Presentation on theme: "Motor control and Physiotherapy and Sports in Neuromuscular disorder(NMD) MOEIN KADKHODAPOUR,AMIRHOSEIN HASHEMIAN,ALI ABAEIYAN SUPERVISOR: DR. ARSHI SPRING."— Presentation transcript:
Motor control and Physiotherapy and Sports in Neuromuscular disorder(NMD) MOEIN KADKHODAPOUR,AMIRHOSEIN HASHEMIAN,ALI ABAEIYAN SUPERVISOR: DR. ARSHI SPRING 2013
Table of Content Introduction of Motor control Physiotherapy and neuromuscular disorder Sport and neuromuscular disorder
Motor control The brain plays a major role in our body motoricity. Motor controls are the information processing activities carry out by our central nervous system that helps us organize, move and coordinate our movements and muscles.
I. What Controls Movement II. What the Motor System Controls III. Mechanisms of Motor Control IV. Motor Memory V. Flexibility in Motor Control VI. Evolution of the Motor System
WHAT CONTROLS MOVEMENT The motor system consists of two interacting parts: peripheral and central Peripheral Motor System - Muscles - Motor Neurons and Motor Units Central Motor System - Spinal Cord - Brain stem - Diencephalon - Telencephalon
Physiotherapy Physiotherapy: Physiotherapy is a health care profession primarily concerned with the remediation of impairments and disabilities and the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life and movement potential through examination, evaluation, diagnosis and physical intervention carried out by physiotherapists. Neurological physiotherapy is a field focused on working with individuals who have a neurological disorder or disease
Effects of NMD on muscles As motor neurons die, muscles become weaker and stiffer. They gradually cease to work and waste away. associated joints become stiff and may contract and This, makes everyday activities increasingly difficult, and sometimes painful. Once the supply of motor neurons that control a particular muscle has degenerated, it cannot be regenerated by exercise or anything else. Nevertheless, muscle elasticity, joint range of movement and prevention of muscle shortening can be helped by regular exercises.
Types of physiotherapy treatment If the assessment takes place in the early stages of the disease, patient might start with simple exercises which can do himself. as the disease progresses, he will probably need to move on to a different regime of less active exercises Treatments include: Range of Movement (ROM) exercises: to maintain joint range and prevent joint deformity and soft tissue shortening Massage and soft tissue mobilization : to increase circulation, reduce pain, aid relaxation, reduce spasticity. Breathing techniques: to facilitate respiratory effort and to aid clearance of secretions.
Exercises Exercises can be split into three categories: Active exercises: when your muscles can perform the full movement. Active-assisted exercises: when you can no longer move through a ROM exercise on your own, but a helper can assist the muscle through the movement. Passive exercises and stretches: when the muscles can no longer perform any of the movement and these are done completely by a helper.(Passive exercises work the joints but not the muscles.) Moderation in exercising Fatigue will only increase weakness and sap your energy exercise will not strengthen muscles that have been weakened by NMD. However, it is still invaluable, as by strengthening the healthy muscles, it enables them to help compensate for those muscles that are no longer working properly.
Objective Measures monitored in NMD clinic Range of Movement of joints and muscle length Timed Functional activities Balance Respiratory function, along with Pulmonary function testing
Range of Movement of joints and muscle length For Muscular Dystrophies, muscles that are most often measured include: Hip flexors Hip abductors Hamstrings Calves Elbow flexors Wrist flexors
Timed Functional activities Assessment of tasks that are important for everyday life completed for those who are able: Timed 10 meter walk/run Timed supine to stand up from lying on the floor Timed climbing 4 stairs
Exercise training role in NMD Introduction Patients - Progressive weakening and loss of functional skeletal muscles Disabilities - Depends on the specific type of disease, pathogenesis, extent of clinical involvement, and rate of progression Primary clinical goal - maintaining strength, function, independence, and quality of life Main tool - Exercise Exercise mechanism in maintaining strength - Stress causes microscopic damage to the myofibers which initiates gene transcriptional and splice mechanisms
Exercise training role in NMD treatment Exercise and neuromuscular disease Main question - Whether exercise training may be helpful in individuals with neuromuscular diseases Postmortem muscle study of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) - the greatest muscle degeneration occurred in muscles used during sustained physical activity Exercise studies in NMDs Rarity of NMDs Grouping different subjects of NMDs
Exercise training role in NMD Motor neuron disease ALS(Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Undelineated pathogenesis and Motor neuron deficiency in ALS Studies of effects of exercise on mice with ALS Randomized control trial among 25 individuals 3 months improvement in patient condition 6 months no difference
Conclusion Inadequate evidence from randomized controlled trials Potential to improve condition of individuals regarding to the type, stage, and severity of the disease Assessing effects of exercise