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Presentation on theme: "HH HOUSTON FIRE DEPARTMENT PUMP OPERATOR PROGRAM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Egineer/Operator Program
Pump Operations

3 Pump Equipment Centrifugal Pump Pressure Relief Valve/Governor
Intake Relief Valve Transfer Valve Positive Displacement Primers Manual Pump Shift Gauges Auxiliary Cooler The pump equipment covered in this class will include the following; Centifugal pump Pressure relief valve/governor Intake relief valve Transfer valve Positive displacement primers Manual pump shift Gauges Auxiliary cooler

4 Centrifugal Pump Non-positive displacement pump
Three factors influence pump discharge pressure 1) Incoming pressure, 2) Speed of the impeller, and 3) The amount of water being discharged Single or multi-stage NOT self-priming Cavitation The centrifugal pump is a non-positive displacement pump, which means that it does not pump a definite amount of water with each revolution. Three factors influence pump discharge pressure; 1) the amount of water being discharged 2) the speed at which the impeller is turning 3) the pressure that the water has when it enters the pump The centrifugal pump can be single or multi-stage A single stage pump uses a single impeller to deliver water with pressure capabilities A milti-stage pump utilizes two or more impellers and a transfer valve to allow the pump to create pressure or volume When in the pressure mode, the impellers pump in a series When in the volume mode, the impellers pump in parallel A centrifugal pump cannot pump air, therefore cannot be self priming

5 Pressure Relief Valve/Governor
Most common devices Set while discharging at operating pressure Set for highest operating pressure Pressure relief valve - diverts water Pressure governor - controls rpm The most common devices used are the pressure relief valve and the pressure governor. These devices should be set while all the lines are discharging water at their proper operating pressures. The line with the highest operating pressure determines what pressure the device will be set at. The pressure relief valve relieves excess pressure by allowing water to be diverted from the pump discharge to the pump intake. The pressure governor controls excess pressure by adjusting the speed of the engine. If pressure increases, the engine rpm will decrease to maintain proper pressure. If pressure decreases, the engine rpm will increase to maintain proper pressure.

6 Intake Relief Valve Also known as dump valve
Protects pump from water hammer and excessive intake pressure Possibly capped during high pressure operations Piston intake relief valve Commonly referred to as a dump valve, it is designed to protect the pump from incoming water hammer or excessive intake pressure. Valves have adjustable settings, on some apparatus it is not easily accessible. Normally, should be adjusted to slightly higher than normal hydrant pressure. If pumping in a high pressure relay, such as high rise fires, the high pressure pumper will possibly have to cap these valves. Piston intakes have an additional relief valve which have adjustable settings. In cases of high pressure operations, these intakes may have to be removed if the setting cannot be adjusted.

7 Transfer Valve Multi-stage pump only
Pressure (series) vs. Volume (parallel) Most operations in pressure mode 50% rule Change 50 psi net pump pressure Found on multi-stage pumps, is required to switch from pressure mode to volume mode. Most operations will be in the pressure mode. If the volume of water being pumped exceeds fifty percent of the pumpers rated capacity, it should be placed in the volume setting. Changing from one setting to another should be done at no more than 50 psi net pump pressure. If lines are already in operation when the change over is to take place, the incident commander must be notified, coordination with attack crews is essential.

8 Positive Displacement Primers
Required for drafting Most common - rotary vane Operate for no more than 45 seconds Priming oil Environmentally safe primers Since centrifugal pumps cannot pump air, positive displacement primers are required for drafting. The most common is the rotary vane primer, which is driven by an electrical motor. The primer should not be operated for more than 45 seconds at a time. While operating, most primers use an oil supply to fill gaps between the vanes and the pump casing. The oil is expelled with the air and water under the apparatus. Newer pumpers are equipped with environmentally safe primers which do not use oil. These primers are impregnated with a silicon-type material, and will not have a reservoir.

9 Manual Pump Shift Provides back-up Usually located on pump panel
Often require two persons to operate Back-up throttle may have to be used Exercise manual shift often Most modern apparatus rely on electrical or air actuated pump shifts. Problems occasionally occur with these and the manual shift provides a back-up. The manual pump shift is usually found on the pump panel and often requires two persons to operate. When it is necessary to use the manual pump shift, the back-up throttle may have to be used. Exercise the manual pump shift often to assure working condition.

10 Gauges Compound gauge Master intake gauge (compound)
Master discharge gauge Individual discharge gauge Engine gauges The various gauges found on a pumping apparatus are as follows; Compound gauge - Capable of reading both positive and negative pressure readings. Usually psi for positive pressure and 0-30 inches of mercury for negative pressure. Master intake gauge - Connected to the intake side of the pump, when connected to a positive pressure source, both static and residual pressures can be obtained. Master discharge gauge - Connected to the discharge side of the pump. It measures the total discharge pressure of the water as it leaves the pump. Individual discharge gauge - One gauge per outlet, measures pump discharge pressure for the specific outlet. Engine gauges - Tachometer, oil pressure, and water temperature gauge. Monitor these gauges closely, if a reading outside of the normal operating range is obtained, correct the problem. If unable to correct the problem, shut down the pumping operation as soon as possible.

11 Auxiliary Cooler Allows water from pump to cool engine
Use when temperature exceeds normal level Close when temperature returns to normal Keep in closed position This valve allows water from the pump to be diverted to decrease the engine coolant temperature. The water runs through a separate set of coils, without mixing with the fluid in the radiator, and then returns to the pump. If the temperature exceeds normal recommendations, or a warning light/buzzer is activated, the engine must be cooled immediately. This is accomplished by opening the auxiliary cooler valve located on the pump panel. Once the temperature has returned to normal, the valve should be closed. If the device has to be used, notify the incident commander and mechanic. This valve should be carried in the closed position during normal operations.

12 Valves Main intake valve (suction)-keystone, piston, MIV
Auxiliary intake valve ( 2 ½ ) Tank-to-pump valve Tank fill valve Discharge valves Pump drain valve Discharge drain valve Intake drain valve Main intake valve - Known as keystone, piston intake or MIV. Located on both sides of the pumper. On apparatus equipped with rear intakes, the rear intake should be used only after both side intakes have been utilized. Auxiliary intake valve - a 2 1/2” connection, usually on the engineer’s side of the apparatus. Can use a 2 1/2” male - 4” female adapter for connection with large diameter hose. Tank-to-pump valve - A clappered valve located on the intake side of the pump, allows water from the booster tank to be discharged through the pump when in the open position. Once another water source is obtained, close the tank to pump valve. Tank fill valve - Located on the intake side of the pump, allows the booster tank to be filled from a supplied water source. Should be opened as soon as another water source is connected to the pumper. Also can be “cracked” open to act as a recirculating valve in order to cool the pump. Individual discharge valves - Used to control the flow of water from a specific discharge. These valves can be “gated back” to provide different pressures. Most can be locked in place by turning the handle a quarter turn. Fire pump drain valve - used to drain the pump and plumbing Individual drain valve - Drains individual discharges Intake drain valve - Relieves pressure between the hydrant and intake.

13 Water Supply

14 Booster Tank Sizes Tank-to-pump valve Use only one handline
Obtaining positive source Refill as soon as possible The most common size in the fleet is 500 gallons, some apparatus such as the 88 Seagrave and 93 Pierce have 750 gallon tanks. The tank-to-pump valve should be left in the open position. When using the booster tank, only one handline should be used. Once a positive pressure source is obtained, an increase in pump pressure will probably occur and an adjustment will have to be made to the discharge pressure. The booster tank should be refilled as soon as possible.

15 Hydrant Operations Two types of hydrants Steamer should face street
Blue reflectors assist in locating Color coded to main size MUD Districts may not color code Private hydrants - Apartments, Businesses There are two types of fire hydrants, wet-barrel and dry barrel.The dry barrel is the most common type of hydrant in use today and is primarily used in areas where freezing temperatures may be encountered. The largest opening should be facing the street and be at least 15” above grade. Blue reflectors may be present in the middle of the street to assist in locating hydrants at night. Hydrants are color coded to main size. The codes are as follows; Red 4” Yellow 6” White 8” Green 10”-20” Orange 24”-60” Orange bonnet and caps 100 psi and 36”-90” Hydrants located in municipal utility districts are not required to be color coded.

16 Water System Consumption
Peak use hours Morning - residential areas Mid day - downtown areas Evening - residential areas May contact Water Department to divert water to fire area Low water pressure may be experienced due to high consumption on the domestic side of the system. It may become necessary to contact the water department to have water diverted to the fire area.

17 Drafting Primary source for rural fire protection
Portable water supplies Static water supplies Static and portable water supplies are usually the primary source for rural fire protection. Static water supplies are lakes, ponds, rivers, cisterns, retention ponds and pools. Portable water supplies would include Tankers.

18 Hydraulics

19 Theory of Pressure Force: measure of weight
Pressure: measure of force per unit area

20 Pressure and Fluids Pressure acts on fluids according to six basic principles Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts. Fluid pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is of the same intensity in all directions. Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions. The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth. The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid. The pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel.

21 Hydraulic Calculations
Engine Pressure = nozzle pressure + friction loss in the hose + friction loss in appliances + pressure due to elevation Nozzle Pressure - The amount of pressure required at the nozzle to produce an effective fire stream.

22 Nozzle Pressures Fog nozzle 100 psi Low pressure fog nozzle 75 psi
Vindicator nozzle (minimum) 50 psi Solid stream handline 50 psi Solid stream master 80 psi

23 Friction Loss The part of the total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fire hose, fittings, adapters, and appliances. The basis for fire hose friction loss calculations are the size of the hose, the amount of water flowing, the length of the hose lay, the age of the hose, and the condition of the lining. These factors give rise to the formula for computing friction loss: FL = C · Q · L

24 FL = C · Q · L FL = friction loss in psi C = coefficient ( constant )
Q = flow rate in GPM/100 L = hose length in feet/100 FL = friction loss in psi C = coefficient Q = flow rate in GPM/100 L = hose length in feet/100

25 Friction Loss Coefficients
1¾” 2½” 3” 4”

26 Example If 200 gpm is flowing from a nozzle, what is the friction loss in 200 ft. of 2½” hose? FL = C · Q · L C = 2 Q = gpm/100 = 200/100 = 2 L = length/100 = 200/100 = 2 FL = (2) (2) (2) = (2) (4) (2) = 16 psi

27 GPM Formula It is possible to determine water flow from any solid stream nozzle when the nozzle pressure and tip diameters are known. The following formula is used to determine the GPM flow of solid stream nozzles: GPM = 29.7 ·d2 ·NP 29.7 is a constant d - diameter of the tip, measured in inches NP - nozzle pressure in psi (square root )

28 GPM = 29.7 ·d2 ·NP GPM= Discharge in gallons per minute
29.7 = A constant d = Diameter of the tip (inches) NP = Nozzle pressure in psi (square root) 29.7 is a constant d - diameter of the tip, measured in inches NP - Nozzle pressure in psi ( square root )

29 Example Determine the water flow from a 2” tip operating at 80 psi.
GPM = (29.7) (d)2 (NP) = (29.7) (2)2 (80) (use 81) = (29.7) (4) (9) = (118.8) (9) = GPM (1070)

30 Solid Stream Handline @ 50 psi

31 Solid Master Stream @ 80 psi

32 Appliances Reducers Gates Wyes Manifolds Heavy Stream Piping
Fire ground operations sometimes requires the use of appliances. These include; reducers gates wyes manifolds heavy stream piping

33 Appliance Friction Loss
Small appliances: Less than 350 GPM - no friction loss More than 350 GPM - 10 psi friction loss Master streams: 25 psi friction loss

34 Standpipes No friction loss for piping Allow for elevation only
5 psi per floor for elevation Can be negative number pumping to basement

35 EP = NP + FL + Appliance + Elevation
Total Engine Pressure EP = NP + FL + Appliance + Elevation

36 Example What is the engine pressure for 200 ft. of 1¾” hose flowing 200 gpm, with a low pressure fog nozzle, on the third floor? EP = NP + FL + Appliance + Elevation EP = EP = 215 psi

37 Wyed Hoselines Complex pumping situation Common with apartment lay
Same size and type Different size Communication with crews When pumping into hoselines of differing size, engine pressure will have to be set to supply the line with the greatest friction loss and nozzle pressure. Other lines operating from the apartment lay will have to be gated back by the attack crew.

38 Pressure vs. Volume Common misconception Maximum capacity at draft
Maximum capacity with positive pressure Net pump pressure

39 Calculating Additional Water Available
Static pressure Residual pressure Percentage drop: static -residual Formula Percentage Drop = (Static - Residual) (100) Static

40 Water Available Table Percent Decrease Water Available
% x amount % x amount % same amount Over 25% less than being delivered

41 Specialized Pump Operations

42 Multiple Discharges Different Pressures
Different Friction Loss Calculations Gating Back Discharges Set Pressure Relief Device/Governor

43 Master Streams Most Common - Deck Gun, Ladder Pipe
Nozzle Tips Flowing GPM Solid Bore - 80 psi Nozzle Pressure Fog Nozzle psi Nozzle Pressure 25 psi Friction Loss

44 Standpipes and Sprinklers
Usually have a 2 ½” connection Hook up with 3” high pressure hose or 4” hose with adapter Reverse lay DO NOT PUMP UNLESS ORDERED

45 Non-PRV Systems Standpipe: Sprinkler:
Fog Nozzle: 150 psi + 5 psi per floor Solid Stream 65 psi + 5 psi per floor Sprinkler: 150 psi + 5 psi per floor Elevation loss is calculated to the fire floor

46 PRV Systems Pump the designed pressure if known
If the designed system pressure is unknown: 100 psi + 6 psi per floor to the top floor of the zone When pumping into a PRV system, the standpipe outlet pressure cannot be raised above its designed pressure

47 Relay Pumping Necessary when the required GPM flow of the attack pumper cannot be met because of friction loss in the supply line Pump pressure is based on GPM needed and distance between pumpers 20-50 psi residual in addition to friction loss Relay initiated by pumper at water source

48 Relay Pumping Intermediate pumpers - close pump to tank valve, open 2½” discharge until water discharges, close discharge, place in pump gear and open supply to next pumper Discharge pressures should not exceed 200 psi, if pressure required to supply water is greater than 200 psi, another pumper or additional lines are needed

49 Relay Pumping Relay is designed to deliver volume not pressure
Relay is terminated by attack pumper by decreasing pressure, followed by next pumper in relay, etc.

50 Foam Operations Portable Eductors
Do not start foam operations unless incident can be terminated with resources available Portable eductors require 200 eductor Emulsifiers can be 1/2 or 1% Nozzle setting must 95 gpm Apparatus will carry gallon containers of foam and gallon containers of cold clean

51 Foam Operations Portable eductors must be flushed with clean water to prevent gumming of the pick-up tube. Flush the entire hoseline for approximately 5 minutes. Rotate the proportioning valve while flushing Maximum length from eductor to nozzle is 300 ft of 1 3/4” hose or a combination of /4” and 2 1/2” hose not exceeding 450 ft

52 Permanently Mounted Eductor
Similar to portable eductor Require same eductor Maximum hose length from eductor to nozzle ft of 1 3/4” hose or a combination of 1 3/4” and 2 1/2” hose not exceeding 450 ft Proportioning valve located on pump panel

53 Direct Injection Foam System
Uses a pump to inject the emulsifier/foam into a discharge pipe that connects the fire pump and designated foam discharges Controlled by electronic keypad Two tanks - 40 gallons foam, 10 gallons emulsifier System is self adjusting, regulated by flow meter

54 Direct Injection Foam System
Intake pressure kept below 50 psi Minimum pump pressure is intake pressure plus 100 psi Maximum pump pressure 250 psi Set engine pressure according to hoselay and nozzle Foam and emulsifier flows only through designated discharges

55 Direct Injection Foam System
Can flow water through non-foam discharges simultaneously To flush system, decrease pump pressure to 100 psi and place toggle switch in flush position - flush system for 20 seconds Turn foam system off and flush hoseline for 5 minutes

56 Drafting 3 primary considerations for selecting a site;
1) Amount of water available 2) Type of water available 3) Location accessibility Source should have 24 inches of water above and below the strainer Maximum lift is 20 feet

57 Drafting Use side intakes Close pump to tank valve
Remove keystone or piston intake Connect hard suction Can prime either in or out of pump gear When in pump gear, increase rpm’s to 1200 and pull primer for not more than 45 sec.

58 Drafting Priming typically requires 15-20 seconds
Most common problem is air leak After pump has been primed, increase pump pressure to psi prior to opening any discharge Open discharge valve SLOWLY If pressure drops, momentarily engage primer

59 Drafting Do not engage pressure governor until flowing water
If pressure governor is on prior to obtaining prime and apparatus is in pump gear, will sense increase in rpm without corresponding increase in pressure and return engine to idle. Flush pump with clean water ASAP



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