanities Downfall and death (May 23, 1498) Message in his life and death Garolano Savonarola (1452-1498) Background Ministry Career Political entanglements Penitential city of Florence –Burning of the Vanities Downfall and death (May 23, 1498) Message in his life and death

41 Published Photos Via Sacred Destinations [Select Photos via Public Domain & Wikipedia] Free use for schools and churches Teachers and students may use any image of our images for class presentations, projects, lectures, homework - basically anything directly school-related - under Fair Use. Churches, synagogues and other non- profit organizations may also use our photos free of charge within the church or organization, such as in sermons, Bible studies, presentations, etc. It is not necessary to ask permission for these uses, but please be sure to cite the source for the photo as Sacred Destinations, including the URL (www.sacred-destinations.com).


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