Presentation on theme: "Markets and efficiency Today: Why controlling the market is often bad for efficiency."— Presentation transcript:
Markets and efficiency Today: Why controlling the market is often bad for efficiency
Rent control in Isla Vista Who thinks it is a good idea? Why? Who thinks it is a bad idea? Why?
Rent control in Isla Vista Suppose that rent control was implemented in Isla Vista, at $1200 per month for a 2-bedroom apartment Who currently lives in I.V.? Who would want to live in I.V. if rent control was passed?
Outcome More people want to live in I.V. than apartments are available This, by itself, will lead to a shortage of apartments in I.V. Some of you will be very unhappy that you cannot live in the home of first choice
What will managers do? Apartment managers will know that a flood of applications will come in for leases starting in June and September They will be able to pick and choose who lives in their apartments
What will managers do? Other methods can be used to choose tenants Increased credit requirements Increased deposits Increased application fees Reduced amenities (low quality carpet, infrequent painting and maintenance) (Illegally) accept bribes
What will happen over time? Nobody will want to build new apartments for rent, lowering the long- run supply Some apartments may convert to vacation condos if short-term rentals are not included in rent-control law More grad students, post-docs, faculty, and staff will likely live in I.V.
But wait! Dont I have a right to live in I.V.? No Unless the government steps in once again, rent control will lead to a sizable excess demand
Long-run consequences of rent control Suppose that the long-run equilibrium of apartments in I.V. is $2,400 per month rent, and 2000 units rented With rent control of $1,200/month, we see excess demand ($100s) (100s units) excess demand
Long-run consequences of rent control Notice that supplied apartments for rent are cut in half in the long run with rent control Only 1/3 of the people that want apartments will get them ($100s) 100s units excess demand
Lets survey the class again Rent control in Isla Vista Who thinks it is a good idea? Why? Who thinks it is a bad idea? Why?
Rent control summary Who wins? People renting in I.V. w/rent control (maybe) Who loses? People who want to live in I.V. w/o rent control but are unable to find an apartment Apartment owners and managers Some people currently renting in I.V.
Elasticity and price control How does elasticity play a role in price controls? We need to look at elasticity on both the supply and demand sides ($100s) 100s units excess demand
Elasticity and price control Demand Q, ( 50%) P, ( 50%) ε = %ΔQ / %ΔP = 1 Supply Q, ( 50%) P, ( 50%) ε = %ΔQ / %ΔP = 1 ($100s) 100s units excess demand
Elasticity and price control When both price elasticity of supply and demand are 1, a price control 50% below the equilibrium price leads to an excess demand equal to the initial equilibrium quantity ($100s) 100s units excess demand
Elasticity and price control What if each elasticity is smaller than in my example? What if excess demand in I.V apartments is only 200 units instead of 2000 units? None of the arguments change, although the severity may decrease some
Price control and surplus With lower consumption, total economic surplus goes down One side of the market may make gains, however
Price control and surplus Equilibrium without price controls Price: B Quantity: Q1 Consumer surplus: ΔABC Producer surplus: ΔBCD Total surplus: ΔACD
Price ceiling at G Total surplus is trapezoid ADFE (at most) ΔCEF is potential surplus that is never gained
Price ceiling at G Are consumers better off with price controls? Gain Rectangle BGFH Losses ΔCEH Queuing costs
Price ceiling at G Suppliers are worse off Producer surplus falls to ΔDFG
Summary/Other ideas A price ceiling, such as rent control, is an ineffective means of providing low- cost rent to those that want it Maybe there is another way of achieving a goal of low rent Two possible ways of doing this Subsidies to students that rent First-come, first-served policy