2The 10 Key Elements of Effective Transition Services** 1. Education and development of entire system2. Stable sources of funding3. Getting entire system involved in transition process4. Life Skills assessments and training5. Social support development/permanency6. Employment and Educational support7. Real life experience8. Most appropriate living arrangements9. Addressing of special needs10. Aftercare**And a well-paid case-manager to make it all work!
3So who still needs Independent Living? Youth who are ready to go out on their ownYouth who do not want to/cannot live with othersYouth who do not want to be adopted/were adoptedYouth who enter system as teens in states that end at 18Youth with mental health issuesYouth with criminal backgrounds/sex-offensesYouth who want to/do not want to return to unstable familiesPregnant/parenting youthYouth who do not want to leave foster care but need to
4Training of System and IL staff on needs of transition age youth The time frame we and youth have to work withinThe transition realities of all youthThe research on homelessnessThe developmental needs of T.A.Y.The current service system/lack ofWho is in charge of overseeing this processThe role of the case-manager/caseworkerLife skills assessment/training strategiesCommunity resources/national resourcesSpecial needs youth
5Living Arrangement Options Foster homes Group homesIndividual apartments Shared housingSupervised apartments Host homesRoommates SheltersAdoptive homes Relative homesTrailers Adult/youth apartmentsWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of each option?
6$ources of Funding Purchase of service contracts; state or country Shifting of funding from other placementsHUDDonated buildingsSet-asidesMcKinney Vento/supportive housingFamily Unification ProgramFoundationsChafeePrivate donations of supplies/furnishings/cashUnited Way
7Keys to operating successful housing programs Planned preparation of youth and adultsClear policies and expectationsConsistent supervision and monitoringPlans for when things aren’t workingManagement of risk and liabilityStaff who can engage and motivate youthConnections with landlords/housing entitiesTolerance of normal behaviorMultiple options/back-up plans
8Common Concerns Who signs the lease? How can you tell if a youth is ready for IL housing?What about liability? Damages?What is the best housing option?How often do you need to see a youth?How do you find landlords willing to rent to youth?Do youth have to contribute anything?Can we place foster youth in TLP/HUD programs?Shouldn’t we focus more on keeping youth with adults?What about visitors/roommates?What about after office hour crises?
9Life Skills assessments and training Sharing assessment resultsBuilding life skills training from assessment resultsCreating workbooksUsing internet for life skills materialsAlready developed curriculaGames, videos, former clients, guest speakersUsing IncentivesOne-on-one training/groupsWeekly/monthly/weeklong/camps/retreats
10The Core Case-management Strategy: Talking Transition Help youth see and prevent potential problems/optionsHelp youth make decisionsGive youth responsibility to take actionKeep a future focusExpect resistanceProcess “mistakes”Develop patience
11Addressing Special Needs Pregnant/parenting youthYouth with MH/CD issuesYouth with developmental disabilitiesYouth with criminal records/sex-offendersYouth with unique cultural backgroundsLGBTQI2-S youthYouth from gangsImmigrant youthYouth with chronic medical problems
12Aftercare Emergency assistance Non-emergency financial assistance Provisional dischargeSecond chancesAllow for re-entryCounseling/supportInvolvement of former youth in training/policy developmentConnections to adult servicesReferrals to needed resources
13Useful Publications “Housing Options for Independent Living Programs” Available at or or“Moving In: Ten Successful IL/TL Program Models”Available at Northwest Media orHousing Assistance for Youth Who Have Aged Out of Foster Care: The Role of the Chafee Foster Care Independence ProgramHousing for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care: A Review of the Literature and Program Typology“A Future Near Me: Questions to guide a young adult’s journey to self-sufficiency”National Resource Center for Youth Services“A Path Near Me: Questions to guide a young Native American journey to the future”“Operation Independence: Individual and group life skills training activities”National Resource Center
14Bio: Mark J. Kroner LISW-S Mark is an independently licensed social worker who has worked with thousands of youth in transition in the child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health and homeless youth systems. Mark has written numerous articles and books on housing and self-sufficiency and has been active as a 21 year IL program director, advocate, trainer and national consultant.Mark has four children, ages 23,25,27 and 30 and two grandchildren, all in various states of transition.