3 Bell Environmental Services BED BUGSBell Environmental Services3
4 Bed Bugs Blood feeders Common in U.S. before WWII Comeback due to: Changes in pest control practicesIncreased international travelHitchhike in belongingsNot known to transmit diseases4
5 Insecticide at hotel killed NZ tourist in Thailand "I think she has been killed by an overzealous sprayer who's been acting on the instructions of the hotel owner to deal with bed bugs," Dr McDowall said.Even a slight mistake in the dosage of chlorpyrifos, which has been banned for indoor use in many countries, could be lethal, he said - Otago Daily Times May 9, 20111
6 Bed Bugs Hotels Apartments & houses Hospitals & nursing homes Schools Office buildingsAnd spreading to...Modes of transportationMovie theaters6
7 Bed Bugs ¼ inch Reddish brown Oval, flat Sometimes confused with cockroaches or ticks7
15 Bed Bug Habits Flattened bodies make them good hiders Prefer to hide in seams, cracks and crevices close to where people sleep or spend majority of their timeHiding areas marked with fecal spots (dried blood)15
33 Early Detection Dog inspections Roscoe Quick & over 90% accurate Ideal for multi-unit buildingsCan limit treatment areasRoscoe33
34 Preparation Prep List – What to do with clothing, toys, books, etc. Treatment success depends largely upon how well an area is prepared34
35 PreparationDo not move infested items to uninfested areas unless sealed in plastic bagsDo not move patients or tenants to uninfested locations until they and their belongings have been inspected and dealt with properly35
36 PreparationNormal wash cycle with hot water will kill all bed bug stagesRunning clothes or items through the drier for at least five minutes at most settings is also as effective36
38 Statutes, Case and Recent Legislative Developments By: Michael T. Reilly_____________________________________________________________________
39 Relevant New York State and New York City Statutes Multiple Dwelling Law § 78(1) RepairsLandlords are responsible for maintaining multiple dwellings in good repairReal Property Law § 235-(b) Warranty of HabitabilityImplied warranty in every residential lease that an apartment is fit for human habitation and for the uses reasonably intended by the parties and that the occupants of such premises shall not be subjected to any conditions which would be dangerous, hazardous or detrimental to their life, health or safety_____________________________________________________________________
40 Relevant New York State and New York City Statutes New York City Administrative Code § Notice of Bed Bug Infestation HistoryResidential landlords required to provide new tenants before signing a lease with a disclosure form containing the history of infestations within the apartment to be rented and within the buildingNew York City Rules and Regulations Title 16 Article § Department of Sanitation Mattress Disposal RuleAny person disposing a mattress or box spring for collection by the Department of Sanitation is required to enclose the mattress or box spring within plastic bagFine of $ for non compliance
41 Residential Real Estate Cases Zayas v. Franklin Plaza, 23 Misc. 3d 1104(A), 2009 WL (N.Y. City Civ. Ct. 2009)Residential cooperative tenant sues landlord for negligence for infestation caused by building wide bed bug infestationCourt determines landlord was on notice and took no steps to remedy the conditionTenant awarded damages for loss of personal property and cost for medical treatment, denied cost of exterminators hired by tenant
42 Residential Real Estate Cases Bender v. Green, 24 Misc. 3d 174, 874 N.Y.S. 2d 786 (N.Y. City Civ. Ct. 2009)Breach of warranty of habitability found where bed bugs were present in rent stabilized apartment, residential tenant entitled to 12% rent abatement for infestation
43 Residential Real Estate Cases Ludlow Properties v. Young, 4 Misc. 3d 515, 780 N.Y.S.2d 853 (N.Y. City Civ. Ct. 2004)Breach of warranty of habitability found where bed bugs were present in rent stabilized apartment, residential tenant entitled to 45% rent abatement for infestation
44 Commercial Real Estate Cases Clark v. Beacon Capital Partners, 2011 WL (N.Y. Supp 2011)Employee of major news network and her husband sue commercial landlord, property manager, and building cleaning service entities for alleged bed bug related injuries.Employee alleges defendants negligent in allowing leased premises to become infected with bugs, failed to warn of infestation and failed to remedy the problem.Employer hires pest company to investigate workplace and homes of employees. An employee who shared desk space with the Plaintiff is found to have excessive amounts of bed bugs, spiders and roaches in his apartment.Court notes, “this is the first lawsuit brought by a tenant’s employee against a commercial landlord and its agents.”Court finds reliance on statutes designed to protect tenants of residential dwellings is not applicable in the commercial context.Court finds no contractual relationship between defendants and Plaintiff, the only remedy available to injured employee is workers compensation
45 Recent Proposed Legislation New York State Assembly Bill A1482 & New York State Senate Bill S1286Tax credit for personal property replacement up to 15% of cost, not to exceed $750 for bed bug infestationNew York State Assembly Bill A1482Provides for sanitation of every used mattresses or bedding material transported, stored or sold in the stateNew York State Assembly Bill A5177Provides for notice of bed bug infestation for cities less than one million
46 Recent Proposed Legislation New York State Assembly Bill 6074Require that every hotel for cities less than one million shall protect all mattresses and box springs with bedbug-impermeable coversNew York State Assembly Bill A5304Permits landlords to inspect dwellings and exterminate upon reasonable noticeNew York State Assembly Bill A5524Requires safety measures to be taken in the transport, transfer and storage of used bedding when bought and sold to commercial establishments including hotelsNew York State Senate S358Provides for the sanitization of used mattresses before moving, storing or sale
47 NYC Bed Bug Advisory Board Report Education, Awareness and Early DetectionTake a proactive approach to public education and awarenessProvide bed bug training to stake holdersLaunch and maintain an on line Bed Bug Portal devoted to bed bug facts
48 NYC Bed Bug Advisory Board Report Treatment and RemediationEstablish protocols for proper disposal of infested itemsDevelop suggested minimum pest management practicesCreate guidelines for the donation of used and second-hand itemsDevelop triage approach for immediate responseOffer guidelines for self-remediation
49 NYC Bed Bug Advisory Board Report Monitoring and PolicyAssemble a Bed Bug Team, headed by a qualified entomologist or equivalent professional and support staff, to coordinate City wide bed bug efforts in conjunction with a Bed Bug Working GroupDevelop integrated monitoring, tracking and reporting toolsImprove the Department of Housing Preservation and Development bed bug infestation protocols and code enforcement capacityIncrease the capability of New York City Housing Authority to take a proactive stance in preventing and addressing bed bug infestationsEvaluate current housing court procedures as they relate to both landlords and tenants and look for methods to compel compliance and access to ensure effective bed bug management
50 NYC Bed Bug Advisory Board Report Monitoring and PolicyUtilize Article 151 of the New York City Health Code to help overcome obstacles associated with bed bug management in buildings with wide spread infestationsRequire landlords to provide written bed bug information to tenants upon lease signing and renewalDisseminate consumer warning about bed bugs risks from used furniture and mattressesEncourage small businesses and social enterprise start-ups to provide bed bug preparation for low and moderate income households.
51 By: Danielle DeFilippis Are You Covered? Insurance Coverage for Bed Bug Infestation and Related Claims_____________________________________________________________________By: Danielle DeFilippis
52 Who Pays the Bill?Will insurance cover the costs of bed bug treatment?Will insurance cover replacement of property destroyed by bed bugs?Will insurance provide benefits to injured employees?Will insurance cover the cost of defending litigation?
53 What Are Your Potential Costs? RemediationReplacementLoss of businessInjury to employeesCompensation to tenants or guestsCostly litigationSettlements
54 Types of Insurance Coverage HomeownersRentersWorkers CompensationCommercial General LiabilityCommercial PropertyBusiness Owners/Business Interruption
55 First Party Property Insurance The first place you might look is to coverage you obtained for your home or property you ownTypes of First-Party CoverageHomeownersRentersCommercial Property CoverageAre you covered? No.
56 Homeowners CoverageHomeowners insurance policies typically provide coverage for:DwellingThe dwelling on the “residence premises”Other StructuresOther structures on the “residence premises” set apart from the dwelling by clear spaceThis includes structures connected to the dwelling by only a fence, utility line, or similar connectionPersonal PropertyPersonal property owned or used by an “insured” while it is anywhere in the worldPersonal property owned by others while the property is on the “residence premises” occupied by an “insured”
57 Common Policy Exclusions Homeowners & Commercial Property policies typically exclude coverage for loss caused by:“Birds, vermin, rodents, or insects”; or“nesting or infestation, or discharge or release of waste products or secretions, by insects, birds, rodents or other animals”
58 Insurance Industry Perspective The cost of getting rid of bedbugs, like other vermin, is considered part of the maintenance associated with owning a home and generally is not covered by standard homeowners and renters insurance policiesMost standard commercial property insurance policies also have vermin exclusions for infestation
59 New York Legislative Action Proposed legislation in the 2011 sessionBill No. S4926 introduced by Senator Jeffrey D. KleinMandates that no property/casualty insurance policy shall be issued unless it contains in substance the following provisions:For insurance policies issued or issued for delivery on a risk to property zoned, for residential use, in whole or in part, a provision providing for optional coverage whereby the insurer shall pay the costs associated with the treatment of bedbug infestations at the insured property, including all costs for extermination services; costs for cleaning of the insured property and of personal property located at the insured premises including the dry-cleaning of clothing and bedding; and the cost of replacing items which are not able to be treated or cleaned including, but not limited to, mattresses or furnitureThe provisions of this subsection shall apply to all homeowners, renters, and condo/co-op unit insurance policies issued in the state
60 Third Party LiabilityCoverage may be available for damages to third parties, i.e., third party liabilityPotential third party liabilityLawsuits by tenantsInjury to employees or relativesClaims by hotel guestsDamage to the property by othersDefense costs for lawsuitsSettlements/Judgments
61 Potential Exposure for Third Party Claims Lawsuits are costly to defendMany recent bedbug lawsuits seek large damage awardsChicago plaintiffs seek $382,000 in punitive and compensatory damagesAn opera singer files lawsuit against hotel for $6 millionA Virginia plaintiff sues hotel for $100,000 for medical treatment for her sonA Tennessee plaintiff sues a Rent-a-Center for $575,000 claiming furniture was infestedA Chicago woman sues a New York hotel for $20 million$186,000 in punitive damages awarded to Illinois plaintiffNorristown plaintiff sues Aaron’s Sale & Lease for infestation cause by leased furniture
62 Claims Asserted in Bed Bug Lawsuits Plaintiffs seek recovery under a variety of legal theories:NegligenceAssaultBatteryNegligent and Intentional Infliction of Emotional DistressPremises LiabilityBreach of Contract/LeaseBreach of WarrantiesConstructive Eviction
63 Commercial General Liability Insurance The CGL policy typically provides coverage as follows:We will pay those sums that the insured becomes legally obligated to pay as damages because of “bodily injury” or “property damage” to which this insurance appliesWe will have the right and duty to defend the insured against any “suit” seeking those damagesHowever, we will have no duty to defend the insured against any “suit” seeking damages for “bodily injury” or “property damage” to which this insurance does not apply
64 Coverage Provided Under the Insuring Agreement The insurance applies to “bodily injury” and “property damage” only if:“bodily injury” or properly damage is caused by an “occurrence” and;The “bodily injury” or “property damage” occurs during the policy period
65 Relevant Definitions“Bodily injury” means bodily injury, sickness or disease sustained by a person, including death resulting from any of these at any time“Property damage” means physical injury to tangible property, including all resulting loss of use that property“Occurrence” means an accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to substantially the same general harmful conditions
66 Owned Property Exclusion The CGL policy will not provide coverage for damage to:“Property you own, rent, or occupy”Coverage is afforded for third party liability
67 Duty to Defend The duty to defend is broad “An insurer’s duty to defend is broader than the duty to indemnify and arises whenever the allegations of the complaint against the insured, liberally construed, potentially fall within the scope of the risks undertaken by the insurer.” Consolidated Edison Co. of N.Y. v Allstate Ins. Co., 98 NY2d 208, 218 (2002); New York City Hous. Auth. v Commercial Union Ins. Co., 289 AD2d 311, 312 (2001)
68 Claims that May be Covered by Your CGL Policy Negligence based claimsClaims based on premises liabilityNegligent infliction of emotional distressDamage resulting from covered claimsNew York law provides coverage for pure emotional distress claims
69 Liability Coverage under the Homeowners Policy Afforded by the CGL Policy Homeowners policies also provide liability coverageThe typical homeowners policy provides coverage for personal liabilityIf a claim is made or a suit is brought against an “insured” for damages because of “bodily injury” or “property damage” caused by an “occurrence” to which coverage applies, the insurer will:Pay up to the limit of liability for the damages for which an “insured” is legally liableProvide a defense at the consumer’s expense by counsel of our choice, even in the suit is groundless, false or fraudulent
70 What to Do When a Claim is Made Immediately notify your insurance companyInvestigate the claimReview your insurance policy’s notice provisions and comply completely
71 Notice ProvisionsLiability policies contain the following notice provisions:You must see to it that we are notified as soon as practicable of an “occurrence” or an offense which may result in a claim. To the extent possible, notice should include:How, when and where the “occurrence” or offense took place;The names and addresses of any injured persons and witnesses; andThe nature and location of any injury or damage arising out of the “occurrence” or offenseIf a claim is made or “suit” is brought against any insured, you mustImmediately record the specifics of the claim or “suit” and the date received; andNotify us as soon as possibleYou must see to it that we receive written notice of the claim of “suit” as soon as practicable
72 Bed Bugs in the Workplace Are you Prepared? Presented by: David Cassidy
73 Office Memo: Bed Bugs Are Back “They've moved out of the boudoir and into movie theaters, retail stores, libraries, firehouses, and inevitably, the workplace.”
74 Employees who work in Goldman [Sach]'s Jersey City, N. J Employees who work in Goldman [Sach]'s Jersey City, N.J., office tower have been moved from certain floors and ordered out of the building at times because exterminators have been in checking and spraying for bed bugs, said two separate sources at the firm. Neither source was comfortable being quoted by name, citing company policy.
75 Threats Damaged reputation Lost Revenue Decreased Productivity LitigationSPEAKER TIPS:Social stigma = No one wants to stay at a place that has been reported to have bed bugsGuest satisfaction most importantBed bug infestations can be cause for litigationDamaged business reputation biggest threatIncreasingly a sensitive topic and one that draws emotional responses from victims7575
77 Legal Issues Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) OSHA RegulationsWhistleblower statusAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA)How Bed Bugs can trigger “disabilities”/accommodation issuesFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA)When can someone claim FMLA leave for bedbugs?Workers Comp/3rd Party NegligenceThe Workers Comp loophole and innovative plaintiff attorneys
78 Legal Issues, Cont’d Privacy and Defamation Issues National Labor Relations Act – concerted & protected activity
79 Policy Concerns Traveling Employees In-home Service Employees Company UniformsCompany VehiclesLeave Time for ExterminationExtermination Costs – Who pays?
80 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
81 The "H" in OSHA Stands for Health OSHA regulates more than just safety hazards in the workplace.OSHA was founded to assure workers of both safe and healthy working conditions.The health issues that OSHA monitors often are overlooked.Health issues include indoor air quality, sanitation, ergonomics, environment, workplace stress, and workplace violence
82 OSHA’s General Duty Clause – “The Catchall” 29 U.S.C. § 654, 5(a)(1) “Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees, a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees."
83 OSHA’s General Environmental Regulation 29 C.F.R. 1910.141(a)(5) “Vermin control. Every enclosed workplace shall be so constructed, equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. A continuing and effective extermination program shall be instituted where their presence is detected.”
84 OSHA’s Whistleblower Clause 29 U.S.C. §660 Section 11(c) of OSHA prohibits any person from discharging or in any manner retaliating against any employee because the employee has exercised rights under the Act.Rights include complaining to OSHA and seeking an OSHA inspection, participating in an OSHA inspection, and participating or testifying in any proceeding related to an OSHA inspection.Bed bugs are embarrassing and can be a PR nightmare, but do not issue a “gag” order on your employees – Also reference NLRA implications as this may be a restriction under that act.
85 When OSHA calls… Don’t Panic They can’t and won’t chase down every bedbug infestationHave a comprehensive written plan of attackShow that you are aware of the situation and are taking steps to combat the problemBe sure to follow any OSHA recordkeeping requirements that may be applicable to youBusiness establishments classified in a specific low hazard retail, service, finance, insurance or real estate industry are generally exempt
86 Do Your Homework!Does your building code have a vermin provision that requires you to monitor bed bug issues?Does your local health code require you to keep your building free of insects?Do you have relevant policies, and if so, are you following it?NOTE – We will discuss whether and how to implement an bed bug policy later in the presentation
88 Definition of “Disability” Under the ADA The basic definition of the term “disability”:A physical or mental impairment that “substantially limits” one or more “major life activities” of such individualA record of such impairmentBeing regarded as having such an impairment
89 “Major Life Activities” Caring for oneselfPerforming manual tasksSeeingHearingEatingCommunicatingWalkingStandingSleepingBendingSpeakingBreathingLearningReadingConcentratingThinkingLiftingWorkingALERGIES – BREATHING.THINKING.CONCENTRAING????
90 Bedbugs, Sleeping and the ADA An impairment substantially limits an individual's ability to sleep if sleep is significantly restricted as compared to the average personAn individual would not be substantially limited in sleeping if she/he had some trouble getting to sleep or sometimes slept fitfully because of a mental impairmentThe determination of whether a particular person is substantially limited in sleeping is very fact-specificFor example, an individual who sleeps only a negligible amount without medication for many months, due to post-traumatic stress disorder, would be significantly restricted as compared to the average person in the general population and therefore would be substantially limited in sleeping. Similarly, an individual who for several months typically slept about two to three hours per night without medication, due to depression, also would be substantially limited in sleeping.
91 American Psychological Association (APA): Bed Bugs May Trigger Anxiety MedPage Today.com Media Frenzy surround reports of bedbug infestation in NY may increase acute anxiety and mood disordersEvan Rieder, MD, urges colleagues to be aware of risks associated with bedbug psychosis
92 APA: Bed Bugs May Trigger Anxiety – continued MedPage Today.com Patients with prior medical or psychiatric history can decompensate even if they have been medically stable for a significant period.Bedbugs create a unique problem compared to other pests, as they have close physical contact and feed off human blood in a place of retreat and comfort – your bed.
93 Study: Bed Bugs Could Carry MRSA Updated: Wednesday, 11 May 2011, 11:05 PM EDT By DAN BOWENS with MYFOX NEW YORK STAFFMRSA – Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, a baterial infection that is highly resistant to some antibiotics, found in bed bugs in CanadaStaphylococcus Aureus is a common type of bacteria that normally live on the skin or nasal passage of healthy people.
94 Study: Bed Bugs Could Carry MRSA - Continued Updated: Wednesday, 11 May 2011, 11:05 PM EDT By DAN BOWENS with MYFOX NEW YORK STAFFThere is no evidence showing that bed bugs actually carry MRSA, the bites cause itching and a potential risk for infection.Dr. Steven Garner warns New York to take note of the Canadian study and suggests testing in the inner-city.
95 EEOC Guidance The Story So Far When does an impairment substantially limit an individual's ability to sleep?An impairment substantially limits an individual's ability to sleep if, due to the impairment, his/her sleep is significantly restricted as compared to the average person in the general population. These limitations must be long-term or potentially long-term as opposed to temporary to justify a finding of ADA disability.For example, an individual who sleeps only a negligible amount without medication for many months, due to post-traumatic stress disorder, would be significantly restricted as compared to the average person in the general population and, therefore, would be substantially limited in sleeping. Similarly, an individual who for several months typically slept about two to three hours per night without medication, due to depression, also would be substantially limited in sleeping.See EEOC Psychiatric Disabilities Guidance at question 11.
96 Can Bedbugs be a Disability? Bedbugs themselves – UnlikelySide Effects – DefinitelyLack of sleepDepression/AnxietyDelusory ParasitosisPatients acquire a strong delusional belief that they are infested with parasites/insects/bugsDelusory CleptoparasitosisA form of delusion of parasitosis where the sufferer believes the infestation is in their dwelling, rather than on or in their body
97 ADA Accommodations Leave of absences to treat disability Hours of Work reassigned – sleeping issuesOther accommodationsWork at home if workplace infested
98 Extermination IssuesDoes the extermination procedure (use of chemicals, etc.) comply with OSHA regulations?Choose your professional carefully!Will the extermination procedure trigger ADA-eligible illnesses with employees?AllergiesSick Building SyndromeChemical Sensitivity
99 Additional Issues Traveling Employees Service Employees Uniform PoliciesCompany Vehicles
100 Family Medical Leave Act and Other Leave Issues
101 When Leave is a Appropriate Does Family Medical Leave Act ApplyTo employees with bedbugs?To employees seeking to avoid bedbugs?Can you send an employee home if he or she reports having bedbugs at home?
102 Employees Seeking Leave to Avoid Getting Bedbugs Department of Labor’s Guidance on H1N1 – November, InstructiveThe DOL noted that FMLA leave is NOT available to avoid exposure to the flu. The DOL, however, encourages employee's and employers to allow employees to stay home to minimize the spread of the pandemic who are ill or who have been exposed to someone who is ill with pandemic influenza. SAME REASONING WOULD APPLY TO BED BUGS – FMLA NOT AVAILABLE TO OTHER EMPLOYES WHO HAVE A EFAR OF BED BUGS UNLESS IT RISES OT THE LEVEL OF A SERIOUS EHALTH CONDITION?
103 Salaried EmployeesBe careful when salaried employees take time off for bed bug remediation:Cannot deduct pay for partial day absencesCannot deduct pay for time off unless a bona fide plan or policy existsConsult counsel – tricky issue
105 Workers’ Compensation If an employee claims injury from bedbugs at the workplace, workers’ compensation should cover the employerAn exception to the exclusivity of workers' compensation exists when an employer commits an intentional tort or wrong. In those cases, an employee can either pursue a civil claim or Workers’ Compensation benefits. The remedies are mutually exclusive.In the Fox News case, the employee received Workers’ Compensation under WCL § 11 under the theory that workers’ compensation is the exclusive remedy for employees injured in the course of employment. See Clark v. Beacon Capital Partners, LLC, 2011 NY Slip Op 30920(u) (April 12, 2011).
106 Protected & Concerted Activity Employer cannot fire employees for engaging in protected, concerted acts (Section 7 Rights)Concerted refusal to perform dangerous work (even if no union)Discussion of work issues, at work or on a blog or anywherePartial strikesDiscussion of bed bugs in the workplace would be protected and concerted
108 First & Foremost This is an HR issue Education is critical Morale issuesProductivity issuesLegal issuesEducation is criticalFacilities/maintenance is important but secondary
109 How to Avoid Litigation Have a Policy and Follow ItDocumentationPerform regular inspections and implement preventative measuresProvide education for staffHave a remedial action plan in place nowSPEAKER TIPS:Document all bed bug monitoring steps and treatment (if applicable)Establish routine with housekeeping to inspect rooms regularlyProvide education for staffUse bed encasementsDefine roles of all and be available to work directly with a pest management provider109109
110 Handling ComplaintsIdentify an expert/point person who can handle complaints compassionately and logicallyBe open and resolution-orientedReact quickly and seek professional helpDocument your procedure, including: complaint, inspection, confirmation, cleaning, treatment, future prevention, and follow up
111 Avoid the “Blame Game”Finding “the Source” is important, but beware of potential discrimination claimsDisparate ImpactDisparate TreatmentAvoid singling out employees and be aware of the potential for:Discrimination Claims - Disparate treatment & impactHarassment claimsThe Scarlet “B”Defamation claimsDiscuss Disparate Impact
112 Do You Have a Bed Bug Policy? Information about bed bug preventionHow to react when learning about the presence of bed bugsImportant to assist management in proper responseClarification on leave policy in the event of infestationAre there specific work-from-home policies & for whom is this an option?We have experience with bed bug policies and would be happy to conform our existing policies to help your company.
113 Invasion of Privacy/Defamation Prudent employers should also make sure that that they do not breach employees’ privacyPrudent employers will limit discussion and disclosure of bed bugs113
114 Don’tsDon’t try to silence employees about the problem, as this could lead to whistleblower claims or, in the Union context, NLRA violationsDon’t play the blame game, as this could trigger a defamation claim or a discrimination claimDon’t “over react” -- Supervisors must be very careful in how they react to employees that may have brought bed bugs onto the premises to not foster panic
115 The Scarlet B Do Not Discriminate Do Not Retaliate Do Not Shun, Blame or Defame!
116 To Pay or Not to PayNo Good Deed Goes Unpunished – what one gets, all must get!Home Extermination Guidelines:Must be a uniform rule/policy/practiceWritten policy and guidelines suggestedDo Not Discriminate or Play Favorites
117 Questions & Answers Session Thank you for coming!