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HH H OUSTON H OUSTON F IRE F IRE D EPARTMENT P UMP P UMP O PERATOR O PERATOR P ROGRAM VAL JAHNKE FIRE TRAINING FACILITY.

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Presentation on theme: "HH H OUSTON H OUSTON F IRE F IRE D EPARTMENT P UMP P UMP O PERATOR O PERATOR P ROGRAM VAL JAHNKE FIRE TRAINING FACILITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 HH H OUSTON H OUSTON F IRE F IRE D EPARTMENT P UMP P UMP O PERATOR O PERATOR P ROGRAM VAL JAHNKE FIRE TRAINING FACILITY

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3 Pump Equipment Centrifugal Pump Pressure Relief Valve/Governor Intake Relief Valve Transfer Valve Positive Displacement Primers Manual Pump Shift Gauges Auxiliary Cooler

4 Centrifugal Pump Non-positive displacement pump Three factors influence pump discharge pressure 1) Incoming pressure, 2) Speed of the impeller, and 3) The amount of water being discharged Single or multi-stage NOT self-priming Cavitation

5 Pressure Relief Valve/Governor Most common devices Set while discharging at operating pressure Set for highest operating pressure Pressure relief valve - diverts water Pressure governor - controls rpm

6 Intake Relief Valve Also known as dump valve Protects pump from water hammer and excessive intake pressure Possibly capped during high pressure operations Piston intake relief valve

7 Transfer Valve Multi-stage pump only Pressure (series) vs. Volume (parallel) Most operations in pressure mode 50% rule Change 50 psi net pump pressure

8 Positive Displacement Primers Required for drafting Most common - rotary vane Operate for no more than 45 seconds Priming oil Environmentally safe primers

9 Manual Pump Shift Provides back-up Usually located on pump panel Often require two persons to operate Back-up throttle may have to be used Exercise manual shift often

10 Gauges Compound gauge Master intake gauge (compound) Master discharge gauge Individual discharge gauge Engine gauges

11 Auxiliary Cooler Allows water from pump to cool engine Use when temperature exceeds normal level Close when temperature returns to normal Keep in closed position

12 Valves Main intake valve (suction)-keystone, piston, MIV Auxiliary intake valve ( 2 ½ ) Tank-to-pump valve Tank fill valve Discharge valves Pump drain valve Discharge drain valve Intake drain valve

13 Water Supply

14 Booster Tank Sizes Tank-to-pump valve Use only one handline Obtaining positive source Refill as soon as possible

15 Hydrant Operations Two types of hydrants Steamer should face street Blue reflectors assist in locating Color coded to main size MUD Districts may not color code Private hydrants - Apartments, Businesses

16 Water System Consumption Peak use hours –Morning - residential areas –Mid day - downtown areas –Evening - residential areas May contact Water Department to divert water to fire area

17 Drafting Primary source for rural fire protection Portable water supplies Static water supplies

18 Hydraulics

19 Theory of Pressure Force: measure of weight Pressure: measure of force per unit area

20 Pressure and Fluids Pressure acts on fluids according to six basic principles –Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts. –Fluid pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is of the same intensity in all directions. –Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions. –The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth. –The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid. –The pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel.

21 Hydraulic Calculations Engine Pressure = nozzle pressure + friction loss in the hose + friction loss in appliances + pressure due to elevation Nozzle Pressure - The amount of pressure required at the nozzle to produce an effective fire stream.

22 Nozzle Pressures Fog nozzle 100 psi Low pressure fog nozzle75 psi Vindicator nozzle (minimum)50 psi Solid stream handline50 psi Solid stream master80 psi

23 Friction Loss The part of the total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fire hose, fittings, adapters, and appliances. The basis for fire hose friction loss calculations are the size of the hose, the amount of water flowing, the length of the hose lay, the age of the hose, and the condition of the lining. These factors give rise to the formula for computing friction loss: FL = C · Q · L

24 FL = C · Q · L FL = friction loss in psi C = coefficient ( constant ) Q = flow rate in GPM/100 L = hose length in feet/100

25 Friction Loss Coefficients 1¾ ½

26 Example If 200 gpm is flowing from a nozzle, what is the friction loss in 200 ft. of 2½ hose? FL = C · Q · L C = 2 Q = gpm/100 = 200/100 = 2 L = length/100 = 200/100 = 2 FL = (2) (2) (2) = (2) (4) (2) = 16 psi

27 GPM Formula It is possible to determine water flow from any solid stream nozzle when the nozzle pressure and tip diameters are known. The following formula is used to determine the GPM flow of solid stream nozzles: GPM = 29.7 ·d 2 · NP

28 GPM = 29.7 ·d 2 · NP GPM= Discharge in gallons per minute 29.7= A constant d = Diameter of the tip (inches) NP = Nozzle pressure in psi (square root)

29 Example Determine the water flow from a 2 tip operating at 80 psi. GPM = (29.7) (d) 2 ( NP) = (29.7) (2) 2 ( 80) (use 81) = (29.7) (4) (9) = (118.8) (9) = GPM(1070)

30 Solid Stream 50 psi

31 Solid Master 80 psi

32 Appliances Reducers Gates Wyes Manifolds Heavy Stream Piping

33 Appliance Friction Loss Small appliances: –Less than 350 GPM - no friction loss –More than 350 GPM - 10 psi friction loss Master streams: –25 psi friction loss

34 Standpipes No friction loss for piping Allow for elevation only 5 psi per floor for elevation Can be negative number –pumping to basement

35 Total Engine Pressure EP = NP + FL + Appliance + Elevation

36 Example What is the engine pressure for 200 ft. of 1¾ hose flowing 200 gpm, with a low pressure fog nozzle, on the third floor? EP = NP + FL + Appliance + Elevation EP = EP = 215 psi

37 Wyed Hoselines Complex pumping situation Common with apartment lay Same size and type Different size Communication with crews

38 Pressure vs. Volume Common misconception Maximum capacity at draft Maximum capacity with positive pressure Net pump pressure

39 Calculating Additional Water Available Static pressure Residual pressure Percentage drop: static -residual Formula –Percentage Drop = (Static - Residual) (100) » Static

40 Water Available Table Percent DecreaseWater Available % 3 x amount % 2 x amount % same amount Over 25% less than being delivered

41 Specialized Pump Operations

42 Multiple Discharges Different Pressures Different Friction Loss Calculations Gating Back Discharges Set Pressure Relief Device/Governor

43 Master Streams Most Common - Deck Gun, Ladder Pipe Nozzle Tips Flowing GPM Solid Bore - 80 psi Nozzle Pressure Fog Nozzle psi Nozzle Pressure 25 psi Friction Loss

44 Standpipes and Sprinklers Usually have a 2 ½ connection Hook up with 3 high pressure hose or 4 hose with adapter Reverse lay DO NOT PUMP UNLESS ORDERED

45 Non-PRV Systems Standpipe: –Fog Nozzle: 150 psi + 5 psi per floor –Solid Stream 65 psi + 5 psi per floor Sprinkler: –150 psi + 5 psi per floor Elevation loss is calculated to the fire floor

46 PRV Systems Pump the designed pressure if known If the designed system pressure is unknown: –100 psi + 6 psi per floor to the top floor of the zone When pumping into a PRV system, the standpipe outlet pressure cannot be raised above its designed pressure

47 Relay Pumping Necessary when the required GPM flow of the attack pumper cannot be met because of friction loss in the supply line Pump pressure is based on GPM needed and distance between pumpers psi residual in addition to friction loss Relay initiated by pumper at water source

48 Relay Pumping Intermediate pumpers - close pump to tank valve, open 2½ discharge until water discharges, close discharge, place in pump gear and open supply to next pumper Discharge pressures should not exceed 200 psi, if pressure required to supply water is greater than 200 psi, another pumper or additional lines are needed

49 Relay Pumping Relay is designed to deliver volume not pressure Relay is terminated by attack pumper by decreasing pressure, followed by next pumper in relay, etc.

50 Foam Operations Portable Eductors Do not start foam operations unless incident can be terminated with resources available Portable eductors require 200 eductor Emulsifiers can be 1/2 or 1% Nozzle setting must 95 gpm Apparatus will carry gallon containers of foam and gallon containers of cold clean

51 Foam Operations Portable eductors must be flushed with clean water to prevent gumming of the pick-up tube. Flush the entire hoseline for approximately 5 minutes. Rotate the proportioning valve while flushing Maximum length from eductor to nozzle is 300 ft of 1 3/4 hose or a combination of 1 3/4 and 2 1/2 hose not exceeding 450 ft

52 Permanently Mounted Eductor Similar to portable eductor Require same eductor Maximum hose length from eductor to nozzle ft of 1 3/4 hose or a combination of 1 3/4 and 2 1/2 hose not exceeding 450 ft Proportioning valve located on pump panel

53 Direct Injection Foam System Uses a pump to inject the emulsifier/foam into a discharge pipe that connects the fire pump and designated foam discharges Controlled by electronic keypad Two tanks - 40 gallons foam, 10 gallons emulsifier System is self adjusting, regulated by flow meter

54 Direct Injection Foam System Intake pressure kept below 50 psi Minimum pump pressure is intake pressure plus 100 psi Maximum pump pressure 250 psi Set engine pressure according to hoselay and nozzle Foam and emulsifier flows only through designated discharges

55 Direct Injection Foam System Can flow water through non-foam discharges simultaneously To flush system, decrease pump pressure to 100 psi and place toggle switch in flush position - flush system for 20 seconds Turn foam system off and flush hoseline for 5 minutes

56 Drafting 3 primary considerations for selecting a site; 1) Amount of water available 2) Type of water available 3) Location accessibility Source should have 24 inches of water above and below the strainer Maximum lift is 20 feet

57 Drafting Use side intakes Close pump to tank valve Remove keystone or piston intake Connect hard suction Can prime either in or out of pump gear When in pump gear, increase rpms to 1200 and pull primer for not more than 45 sec.

58 Drafting Priming typically requires seconds Most common problem is air leak After pump has been primed, increase pump pressure to psi prior to opening any discharge Open discharge valve SLOWLY If pressure drops, momentarily engage primer

59 Drafting Do not engage pressure governor until flowing water If pressure governor is on prior to obtaining prime and apparatus is in pump gear, will sense increase in rpm without corresponding increase in pressure and return engine to idle. Flush pump with clean water ASAP

60 HH H OUSTON F IRE D EPARTMENT P UMP O PERATOR P ROGRAM VAL JAHNKE FIRE TRAINING FACILITY


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