Presentation on theme: "Arivan Shanmu CM Tongs Timothy Low. I n t r o d u c t i o n On 26 th August 1972, the world gathered for the greatest sporting event in Munich, Germany."— Presentation transcript:
I n t r o d u c t i o n On 26 th August 1972, the world gathered for the greatest sporting event in Munich, Germany. Germany was eager to erase from the publics minds the memory of the 1936 Berlin games that Hitler infamously exploited as a platform for mass propaganda. The German authorities encouraged a happy and relaxed atmosphere among both the supporters and athletes alike. Athletes were allowed to enter and leave the Olympic village almost at will and there were not stringent security checks by the security officers. This laid the groundwork for the terrorists successful infiltration of the grounds and eventual hostage-taking.
On the 5 th of September, 11 days into the Games, 8 terrorists from the Black September group entered the loosely guarded Olympics village by climbing over a 6-foot-tall chain-link fence, without meeting any form of resistance. After entering into 31 Connollystrasse, the apartments housing the Israeli, Hong Kong, and Uruguayan athletes, the terrorists forced their way into apartment 1, which housed Israeli officials and coaches. Tuvia Sokolovsky, a weightlifting coach, escaped by smashing a window. Moshe Weinberg, the wrestling coach, fought back against the terrorists and was shot in the cheek and forced to lead the terrorists to other Israeli athletes. Weinberg led the terrorists to Apartment 3, housing six wrestlers and weightlifters, supposedly because he thought they stood a better chance against the terrorists. As it happened
As they were being led back to apartment 1, Weiberg and another weightlifter fought back against the terrorists and were shot dead for their resistance, however, their struggle allowed another weightlifter to escape via underground car park. This left the terrorists with 9 remaining live hostages. Soon, there were crowds of reporters, police and members of the public gathered in and around the village to monitor the situation. Then began the negotiations.
Who were these terrorists The Black September was a Palestinian terrorist group and was formed in 1970. The name "Black September" comes from the fighting between Palestinians and Jordanian officials in September 1970. This month was labelled "The Black September" because the Arabs fought against themselves instead of the Israelis, and the name just stuck. The group had links to PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization), and similarly, its general mission was to liberate the Palestinians from Israel and to fight for their own independent state (similar to Sri Lankan conflict). The terrorists viewed the Olympics as an ideal platform to get Israel to accede to their demands. They were of course, helped by the low levels of security at the Olympics.
The demands The aim of their taking the Israeli athletes as hostages was to twist Israels arms behind their backs and demand the release and safe passage of 234 Palestinians and non-Arabs to Egypt. The terrorists then demanded the German government provide a jet for them to Cairo where they would meet the freed prisoners and in turn free the athletes. The terrorists also demanded 2 helicopters for their transport to the airport.
Blunders As the negotiations were ongoing, the Germans sent a squad of armed police dressed in Olympic sweat suits that were criminally unprepared for these situations. Unbeknownst to the squad, their every actions and movements were being filmed by German camera crews and being broad casted live nationwide, keeping the terrorists updated about what was happening outside. The mayor of the Olympic village and another man that were allowed to briefly enter the apartments to talk to the hostages wrongly reported that there were only 4 or 5 terrorists in the building, which authorities took as the definite number.
German government actions After successfully persuading the terrorists to board a plane for them at Fürstenfeldbruck airport, the Germans then positioned 5 snipers at the airport, thinking that there were only 5 terrorists. The Boeing 727 jet on the runway contained 6 German police officers dressed in flight crew uniforms. The plan was to overpower the terrorists who boarded the plane to inspect it, leaving the supposed 2 or 3 terrorists outside for the snipers to take down.
What happened next Upon the arrival at the Fürstenfeldbruck airport, 2 terrorists went to check the airplane, only to find it empty (as the officers on the plane aborted the mission without consulting central command upon realization that there were 8 terrorists). Sensing a trap, the 2 terrorists rushed back to the helicopters, then the firing began. In the confusion, 2 terrorists were shot dead, as well as 1 policeman. The pilots had escaped, leaving the hostages bound in the helicopters. Many hours later, as the terrorists and snipers were still in a standoff, German APCs arrived at the scene, making the terrorists desperate at the realization their plan was falling apart. A terrorist then shot and blew 4 athletes in a helicopter dead.
What happened next How the other 5 athletes in the other helicopter were killed is unclear. Some believe the police in the confusion shot all a few athletes and a sniper dead. Others believe that another terrorist had sprayed the 5 remaining athletes with bullets from close range. At this point, 4 terrorists had been shot dead, and 3 lay on the ground, feigning death. These 3 were captured by police. Another fled the scene and was shot dead in a separate gunfight. Thus ended what many believe is the start of modern terrorism. Despite the killings, the games still went on without much other incident.
Aftermath The 5 bodies, upon arrival back in Palestine, received heroes funerals and full ceremonious military burials. About a month later, on October 29, terrorists high-jacked a Lufthansa (German air company) aircraft, demanding the release of the 3 imprisoned terrorists. Germany capitulated and released the terrorists. Israels Operation Wrath of God and Operation Spring of Youth, aimed at exacting revenge on the perpetrators including the 3 terrorists released. Israels stance changed from one of anti-terrorism to one more of counter terrorism. This was mainly by the authorization in the formation of the (in)famous Mossad-directed direct covert teams, essentially groups of assassins dedicated to tracking down and killing people directly or indirectly involved in terrorism (or individuals posing a threat to Israel).
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict Fundamentally a religious conflict, as both Islam Palestinians and Jewish Israelis, both being Abrahamic in origin, the land of Palestine(Canaan in the Bible). After numerous wars, Israels initial territorial size has increased after winning all of the wars, having a modern and well-equipped army. Started with the formation of Israel after the World War II in 1948, where many Palestinians were displaced were displaced, most notably in Jerusalem. Ever since, many clashes have occurred between both sides, and heavy mortaring has cost countless lives from either side.
Resolution in sight? Many attempted peace talks, of which many had been ended prematurely by assassinations, unfeasibility and general inaction. The peace process largely has USA as a third-party mediator. This makes negotiations a little tricky as Israel is USAs biggest ally, giving it much financial and military aid. Options: - two-state solution Entails the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside an independent Jewish state or next to the State of Israel. - one-state solution Israel, Gaza strip, and all of West bank to become a bi-national state. Two-state option greatly favoured by civilians on both side. Obama Benjamin Netanyahu Mahmoud Abbas
Resolution in sight? Efforts by USA or Palestine to reach an agreement has in recent times been undermined by Israels building of settlements in East Jerusalem, as Palestine views Jerusalem as a potential future capital for itself. Despite USAs demands that Israel halt construction in Jerusalem and other areas like Judae and Samaria, Israel has not scrapped its plans. A senior US official recently said "International tolerance of Israeli policies is eroding and Palestinian democrats are coming under increasing pressure. The prospects for a two-state solution are eroding as well as Palestinians lose confidence that peace is possible. http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/19834 Until a resolution is reached, Arab terrorists will target Israel and its major outspoken allies with terrorist attacks.
Impact of Munich Massacre on world security Olympics games now have high levels of security. At every Games held since the 1972 Olympics, security has been a significant and highly visible presence. In addition to on site protection, the police forces of the host nation seek and obtain information from other nations with respect to any possible terrorist risk that might manifest itself at the Olympics. In great measure, it has been since 1972 that countries have submitted to security searches in airports, arenas and other public events -- and learned to live with the threat of terrorism.
Singapores antiterrorism The main terrorist threat to Singapore is from Jemaah Islamiah (JI) The main terrorist threat to Singapore is from Jemaah Islamiah (JI). Singapore Police Force also enhanced security in various locations, especially in city areas and MRT stations. The Police MRT unit often carry out counter-terrorist exercises in MRT, like the Northstar V. Security in MRT stations is becoming tighter, with regular bag checks on random people and the emergency call buttons in the train carriages. In the upcoming YOG, responsibility would lie with the Singapore Security Agency. Singapore has extensive experience in organising large conferences and moderate experience in multi-sports events. Security will be stepped up during the YOG, and the committee is working with the police to secure the venue. Before anyone can enter the competition venues, athletes and spectators alike will have to go through security screenings. Its typically Singapore – nothing is compromised when it comes to security.
Links ABC news coverage 6 Sept 1972 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTqZPK Z4_wk&NR=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTqZPK Z4_wk&NR=1 Steven Spielbergs dramatization of the events from the movie, Munich http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7oTG EVYwqghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7oTG EVYwqg
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