28. COOLING TOWERPurpose of a cooling tower is to provide cool water at a certain temperature.The water used in a cooling tower is cooled by evaporation and is reused many times.
3Cooling WaterThe original method of cooling Cooling Water system is what is called straight pond type.By 1920 the spray pond was the system generally in use.The water was sprayed into the air to break it up into smaller particles, by discharging it through spray nozzlesThe water issuing from the nozzle created a draft which , aided by natural breeze, effected the necessary evaporationThe objections to the method were its low cooling capacity and high water losses
4Cooling TowerThe lost of water blown away in droplet form amount to 5 to 10 percent of the water circulated.This is expensive and often damaging to nearby property and equipmentThe result was installation of fences around pond.thus , the spray type cooler was developed.
5Cooling TowerThe first natural draft type of cooling tower were built in These cooling towers were often called atmospheric type of towers.After a time the forced draft and induced draft towers were developed.
6Cooling Tower Advantage Corrosion and scaling of cooling equipment is not as severe as with untreated river or well waterCost of water is comparatively lower since it is reused many times.The large lines, pumps, and sewer used to transfer water from river to a unit and back to the river would very expensive
7Fundamentals Governing Cooling Fluids require heat to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state and they give up heat in changing from a gas to a liquid. (When water is vaporized the liquid is cooled)The temperature at which a change of state occurs is constant during the change, but this temperature will vary with pressure. [Increase in pressure requires increase in temperature to change water to vapor].Heat always will flow from a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature.
8Evaporation A large factor that has decided effect on cooling tower evaporation is the process of evaporation.Laws of evaporations are reviewed here:Evaporation increases as temperature increases.Evaporation increases with the extent of exposed surfaceEvaporation is much greater in dry air than in air containing vapor.Evaporation increases as the vapor is removed from the surface of the liquid.The rate of evaporation is determined by the pressure on the exposed surface (atmospheric pressure).
9Type of Cooling Towers Natural draft Also called atmospheric or open type, is one in which the air movement through the tower is dependent only upon atmospheric conditionForced draftA mechanical-draft tower in which the fans located at the inlet or base of the tower and is forced upward through the top at lower velocityInduced draftA mechanical draft cooling tower is a mechanical draft tower having one or more fans installed at the air outlet of the tower
10Cooling Tower: Mechanism of Heat Transfer The cooling medium used in cooling towers is air. The amount of moisture that air can absorb varies with its temperature and increases greatly with a rise in temperature. The function of a cooling tower is to bring air and water into intimate contact so that the water will be cooled by the air.This cooling or interchange of heat is accomplished by convection and evaporation. In a tower, convection is taking place between the air and the water. Heat is also being dissipated through evaporation.For any liquid to evaporate, it must gain heat from some source. The relatively dry air is becoming laden with moisture from the evaporating water. The water that is now vapor has taken heat from the liquid water and, in turn, reduced the temperature of the liquid.
14Cooling TowerPrevious figure provides illustration of a mechanical draft typecooling tower.Advantage of mechanical draft tower over natural draft:Require less spaceRequire less pipingRequire only about half the pumping head, which varies from 10 to 30 ft. Height of mechanical draft tower does not have to be as great as a natural draft tower.Realize improved operations due to colder water temperatureAre independent of wind velocity, hence, they can be designed for more exacting performance.
15Mechanical Draft Tower The primary features of this tower are:FanWater return pipesWater distribution boxHot water basinFillCold water basinDrift eliminator
16Mechanical Draft Tower OperationsAir flowAir flow is created by use of propeller located in the top of the towerAir is drawn in through slats on the sides of the tower and discharged to the atmosphere from the top of the tower (Induced draft)Water flowWater is pumped through plant cooling equipmentThe returning hot water flows to the top of the tower through the return system pipingThe hot water flows into the hot water basin through the distribution box at the top of the tower. The hot water basin is perforated to allow the water to drip through the tower in many small flow streams
17Mechanical Draft Tower The space below the hot water basin is packed with “fill” which consists of staggered rows of perforated plates. The purpose of the fill is to expose as much water surface to the cooling action of the air flow as possible.3. Cooling towerIllustrated tower design is called “cross flow” because the air crosses the path of the waterWater cascades down through the fill sectionAir is pulled across the flowing water and exhausted out the top of the tower.The water is cooled by contacting with the airCooling is accomplished primarily by evaporation of a small portion (2/3 % of the circulating water)Temperature of water reduced by 25/30 oFEvaporation loss account to about 75 % of make up water.
18Cooling Water Management Fundamentals Cycles of Concentration2. Make Up- The loss of water by evaporation, blowdown, andwindage requires that water be added to the system3. Blowdown- Because of the loss of water from evaporation, thedissolved solids in the water are concentrated.- This would cause mineral deposits in the system if a portion of thewater were not drained off and replaced with fresh water. This drainoff is called blowdown.- This blowdown prevents the solids from building up in the waterand coating or fouling the cooler surface
19Cooling Water System Problems Scale – A dense adherent layer of minerals tightly bound to itselfand to metal surfaceCorrosion – A natural process converting processed metals totheir native state.Fouling – Loose non-adherent deposits made up of insolubleparticulates present in the make up water or introducedto the cooling system by process leaks, wind ormicrobial growth.
20Deposits are conglomerates that accumulate on water wetted Deposit ControlDeposits are conglomerates that accumulate on water wettedsurfaces and interfere with system performance, either by graduallyrestricting flow or by interfering with heat transfer.Deposits include scale, foulants, or combination of the two.Scale forms when the concentration of a dissolved mineral exceeds its solubility limit and the mineral precipitates- Langelier index or Stability index indicates a condition of CaCO3 supersuturation.
21Deposit Control (con’t) Foulant is any substance present in the water in an insoluble form, such as:1. silt2. oil3. process contamination4. biological masses.Deposits are most often an accumulation of sediments or settled solids that drop out of at some point in a system where the water velocity falls to a level too low to support the material in the stream.
22Deposit Control Deposition: Likely order of events - Silt from make up water may begin to deposit in a low flowsection of a heat exchanger- If water is on the border of CaCO3 instability, the settling solidsmay act as the initiator for the scaling mechanism, furtherobstructing flow, and deposit (silt and scale) will form- Dormant microbial organisms may become active, and ifthe deposit were analyzed, all 3 constituents would be found.- The sequence could have started with microbial activityblocking the flow, causing the codeposition of the other 2constituents
23Deposit Control Deposit Sources The sources of potential depositing material may be:External to the system1. Water supply itself- suspended solid such as silt- soluble or precipitated iron- manganese- carryover from clarifier or other pretreatment unit2. Air particularly in an open recirculating cooling system with cooling tower. Cooling towers act as large air scrubbers capturing- dust- microbes- debris
24Deposit Control Deposit Sources (con’t) external to the system con’t: 3. Industrial gases- ammonia- hydrogen sulfide- sulfur dioxide etcthey react chemically, changing the water characteristics. Sometimes this change can be so dramatic that scaling, corrosion, or microbial masses may suddenly obstruct a system in a matter of days.4. Leakage of process fluids into a water stream.This leakage may contribute directly or indirectly to the deposits. Most common effect is to provide food for microbial growth.- organic such as oil or food substances
25Deposit Control Deposit Sources external to the system con’t: 5. Miscellaneous external sources- water used in pumps- lubricant applied to valves, pump glands and bearingthat leak into system.
26Deposit Control Deposit Sources (con’t) Internal to the system (originating from circulating system)1. chemical precipitation2. formation of corrosion products3. polymerization4. biological growthChemical precipitation - is usually induced by temp change ordisturbance in the equilibrium of systemPolymerization of organic – example is coagulation of proteinsw/c occurs when water temp reaches60 to 65 oCBiological activity - may be encouraged by nutrients and foodsubstances present in the water.
27Treatment to Control System Deposits Chemical treatments to control system depositsThreshold inhibitorsDispersantsSurface active agentsCrystal modifier1. Threshold InhibitorsThis includes sequestering agents such as polyphosphates,organophosphorous compounds, and polymers (ie polyacrylates)These exerts a “threshold effect” reducing the potential for precipitationof calcium compounds, iron and maganese. Threshold inhibition causesa delay in precipitation by application of substoichiometric amount ofInhibitor. This threshold dosage is possible because chemical adsorbsOnly on the surface of the incipient precipitate, so that only a smallFraction of the precipitating material consumes the active inhibitor.
28(con’t)2. DispersantsOrganic dispersants include organophosphorous compound andPolyelectrolytes. Polyelectrolytes will disperse suspended solids byAdsorbing to their surfaces, adding electrostatic charge to eachparticle, causing mutual repulsion.Other dispersants condition the surfaces of the suspended solids inother ways to keep them from coagulating and settling.3. SurfactantsThey are surface active chemicals. Those that penetrate and dispereBiomasses are called biodispersants. Some are surface active agentsare effective wetting agents and anti foulants which help fluidize solidsand keep them moving with the flowing water. Others emulsifyhydrocarbon and removed by blowdown.
29(con’t)4. Crystal modifiersPresence of particulates induces precipitation of scale fromsupersaturated solution. Scale is often one of the fraction of a deposit.Although precipitation is not prevented by crystal modifier, the resultantmaterial that precipitates is structurally weak – more like a foulant thanscale.
30CorrosionCorrosion is the deterioration of a substance (usually meta) or its properties by either chemical or electro-chemical reaction with a given environment.Why metals corrode.Most metals are found in nature as “ores” which are metallic oxide. The most common form of iron ore is an oxide called hematite (Fe2O3). Rust is converted to iron by the addition of energy (during refining) and this same energy is expended when the iron converts back to rust due to corrosion.It is the energy stored in the metal during the refining process which makes corrosion possible. This energy supplies the driving force for corrosion.
31Corrosion Nature of corrosion reaction Nearly all corrosion problems are due to the presence of water. Corrosion in the presence of water is an electrochemical process.Electrical current flows during the corrosion process.In order for current to flow, there must be a driving force, or a voltage source, and a complete electrical circuit.
32Corrosion Voltage source In order for current to flow, there must be a driving force, or a voltage source, and a complete electrical circuit.
33CorrosionCorrosion is nature’s way of returning processed metals, such assteel, copper, and zinc to their native states as chemical compounds orminerals. For example iron in its natural state is an oxidized compound(ie Fe2O3, FeO, Fe3O4), but when processed into iron and steel it losesoxygen and becomes elemental iron (Fe)In the presence of water and oxygen, it revert back to an oxide (Fe2O3And Fe3O4)Corrosion reactionLoss occurs from that part of the metal called the anodic area (anode). In this case, iron (Fe0) is lost to the water solution and becomes oxidized to Fe2+ ion.As a result of the formation of Fe2+, two electrons are released to flow through the steel to the cathodic area (cathode).Oxygen (O2) in the water solution moves to the cathode and completes the electrical circuit by using the electrons that flow to the cathode to form hydroxyl ions (OH-) at the surface of the metal.
34Chemically, the reactions are as follows: (con’t)Chemically, the reactions are as follows:Anodic reaction: Fe0 Fe e-Cathodic reaction: ½ O H2O e- 2(OH-)In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen ion (H+) participates in the reaction at the cathode instead of oxygen, and completes the electrical circuit as follows:2H e- H2Fe2+OH-O22e-anodecathode
35Corrosion RateAs noted before, 3 basic steps are necessary for corrosion to proceed. If any step is prevented from occurring, then corrosion stops. The slowest of the 3 steps determines the rate of the overall corrosion process. The cathodic reaction (step 3) is the slowest, so it determines rate of corrosion. This is due to difficulty of oxygen encounters in diffusing through water.One factor in increasing corrosion then is increasing water temperature, which reduce its viscosity and speed the diffusion of oxygen.A large cathodic surface area relative to the anodic area allows more oxygen, water, and electrons to react. Increasing the flow of electrons from the anode to corrode it more rapidly.Conversely, as the cathodic area becomes smaller relative to the anodic area, the corrosion rate decreases.
36Polarization/Depolarization As noted earlier, hydroxyl ions (OH-), hydrogen gas (H2) or both, areproduced at the cathode as a result of the corrosion reactionIf these products remain at the cathode they produce a barrier that slows the movement of oxygen gas or hydrogen ions to the cathodeThis barrier becomes a corrosion inhibitor because it insulates or physically separates oxygen in the water and the electrons at the metal surfaceDepolarizationThe removal or disruption of this barrier exposes the cathode and corrosion resumes
37Polarization/Depolarization (con’t)DepolarizationBarrier removal is enhanced by two factors:1. Lowering the ph of water. This increases the concentration of the hydrogen ions reacting with hydroxyl ions to form water, thereby eliminating the hydroxyl barrier2. Increasing water velocity into the turbulent flow region tends to sweep away hydroxyl ions and hydrogen from the surface of the cathode, therby depolarizing it.
38(con’t)Metal surface is covered with innumerable small anodes and cathodes develop from:1. Surface irregularities from forming, extruding and other metalworkoperations2. Stresses from welding, forming, or other work3. Compositional differences at the metal surface(different microstructure)
40Type/Form of Corrosion Galvanic corrosionTwo dissimilar metals are connected and exposed to water environmentOne metal becomes cathodic, other becomes anodeexample – copper and steel, steel becomes the anode. It is said to be anodic to copper w/c is the cathodeFixed concentration of water
41Type/Form of Corrosion Concentration cell corrosionSingle metal exposed to different concentration (ionic strengths) of water solutionGalvanic current – attack occurs at the anodeTake place in the concentrated solution (concentration cell)
42Type/Form of Corrosion Stress corrosion crackingCorrosion environmentTensile stress1. external force which causes stretching, bending2. internal stresses locked in metal during fabrication, rolling,shaping, welding the metalCaustic EmbrittlementType of stress corrosion that sometimes accurs in boilersCaused by high concentration of NaOH in boiler waterHigh stress such as where the boiler tubes are rolled into the drumWater must contain silica, which directs the attack to grain boundaries leading to intercrystalline attack
43Type/Form of Corrosion Chloride induced stress corrosion crackingCaused by chloride concentration and tensile stress focused together to cause both inter-granular and trans-granular branch-type crackingType of stress corrosion cracking induced by a chloride concentration cellChloride level in water is not much of a factorMain factor is the existence of conditions that allow chloride concentration cells to develop
44Type/Form of Corrosion TuberculationIs the results of a series of circumstances that cause various corrosion process to produce a unique nodule on steel surfaces1. Initially, metal ions are produced at an anodic site2. A high ph, caused by hydroxyl or carbonate ions, encouragesiron to redeposit adjacent to the anodic area3. Mechanism continues until the original anodic area is pittedfrom metal loss and the pit is filled with porous iron compoundsforming a mound4. Within the tubercle, the aquatic environment is high inchlorides and sulfates and low in passivating oxygen5. As a result, both oxygen differential cells and concentrationcells forms6. Advanced tubercles may contain sulfides or acids.
45Types/forms of corrosion Impingement attackA form of selective corrosion involving both physical and chemical conditions, which produce a high rate of metal loss and penetration in a localized area.1. It occurs when a physical force is applied to the metal surface bysuspended solids, gas bubbles, or the liquid itself, with sufficientforce to wear away the natural or applied passivation film of themetal2. Process occurs repeatedly and each occurrence results in theremoval of successive metal oxidation layers3. Cavitation is a form of impingement attack often found in pumpimpellers. This is caused by collapse of air or vapor bubbles onmetal surface with sufficient force to produce rapid, local metalloss.
46Type/Form of Corrosion DezincificationType of corrosion usually limited to brassTwo forms – general (large surface of affected) and plug type (highly localized)Occurs when:1. Zinc and copper are solubilized at the liquid-metal interface2. Zinc is carried off in the liquid medium, while copper replates3. The replated copper is soft and lacks the mechanical strengthof the original metal
47Corrosion InhibitionComplete corrosion protection of metal and alloys maybe impracticalGoal is control corrosion to tolerable level1. By good design2. Selection of proper materials of construction3. Effective water treatmentNote:Level of corrosion = metal loss in mils per year1 mil = in = cm1mpy = mm/yrIn cooling system, an acceptable loss may as much as 10 to 15 mpyIn supercritical boiler it might be zero
48Corrosion Inhibition Material of construction Use of corrosion- resistant materials such as copper, stainless steel, copper-nickel alloy, concrete, and plastic may offer advantages over carbon steelCoating and liningUse of insulation if joining of dissimilar metal which can lead to galvanic corrosion can not be avoidede.i. – insulating aluminum equipment from steel piping to prevent galvanic attack
49Corrosion Inhibition Applied Chemical Inhibitors Any chemical applied to the water to stop anodic reaction will stop corrosionAny material added to reduce the rate-determining cathodic reaction will reduce corrosion.Typical corrosion inhibitorsAnodicCathodicBoth anodic/cathodicChromateCalcium carbonateOrganic filming aminesNitriteZincPhosphonatesOrthophosphate SilicatePolyphosphate
50Monitoring Results Corrosion coupon - Pre-weighed metal specimens put into system for 30 to 90 days- Following removal, they are cleaned, reweighed, and observed- Metal loss and type of attack (general, pitting) is then determineCorrosion nipples- Similar to coupons in concept, but not preweighed and onlyvisually evaluatedCorrosion meter- The meter works by measuring an electrical potential acrosselectrodes made of the metal being evaluated
51Control of Microbial Activity Planning an effective microbial control program for a specific watertreatment process requires an examination of:The types of organisms present in the water system and the associated problems they can causeThe population of each type of organism that may be tolerated before causing a significant problem
52Typical Microorganisms and their Associated Problems Type of OrganismBacteria1. Slime forming bacteria2. Spore forming bacteriaType of ProblemForm dense, sticky slime with subsequent fouling. Water flows can be impeded and promotion of other organism growth occurs.Become inert when their environment becomes hostile to them. However, growth recurs whenever the environment becomes suitable again. Difficult to control if complete kill is required. However, most processes are not affected by spore formers when the organism is in the spore form.
53Typical Microorganisms and their Associated Problems Type of OrganismBacteria3. Iron depositing bacteria4. Nitrifying bacteria5. Sulfate reducing bacteriaType of ProblemCause the oxidation and subsequent deposition of insoluble iron from soluble ironGenerate nitric acid from ammonia contamination. Can cause severe corrosion.Generate sulfides from sulfates and can cause serious localized corrosion.
54Typical Microorganisms and their Associated Problems Type of OrganismBacteria6. Anaerobic corrosivebacteriaB. Fungi1. Yeasts and moldsType of ProblemCreate corrosive localized environments by secreting corrosive wastes. They are always found underneath other deposits in oxygen deficient locations.Cause the degradation of wood in contact with the water system. Cause spots on paper products.
55Typical Microorganisms and their Associated Problems Type of OrganismC. AlgaeD. ProtozoaE. Higher life formsType of ProblemGrow in sunlit areas in dense fibrous mats. Can cause plugging of distribution holes on cooling tower decks or dense growth on reservoirs and evaporating ponds.Grow in almost any water which is contaminated with bacteria; indicate poor disinfection.Clams and other shell fish plug inlet screen
56Typical Microorganisms and their Associated Problems Notes:In water treatment bacteria is grouped according to its preferred environmentAerobic bacteria – group that require oxygen. Found in aeratedwater such as in cooling water basin.Anaerobic bacteria – don’t use oxygen. Found in oxygen deficientareas such as under deposits, in crevicesand in sludges.
57Physical Factors Affecting Microbe Growth TemperatureSpecies of microbes indigenous to soil, water and vertebrates organisms thrive in broad temperature range of 10 to 45oC.But nature has also produced select organism that can live at temperature as low as 0oC and as high as 100 oC.Scientists also report finding life in hot springs and adjacent to ocean vents on the sea floor at temperature of over 200oC.Denaturation of protein, which causes coagulation within cell occurs below 70oC.Commercial pasteurization (a de-naturation process) of milk is done at 63oC holding temperature for 30 minutes or at 72oC, process is completed in only 15 seconds. This kills all disease producing (pathogenic) organism.
58Physical Factors Affecting Microbe Growth TemperatureMost actively growing microbes of interest in water treatment technology are killed at 70 oC.At 0 to 5oC organisms becomes dormant. Freezing kills many cells, but those that survive are capable of complete recovery from the shockDry heat results in dehydration of all cellular matter and oxidation of intracellular constituents
59Physical Factors Affecting Microbe Growth Moisturemoisture is required for microorganism to grow actively. Manyspecies of pathogenic organisms are killed quickly by dryingOrganisms in the spore or cyst state can survive low moistureenvironment. If transported to a location where moisture levelssuit them, they survive and form new colonies.Radiationorganisms containing chlorophyll are able to use the radiantenergy or artificial lighting to convert CO2 to carbohydrates,which they need for cell synthesisNot all radiant energy are useful to cells and certainfrequencies of radiation are harmful. Radiation is therefore onemethod of microbe control.
60Physical Factors Affecting Microbe Growth OsmosisThe diffusion of water through a semipermeable membraneseparating 2 solutions of different solute concentrations. Thewater flows in a direction to equalize the concentration.When microbes are placed in salt solution, the water insidethe cells is extracted by the surrounding medium. Thisdehydrates the cell so they are unable to grow or are killed.Technique is used to preserve food.
61Chemical Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Microbes have been found to exist in the broad ph range of 1 to 13Most common microbes associated with water – algae and bacteria – usually maintain their internal ph at 7.Generally yeasts and molds favor depressed ph in the range of 3 to4Bacteria and fungi can both contribute to industrial problems over a ph range of 5 to 10One of the surprising facts of microbe life is that there is such a profusion and variety of forms that some can almost always be found that will resist damage by , or even thrive on, chemicals that are toxic to animal and plant life.example: Phenol was one chemical biocides used for sterilization, yet at low concentration, it is digested in activated sludge waste treatment. Similarly some bacteria thrive in wastewaters that contain herbicides, pesticides, and other toxic chemical.
62Method for Controlling Microbial Activity Only limited use can be made of physical conditions that inhibit or destroy microbial life.Among chemical conditions that might be used for microbe control, ph is the only likely candidate for practical results. Even this is limited unless the system water can be kept at ph over 10.Since neither physical nor aquatic chemical conditions can be changed in a practical way to control microbial growth, toxic chemicals must be applied as biocides.The 2 commonly used types are oxidizing and nonoxidizing
63where: No represents the bacteria population at the time zero Chick-Watson LawLaw showing the relationship for all chemical biocides that expresses effectiveness, measured as percent kill or inactivation, concentration of biocide applied to the water, and time of contact of the biocide with the organism or virus.Chick – Watson Law: N/No = exp(- k’cnt)where: No represents the bacteria population at the time zeroN is the reduced population at time t, after biocide applicationexp = base of natural logarithm system 2.718k’ is the rate constantc is the concentration of biocide, mg/ln is an empirical valuet is the time of contact, min
64Oxidizing BiocideChlorine gas, the chemical biocide most commonly used hydrolyzes rapidly when dissolved in water according to the following equation:Cl2 + H2O H+ Cl- + HOClHydrolysis occurs less than a second at 65oF. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the active ingredient formed by this reaction.This weak acid (HOCl) tends to undergo partial dissociation as follows:HOCl H+ + OCl-This reaction produces a hypochlorite ion and a hydrogen ion.