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LARGE LOSS FIRES: LESSONS LEARNED Office of State Fire Marshal – Department of Fire Services & Department of Public Safety March 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "LARGE LOSS FIRES: LESSONS LEARNED Office of State Fire Marshal – Department of Fire Services & Department of Public Safety March 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 LARGE LOSS FIRES: LESSONS LEARNED Office of State Fire Marshal – Department of Fire Services & Department of Public Safety March 2009

2 GEORGETOWN 1/3/2007

3 RALEIGH, NC 2/22/2007

4 NORWICH, CT 2/26/2007

5 BEVERLY 5/3/2007

6 PEABODY 5/29/2008

7 GLOUCESTER 12/15/2007

8 MARBLEHEAD 11/12/2005 ©Doug Boudrow

9 DANVERS 4/7/2007

10 E. LONGMEADOW 9/28/2007

11 CONSHOHOCKEN, PA 8/13/2008

12 NEWTON 2/9/2000

13 DANVERS 11/26/2006

14 UXBRIDGE 7/21/2007

15 NYC 9/11/2001

16 WEST WARWICK, RI 2/20/2003

17 OBJECTIVE Be able to recount recent large loss fire incidents from this decade Be able to recount recent large loss fire incidents from this decade Identify preventative fire safety tools that reduce the likelihood of similar future fire incidents. Identify preventative fire safety tools that reduce the likelihood of similar future fire incidents. Department of Fire Services

18 AGENDA PART I – Overview of recent significant fires PART II – Review resulting enforcement & code issues PART III – Prevention tools Department of Fire Services

19 PART I Overview of recent significant fires Department of Fire Services

20 LARGE LOSS FIRES - DEFINED According to the NFPA: large loss fires are defined as events that lead to property damage of at least $5 million. Department of Fire Services

21 GEORGETOWN MA Longview at Georgetown Department of Fire Services

22 The Building: Longview at Georgetown Department of Fire Services

23 Georgetown: Building Construction Department of Fire Services

24 Georgetown: Building Construction Constructed in 2004 Constructed in 2004 Apartment complex Apartment complex Wood Frame with truss roof construction Wood Frame with truss roof construction Sprinkler system: NFPA 13R (No sprinkler system in the attic or concealed spaces) Sprinkler system: NFPA 13R (No sprinkler system in the attic or concealed spaces) Exterior:Vinyl siding Exterior:Vinyl siding Two 12 unit buildings which were attached and offset Two 12 unit buildings which were attached and offset 3 ½ stories high (top floor apt.s had lofts) 3 ½ stories high (top floor apt.s had lofts) Department of Fire Services

25 The Fire: Jan. 3, Patriot Lane - Georgetown Department of Fire Services

26 Georgetown: Cause & Origin Determination Undetermined Undetermined Fire started on 3 rd floor balcony Fire started on 3 rd floor balcony Spread to vinyl siding Spread to vinyl siding Extended upward on exterior into attic Extended upward on exterior into attic Department of Fire Services

27 Georgetown: The Aftermath Department of Fire Services

28 PEABODY MA Highlands at Dearborn Apartments Department of Fire Services

29 The Building: Highlands at Dearborn Apartment - Peabody Department of Fire Services

30 Building Construction: Highlands at Dearborn Apartment - Peabody Constructed in 2006 Constructed in 2006 Wood frame with truss roof construction. Wood frame with truss roof construction. Sprinkler System: NFPA 13R + (sprinklers in bathrooms, closets, some overhangs; no sprinklers in attic or concealed spaces) Sprinkler System: NFPA 13R + (sprinklers in bathrooms, closets, some overhangs; no sprinklers in attic or concealed spaces) Exterior: Vinyl Siding Exterior: Vinyl Siding The length of the structure was approx. 250 feet The length of the structure was approx. 250 feet Varying width between approximately 12 feet to 85 feet depending on location within the structure. Varying width between approximately 12 feet to 85 feet depending on location within the structure. The structure had one story below grade and three stories above grade. The structure had one story below grade and three stories above grade. Department of Fire Services

31 The Building: Highlands at Dearborn Apartment - Peabody Area of structure (square feet) Basement 7880 Basement 7880 First (Ground) First (Ground) Second Second Third Third Aggregate (All floors) Aggregate (All floors) Department of Fire Services

32 The Fire: May 29, 2008 Highlands at Dearborn – 8 Ashford Trial Peabody Department of Fire Services

33 Peabody: Cause & Origin Determination Careless disposal of smoking materials Careless disposal of smoking materials Mulch fire spread to vinyl siding Mulch fire spread to vinyl siding Mulch fire caused failure of gas meter bank Mulch fire caused failure of gas meter bank Extended upward on exterior into attic Extended upward on exterior into attic Fire spread throughout attic Fire spread throughout attic Department of Fire Services

34 Peabody: The Aftermath Department of Fire Services

35 NORWICH CT Stonington Estates Department of Fire Services

36 Building Construction: Stonington Estates - Norwich Constructed in 2005 Constructed in 2005 Condominium complex Condominium complex Wood Frame with truss roof construction Wood Frame with truss roof construction Sprinkler System: NFPA 13R (no sprinkler system in the attic or concealed spaces) Sprinkler System: NFPA 13R (no sprinkler system in the attic or concealed spaces) Exterior: Vinyl siding Exterior: Vinyl siding Size: 222 x 56 = sq. ft/floor Size: 222 x 56 = sq. ft/floor 3 stories, No basement 3 stories, No basement Department of Fire Services

37 The Fire: Feb. 26, Stonington Rd - Norwich Department of Fire Services

38 Norwich: Cause & Origin Determination Undetermined origin Undetermined origin Fire started on exterior porch Fire started on exterior porch Extended to vinyl siding Extended to vinyl siding Extended upward on exterior into attic Extended upward on exterior into attic Department of Fire Services

39 RALEIGH NC Pine Knoll Townes Department of Fire Services

40 The Buildings: Pine Knoll Townes - Raleigh Department of Fire Services

41 Building Construction: Pine Knoll Townes - Raleigh Construction began in 2006 and was ongoing. Project was ¼ built out Construction began in 2006 and was ongoing. Project was ¼ built out Wood Frame with truss roof construction Wood Frame with truss roof construction Vinyl siding Vinyl siding Smoke detectors and sprinklers in the living spaces Smoke detectors and sprinklers in the living spaces Townhouse complex Townhouse complex 2 story, 3 bedroom units, 4 units per bldg 2 story, 3 bedroom units, 4 units per bldg Department of Fire Services

42 The Fire: Raleigh Feb 22, units destroyed, 16 units damaged, 13 cars lost Department of Fire Services

43 Fire extension: Raleigh Department of Fire Services

44 Raleigh: Cause & Origin Determination Discarded smoking material Discarded smoking material Ignited landscaping products Ignited landscaping products Fire ignited the vinyl siding Fire ignited the vinyl siding Extended up ward into attic space Extended up ward into attic space Wind caused fire to jump from building to building Wind caused fire to jump from building to building Department of Fire Services

45 AUBURN MA Lodge at Eddy Pond (Assisted living complex) Department of Fire Services

46 The Fire: Lodge at Eddy Pond - Auburn 669 Washington Street 669 Washington Street January 10, 2006, 2 Alarms January 10, 2006, 2 Alarms Sprinklers contained the fire Sprinklers contained the fire Department of Fire Services

47 Building Construction: Lodge at Eddy Pond - Auburn Recently built Recently built Wood frame construction Wood frame construction Vinyl siding Vinyl siding 60 x 400 x 3 stories 60 x 400 x 3 stories 85 residents 85 residents NFPA 13R+ Sprinkler system (additional sprinklers in the attic) NFPA 13R+ Sprinkler system (additional sprinklers in the attic) Department of Fire Services

48 Cause & Origin Determination: Auburn Undetermined Undetermined Fire spread up exterior Fire spread up exterior Fire spread into attic space Fire spread into attic space Fire controlled by fire sprinklers in attic Fire controlled by fire sprinklers in attic Department of Fire Services

49 PART II Review resulting enforcement & code issues Department of Fire Services

50 Code and Regulatory Analysis 3 sources for the Commonwealth of MA MA Comprehensive Fire Safety Code: 527 CMR (Fire Code) MA Comprehensive Fire Safety Code: 527 CMR (Fire Code) MA State Building Code: 780 CMR (Building Code) MA State Building Code: 780 CMR (Building Code) MGL Chapter 148 (Fire Prevention Laws) MGL Chapter 148 (Fire Prevention Laws) Department of Fire Services

51 Building Code This presentation is based on 7 th edition Department of Fire Services

52 Building Size Construction Type Construction Type Use Group Use Group Access Access Sprinkler Protection Sprinkler Protection Department of Fire Services

53 Building Size Area Area Height Height Table 503 Allowable Height and Building Areas [Handout] Department of Fire Services

54 Type VA construction Type VA construction R-2 Use R-2 Use NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system NFPA 13 fire sprinkler system 100% open space (40 feet wide) 100% open space (40 feet wide) 4-story 4-story Building Size Calc - Example Department of Fire Services

55 Table 503 Table ,000 square feet (4 stories w/ sprinklers – Section 504.2) 12,000 square feet (4 stories w/ sprinklers – Section 504.2) Section Frontage increase Section Frontage increase 75% of Table % of Table ,000 x 0.75 = 9,000 square feet 12,000 x 0.75 = 9,000 square feet Building Size Calc - Example Department of Fire Services

56 Section Sprinkler increase Section Sprinkler increase 200% of Table % of Table ,000 x 2 = 24,000 square feet 12,000 x 2 = 24,000 square feet Section Allowable area per floor Section Allowable area per floor 12, , ,000 = 45,000 square feet per floor 12, , ,000 = 45,000 square feet per floor Building Size Calc - Example Department of Fire Services

57 Section 506.4(2) Aggregate Building Area Section 506.4(2) Aggregate Building Area Allowable area per floor x 3 Allowable area per floor x 3 45,000 sq. ft. x 3 = 135,000 square feet 45,000 sq. ft. x 3 = 135,000 square feet For consistent size floors For consistent size floors 135,000 sq. ft. / 4 floors = 135,000 sq. ft. / 4 floors = 33,750 square feet per floor Building Size Calc - Example Department of Fire Services

58 Type I (A, B) - Type I (A, B) - building elements are of noncombustible materials. Type II (A, B) – Type II (A, B) – building elements are of noncombustible materials. Type III (A, B) - Type III (A, B) - exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of any material permitted Construction Type Department of Fire Services

59 Type IV (HT) – heavy timber, Type IV (HT) – heavy timber, exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces Type V (A,B) - Type V (A,B) - structural elements, exterior walls and interior walls are of any materials permitted Construction Type Department of Fire Services

60 Findings Many large residential buildings are being constructed with wood frame construction (Typically Type VA) Many large residential buildings are being constructed with wood frame construction (Typically Type VA) Many building renovations done without building permits are found to have changed construction type – resulting in mixed construction Many building renovations done without building permits are found to have changed construction type – resulting in mixed construction Sometimes overlooked during building renovations Sometimes overlooked during building renovations Department of Fire Services

61 Use Group Designation Assembly (A-1, A-2r, A-2nc, A-3, A-4 and A- 5) Business (B) Educational (E) Factory/Industrial (F-1, F-2) High Hazard (H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5) Institutional (I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4) Mercantile (M) Residential (R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4) Storage (S-1, S-2) Utility and Miscellaneous (U) Special Use (See Chapter 4) Department of Fire Services

62 Use Group Designation Residential R-1: transient residential R-2: multiple-family & townhouses of 3-dwelling+ R-3: all others including ½-family detached dwellings R-4: certain residential care facilities Department of Fire Services

63 Use Group Designation High Hazard Use Table 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) [Handout] Department of Fire Services

64 Special Use Groups 402 Covered Mall Buildings 403 High-Rise Buildings 404 Atriums 405 Underground Buildings 406 Motor-vehicle-related Occupancies 407 Group I Group I Motion Picture Projection Rooms 410 Stages and Platforms Department of Fire Services

65 411 Special Amusement Buildings 412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 413 Combustible Storage 414 Hazardous Materials 415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H Application of Flammable Finishes 417 Drying Rooms 418 Organic Coatings 419 Mobile Units Special Use Groups Department of Fire Services

66 420 Swimming Pools 421 Group Residence 422 Day Care Centers 423 Summer Camps for Children 424 Bulk Merchandising Retail Buildings 425 Limited Group Residence 426 Detoxification Facilities 427 Group Dwelling Units Special Use Groups Department of Fire Services

67 Garages (Handout – Section 406) Private (Handout - ICC Interp) Parking Garages Open Garages Enclosed Garages Motor Fuel Dispensing (see 527 CMR) Repair Garages Special Use Groups Department of Fire Services

68 Single Use Single Use Separated Mixed Use Separated Mixed Use Nonseparated Mixed Use Nonseparated Mixed Use Occupancies may have incidental or accesory use areas [handout for 780 CMR:302.2 defining accesory] Building Use Designation Department of Fire Services

69 Findings Divergent interpretations of Use/Building designations for typical multiple-family residential structures – especially related to parking garages, storage areas, and community amenities. Divergent interpretations of Use/Building designations for typical multiple-family residential structures – especially related to parking garages, storage areas, and community amenities. Finding that some architects are not investigating the use of hazardous materials to determine if within the maximum limits before H Use designation Finding that some architects are not investigating the use of hazardous materials to determine if within the maximum limits before H Use designation Uses being changed without obtaining building permit Uses being changed without obtaining building permit Department of Fire Services

70 Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems 780 CMR typically requires sprinklers in the entire building if triggered in Example – Group H. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings having a Group H occupancy. This is significant amendment from model code (handout 6 th edition Ch. 9 commentary) Department of Fire Services

71 Not all fire sprinkler systems the same…. Property Protection & Life Safety Property Protection & Life Safety – NFPA , all buildings including mixed use and residential only Life Safety of Occupants Life Safety of Occupants – NFPA 13R-2007, single use residential buildings limited to <= 4 stories & 12,000 sq. ft. (per 780 CMR amendment) – NFPA 13R-2007, single use residential buildings limited to <= 4 stories & 12,000 sq. ft. (per 780 CMR amendment) – NFPA 13D-2007, single use residential buildings limited to <=3 dwelling units (per 780 CMR amendment) – NFPA 13D-2007, single use residential buildings limited to <=3 dwelling units (per 780 CMR amendment) Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems Department of Fire Services

72 NFPA 13: Concealed Spaces Requiring Sprinkler Protection – All concealed spaces enclosed wholly or partly by exposed combustible construction shall be protected by sprinklers… NFPA 13: Concealed Spaces Requiring Sprinkler Protection – All concealed spaces enclosed wholly or partly by exposed combustible construction shall be protected by sprinklers… NFPA 13: – …sprinklers shall be installed under exterior roofs, canopies, or porte- cocheres exceeding four feet in width NFPA 13: – …sprinklers shall be installed under exterior roofs, canopies, or porte- cocheres exceeding four feet in width Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems Department of Fire Services

73 Findings Relatively new buildings are suffering complete fire losses – resulting in significant monetary loss and community disruption. Relatively new buildings are suffering complete fire losses – resulting in significant monetary loss and community disruption. Building occupants generally believe the building to be protected if they see fire sprinklers. Building occupants generally believe the building to be protected if they see fire sprinklers. The cost of bringing community resources to suppress and deal with large building fires is many times more than the increased cost by the developer of installing an NFPA 13 system rather than NFPA 13R. The cost of bringing community resources to suppress and deal with large building fires is many times more than the increased cost by the developer of installing an NFPA 13 system rather than NFPA 13R. The fire service considers large light-weight construction buildings ticking time bombs for the fire service and occupants. Consider that there is no detection and no suppression in the interstitial spaces when using NFPA 13R, and that many residents ignore fire alarms. The fire service considers large light-weight construction buildings ticking time bombs for the fire service and occupants. Consider that there is no detection and no suppression in the interstitial spaces when using NFPA 13R, and that many residents ignore fire alarms. Department of Fire Services

74 Advantages of a NFPA 13 compliant system for similar structures were reinforced by a fire incident at the Lodge of Eddy Pond in Auburn MA on Jan. 10, 2006 Department of Fire Services Findings

75 Some architects/engineers are improperly specifying the use of NFPA 13R in mixed use buildings. Department of Fire Services Findings

76 Code change made from recommendation of State Fire Marshal – Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 780 CMR shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R occupancy. For Use Group R Buildings with an aggregate building area of 12,000 sf or more, the sprinkler system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 13. For the purposes of 780 CMR 903.2, the aggregate building area shall be the combined area of all stories of the building and fire walls shall not be considered to create separate buildings. Department of Fire Services Findings

77 780 CMR: Exception #3 – In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed four stories in height, the attic space shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 sq. feet or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. Department of Fire Services Attics and Concealed Spaces

78 Department of Fire Services Attics and Concealed Spaces

79 780 CMR: – 780 CMR: – An opening not less than 20 inches by 30 inches shall be provided to any attic area having a clear height of over 30 inches. A 30-inch minimum clear headroom in the attic space shall be provided at or above the access opening. IBC-2003 COMMENTARY – Openings located within the draftstop are required to be self-closing and the opening protective must provide structural fire integrity similar to the draftstop. IBC-2003 COMMENTARY – Openings located within the draftstop are required to be self-closing and the opening protective must provide structural fire integrity similar to the draftstop. Department of Fire Services

80 780 CMR:103.1 Maintenance – all buildings and structures and all parts thereof, both existing and new, and all systems and equipment therein which are regulated by 780 CMR shall be maintained in a safe, operable and sanitary condition. All service equipment, means of egress, devices and safeguards…when erected, altered or repaired, shall be maintained in good working order. Department of Fire Services Attics and Concealed Spaces

81 Inspections of existing buildings often reveal numerous open penetrations have been made in the draft stops. Inspections of existing buildings often reveal numerous open penetrations have been made in the draft stops. Unprotected openings can range in size from small holes for wires to 2 x 3 access holes with no doors Unprotected openings can range in size from small holes for wires to 2 x 3 access holes with no doors Unprotected openings in draft stops are often made by tradespeople or others, after the building is complete, to make easy access to all attic areas. Unprotected openings in draft stops are often made by tradespeople or others, after the building is complete, to make easy access to all attic areas. Should be included as part of 106 inspections. Should be included as part of 106 inspections. Department of Fire Services Findings

82 While it is unlikely that draft stops with no openings would completely stop fire progress in the attic, it is reasonable to conclude that an uncompromised draft stop would slow fire progress. While it is unlikely that draft stops with no openings would completely stop fire progress in the attic, it is reasonable to conclude that an uncompromised draft stop would slow fire progress. Draft stops may not be required if the attic has sprinkler protection. See 780 CMR Exceptions #2 & #4. Draft stops may not be required if the attic has sprinkler protection. See 780 CMR Exceptions #2 & #4. Department of Fire Services Findings

83 Balconies 780 CMR: Exception #3 – Balconies and similar appendages on buildings of…Type V construction shall be permitted to be of Type V construction, and shall not be required to have a fire resistance rating where sprinkler protection is extended to these areas. [Handout] Department of Fire Services

84 This provision for sprinklers on combustible balconies has been overlooked on several projects This provision for sprinklers on combustible balconies has been overlooked on several projects The 7 th edition of 780 CMR has likely indirectly addressed this by expressly requiring balcony sprinklers per 780 CMR: [NFPA 13R] and the requirements for NFPA 13 systems in many of these buildings per 780 CMR: The 7 th edition of 780 CMR has likely indirectly addressed this by expressly requiring balcony sprinklers per 780 CMR: [NFPA 13R] and the requirements for NFPA 13 systems in many of these buildings per 780 CMR: Department of Fire Services Findings

85 Combustible Exterior Siding 780 CMR Ignition Resistance – 780 CMR Ignition Resistance – Combustible exterior wall coverings shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 268. Exceptions: 4. Exterior wall coverings on exterior walls of Type V construction. Department of Fire Services

86 780 CMR: Fire Resistance Ratings – Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 & 602. The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than five feet shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of five feet or less shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 780 CMR: Fire Resistance Ratings – Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 & 602. The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than five feet shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of five feet or less shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. Department of Fire Services Combustible Exterior Siding

87 The combustible siding was allowed on many of the residential fires because Type V construction was used and/or the buildings had fire separation distances of more than five feet. The combustible siding was allowed on many of the residential fires because Type V construction was used and/or the buildings had fire separation distances of more than five feet. The combustible siding was a direct factor in the spread/development of fire in the subject incidents. The combustible siding was a direct factor in the spread/development of fire in the subject incidents. Department of Fire Services Findings

88 The combustible vinyl siding allows the fire to quickly extend up the side of the structure to the attic soffits. The combustible vinyl siding allows the fire to quickly extend up the side of the structure to the attic soffits. Buildings 50 feet to several hundred feet away have sustained radiation damage and exposure fire damage created by flying embers landing in bark mulch for landscaping. Buildings 50 feet to several hundred feet away have sustained radiation damage and exposure fire damage created by flying embers landing in bark mulch for landscaping. The spread of fire from the landscaping materials to the vinyl siding was generally uninhibited due to their close proximity. The spread of fire from the landscaping materials to the vinyl siding was generally uninhibited due to their close proximity. Department of Fire Services Findings

89 DFS/DPS staff will look at recommendations to the BBRS for consideration of removing ignition testing waivers for plastic siding used on Type V construction that appear in the national and state codes. (780 CMR: ) DFS/DPS staff will look at recommendations to the BBRS for consideration of removing ignition testing waivers for plastic siding used on Type V construction that appear in the national and state codes. (780 CMR: ) BBRS will need to consider if it is beneficial or feasible to specify minimum vertical distances between the bottom of combustible siding and combustible landscaping. BBRS will need to consider if it is beneficial or feasible to specify minimum vertical distances between the bottom of combustible siding and combustible landscaping. Department of Fire Services Findings

90 Exterior Attic Soffit Construction Findings: DFS/DPS staff will research national code modifications of other States and make recommendations to BBRS for consideration of specifying combustibility and/or fire-resistance rating limitations for attic soffit construction. Findings: DFS/DPS staff will research national code modifications of other States and make recommendations to BBRS for consideration of specifying combustibility and/or fire-resistance rating limitations for attic soffit construction. Findings: The rapid fire spread in several of the subject fires was a result of the fire burning quickly through vinyl soffit sheating and rapidly extending into the attic space. Findings: The rapid fire spread in several of the subject fires was a result of the fire burning quickly through vinyl soffit sheating and rapidly extending into the attic space. Department of Fire Services

91 Fire Walls Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved noncombustible materials. Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. Department of Fire Services

92 [handout] Vertical Continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) above both adjacent roofs. Exceptions: 4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of combustible roof sheathing or Department of Fire Services Fire Walls

93 705.6 (contd) decks provided: 4.1. There are no openings in the roof within four feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall, 4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B roof covering, and 4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of four feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the roof is protected with e inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of two- inch (51 mm) nominal ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of four feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. Department of Fire Services Fire Walls

94 The term fire wall and fire separation wall are often confused. The two types of walls are not interchangeable. Department of Fire Services Findings

95 Fire resistance rating directories do not typically distinguish between fire walls and fire separation walls. It is important that the architect/engineer not only specify the required fire resistance rating of a wall assembly, but also establish if a true fire wall is required and specified per the provisions of 780 CMR. Fire resistance rating directories do not typically distinguish between fire walls and fire separation walls. It is important that the architect/engineer not only specify the required fire resistance rating of a wall assembly, but also establish if a true fire wall is required and specified per the provisions of 780 CMR. Because of the 780 CMR fire wall continuity requirements, the same fire-resistance rated design approach would need to be continuous for the entire height of the wall. Because of the 780 CMR fire wall continuity requirements, the same fire-resistance rated design approach would need to be continuous for the entire height of the wall. Department of Fire Services Findings

96 Many of the directories for fire resistance rated walls specify limitations that must be met (i.e. maximum height) Many of the directories for fire resistance rated walls specify limitations that must be met (i.e. maximum height) National and State building code making committees should revisit the waiver of parapets for fire walls – a feature required in early building codes to combat conflagrations from occurring. National and State building code making committees should revisit the waiver of parapets for fire walls – a feature required in early building codes to combat conflagrations from occurring. Department of Fire Services Findings

97 Fire Suppression Water Flows 780 CMR: Group R An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 780 CMR [NFPA 13, NFPA 13R, NFPA 13D] shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R occupancy. Department of Fire Services

98 NFPA 13: – The minimum water supply requirements for a sprinkler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream allowance to the water supply for the sprinklers. NFPA 13: – The minimum water supply requirements for a sprinkler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream allowance to the water supply for the sprinklers. NFPA 13:Table (500gpm Extra Hazard; 250 gpm Ordinary Hazard; 100 gpm Light Hazard) NFPA 13:Table (500gpm Extra Hazard; 250 gpm Ordinary Hazard; 100 gpm Light Hazard) Department of Fire Services Fire Suppression Water Flows

99 NFPA 13R:A – Other rules from NFPA 13 such as …hose stream demand…are not intended to be referenced by [NFPA 13R:] Department of Fire Services Fire Suppression Water Flows

100 As NFPA 13 addresses only the fire sprinkler system design, the standard does not require provisions for fire flows. As NFPA 13 addresses only the fire sprinkler system design, the standard does not require provisions for fire flows. As such systems are meant for occupant life safety, NFPA 13R does not require consideration of fire flows in the water supply calculations. As such systems are meant for occupant life safety, NFPA 13R does not require consideration of fire flows in the water supply calculations. Traditionally, the requirements for outside fire flow are within the scope of the fire code. Where developed in 527 CMR, BBRS could consider the addition of correlating notes in Chapter 9 of 780 CMR. Traditionally, the requirements for outside fire flow are within the scope of the fire code. Where developed in 527 CMR, BBRS could consider the addition of correlating notes in Chapter 9 of 780 CMR. Department of Fire Services Findings

101 Fire Department Apparatus Access Traditionally, the requirements for FD apparatus access are within the scope of the fire code. BBRS could consider the addition of correlating notes in Chapter 5 of 780 CMR. Department of Fire Services

102 Building Access for Fire Department 780 CMR:506.2 Frontage increase – 780 CMR:506.2 Frontage increase – Every building shall adjoin or have access to a public way to receive an area increase for frontage. Where a building has more than 25% of perimeter on a public way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accordance with the following: Department of Fire Services

103 Building Access for Fire Department I f = Allowable area increase (%) F = Open frontage (feet) P = Perimeter length (feet) W = Width of open frontage (feet) **>20 ft. *Note Errata at Department of Fire Services

104 780 CMR:Table 503 Limits the size that a building can be built by limiting the area per floor, the number of stories, and the height. The limits specified by the table can be increased in certain situations by providing open spaces around the building (frontage increase) Department of Fire Services Findings

105 Interpretation of the 780 CMR criteria for what is considered open space is divergent. Interpretation of the 780 CMR criteria for what is considered open space is divergent. The building code commentary for the 2003 IBC explains that added open frontage is intended to give building trade-offs for buildings that have increased access for fire department use. The building code commentary for the 2003 IBC explains that added open frontage is intended to give building trade-offs for buildings that have increased access for fire department use. Department of Fire Services Findings

106 The IBC 2003 commentary indicates that areas occupied as public streets and parking lots are qualified for the frontage increase. The IBC 2003 commentary indicates that areas occupied as public streets and parking lots are qualified for the frontage increase. Interpretations are divergent on the impact of steep grades, landscaping, or other similar impediments, on a spaces qualification for frontage increases. Interpretations are divergent on the impact of steep grades, landscaping, or other similar impediments, on a spaces qualification for frontage increases. Site layout is often decided way in advance of building permit application. Site layout is often decided way in advance of building permit application. Department of Fire Services Findings

107 DFS/DPS staff will look at recommendations to the BBRS for consideration of adding fire department input into the open space provisions that appear in the national and state codes. (780 CMR:506.2) Department of Fire Services Findings

108 MA Comprehensive Fire Safety Code (527 CMR) Applies to all new & existing situations Department of Fire Services

109 Fire Department Access 527 CMR: Buildings of Habitable Occupancy – Each building built for residential occupancy after the approval of 527 CMR (9/1/93) shall include a suitable paved access for fire apparatus on at lease one side of the structure. In addition, a clear, unobstructed way shall be provided from such fire apparatus access point to all exits of such building. Department of Fire Services

110 Fire Department Access 527 CMR: 10.03(10)(a) – 527 CMR: 10.03(10)(a) – The head of the fire department shall require and designate public or private fire lanes as deemed necessary for the efficient and effective use of fire apparatus. Fire lanes shall have a minimum width of 18 feet. Department of Fire Services

111 Even with sites that comply with the minimum requirements for fire apparatus access, direct access for additional apparatus may be lost once initial responding fire department apparatus were positioned. Even with sites that comply with the minimum requirements for fire apparatus access, direct access for additional apparatus may be lost once initial responding fire department apparatus were positioned. DFS staff will look at recommendations to the BFPR for consideration of adopting model development planning standards. DFS staff will look at recommendations to the BFPR for consideration of adopting model development planning standards. Department of Fire Services Findings

112 Findings: Some FDs were experiencing insufficient water at subject fires to apply master streams to the burning structure. Findings: Some FDs were experiencing insufficient water at subject fires to apply master streams to the burning structure. Findings: DFS staff will look at recommendations to the BFPR for consideration of adopting model development planning standards. Findings: DFS staff will look at recommendations to the BFPR for consideration of adopting model development planning standards. Department of Fire Services Fire Suppression Water Flows

113 Fire Prevention Laws MGL Chap. 148 Section 26I – In a city…which accepts the provision of this section, any building hereafter constructed or hereafter substantially rehabilitated so as to constitute the equivalent of new construction and occupied in whole or in part for residential purposes and containing not less than four dwelling units including, but not limited to…apartments…shall be equipped with an approved system of automatic sprinklers… Department of Fire Services

114 Findings: Where adopted, the fire sprinkler installation needs to be installed in accordance with the standards referenced in 780 CMR and the head of the fire department enforcing this provision needs to determine an adequate system. Department of Fire Services Findings

115 PART III Prevention tools Department of Fire Services

116 Construction Control & Design Responsibilities 780 CMR:116 Construction Control requires involvement of registered professionals [Handout] 780 CMR:116 Construction Control requires involvement of registered professionals [Handout] Professional taking design responsibility – not the role of the code official Professional taking design responsibility – not the role of the code official Make sure the people are properly registered Make sure the people are properly registered Submitted documents should have wet stamp with date and signature per statute Submitted documents should have wet stamp with date and signature per statute PE must stamp every page per PE Board PE must stamp every page per PE Board MA licenses individual architects/engineers not companies MA licenses individual architects/engineers not companies Department of Fire Services

117 Project participants change responsible architect/engineer in middle of project Project participants change responsible architect/engineer in middle of project Design architect/engineer is never established Design architect/engineer is never established Installing contractors submit documents that have been reviewed by an architect/engineer that is not the responsible architect/engineer Installing contractors submit documents that have been reviewed by an architect/engineer that is not the responsible architect/engineer Architects/engineers not properly registered or following license regulations Architects/engineers not properly registered or following license regulations Department of Fire Services Findings Multiple-board discussions and rulings are necessary to address Construction Control (BBRS, BFPR, PE, Architect)

118 Code Summary (recommended) Explains the designers methodology and basis of the building arrangement and overall fire protection requirements to the code official Department of Fire Services

119 Many of the summaries are cookie cutter and reference irrelevant codes/standards Many of the summaries are cookie cutter and reference irrelevant codes/standards Often done up front but not updated as changes are made in the project Often done up front but not updated as changes are made in the project Department of Fire Services Findings

120 Chapter 34 Analysis Applies to renovations, alterations, and additions to existing buildings that are subject to Construction Control Applies to renovations, alterations, and additions to existing buildings that are subject to Construction Control Determination of applicability based on the size of the overall building, not just the change. Determination of applicability based on the size of the overall building, not just the change. Answers questions as to what fire safety features are required as a result of the changes. Answers questions as to what fire safety features are required as a result of the changes. The Fire Department, in addition to the Building Official, is charged with reviewing the Chapter 34 analysis as it relates to fire safety concerns (Chapter 9 and Chapter 4). The Fire Department, in addition to the Building Official, is charged with reviewing the Chapter 34 analysis as it relates to fire safety concerns (Chapter 9 and Chapter 4). Department of Fire Services

121 Some code officials are inadvertently not requiring submittal of this helpful and code required analysis Department of Fire Services Findings

122 Community Development Proceedings Many communities have been successful in addressing local fire department access and fire flow concerns through code official recommendations at local special permit/appeal hearings. Department of Fire Services

123 Code Development These are your codes. These are your codes. Both 780 CMR and 527 CMR are changed frequently based on public comments. Both 780 CMR and 527 CMR are changed frequently based on public comments. Anyone can submit public comments to the Boards and attend Board meetings. Anyone can submit public comments to the Boards and attend Board meetings. There is a Fire Prevention Fire Protection (FPFP) subcommittee of the Board of Building Regulations and Standards (BBRS). There is a Fire Prevention Fire Protection (FPFP) subcommittee of the Board of Building Regulations and Standards (BBRS). Submit code change proposals to ICC, NFPA, etc. Submit code change proposals to ICC, NFPA, etc. Department of Fire Services

124 Interpretation Disputes Questions can be sent to BBRS and BFPR, as applicable, to see if the board could issue an interpretation Questions can be sent to BBRS and BFPR, as applicable, to see if the board could issue an interpretation The Building Code Appeals Board is an avenue for parties aggrieved by a decision of the building official or, in some cases, the fire official. The Building Code Appeals Board is an avenue for parties aggrieved by a decision of the building official or, in some cases, the fire official. Department of Fire Services

125 CONTACTS Office of the State Fire Marshal Massachusetts Department of Fire Services PO Box State Road Stow MA (978) (fax) Fire Department Assistance North of Mass Pike: (978) South/Along Mass Pike: (978) (978) Fire Code Concerns: (978) Building Code Assistance: Department of Fire Services


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