Presentation on theme: "Brief History of School Design 1800s One room school houses with one teacher who was responsible for the education of all grade levels. Churches and homes."— Presentation transcript:
Brief History of School Design 1800s One room school houses with one teacher who was responsible for the education of all grade levels. Churches and homes were places for education as well. In most small towns schools and churches were the social centers of the community.
1806-1840 Schools were often dirty noisy and ill suited to the process of education. As populations grew and the country become more urbanized the need for larger schools with assembly line like curriculum and larger rooms were created. These large rooms consisted of rows of benches similar to churches.
1840-1850 The evolution of the large room schools led to smaller rooms off the large room. This was the beginning of sorting and grouping the children by age and putting them in their own room with a separate teacher. This also started the promotion of one grade to the next. This occurred mainly in urban areas while rural areas stayed with one and two room schools.
1848 – Present As the delivery of education became more sophisticatedexpansion of subjects, extended use of text books, lengthening of the school year, and so onit was a natural step to sort the students into groupings by age. The design response was a four story building design to hold hundreds of students. The first three floors had a series of four classrooms opening onto a common corridor. Each classroom housed 50 plus students. But that number reduced as curriculum changed. The introduction of gymnasiums and music rooms added to the building design. The look of the schools varied based on community and location.
Now Flexible Learning Environments – Classrooms and areas that can be opened up to include more students or spaces that create a small intimate teaching environment Sustainable Practices – Use of green materials, buildings that create their own energy, buildings that work with the environment. Day lighting – Bringing in effective natural daylight to areas of the building. Community Based schools – Schools that are open to the community that they are in. School Building as a teaching model – Buildings that teach the users how their systems work. Sidwell Friends Middle School by Kieran Timberlake www.kierantiberlake.com www.rvca.ca/new_building/green.html
SITE ANALYSIS Natural Physical Features – Contours of site, drainage patterns, soil type, trees, rocks, ridges, valleys, pools, and ponds Man-Made Features – Walls, curb cuts, fire hydrants, power poles, and paving patters. Circulation – Vehicular and pedestrian movement patterns on and around the site. Utilities – Electricity, gas, sewer, water and telephone. Sensory – Visual, audible, tactile and olfactory aspects of the site. Human and Cultural – Analysis of surrounding neighborhood in terms of culture, psychological, behavioral and sociological aspects. Climate – Knowing conditions such as rainfall, snowfall, humidity, and temperature variations over months of the year as well as prevailing wind direction, sun-path and vertical sun angles.
Basic School Organization Basic School Areas Administration Classrooms Multipurpose/Cafeteria Gym Outdoor area Library
HIGH PERFORMANCE TOOLS TO UTILIZE WATER: rain water harvesting, on-site wastewater treatment, storm water management, xeriscape landscaping, high-efficiency irrigation systems, biofiltration, water-saving plumbing fixtures ENERGY: photovoltaics, passive solar strategies, external sun shades, wind turbines, high-performance building envelopes, ground source geothermal combined with heat pumps, thermal mass, high-efficiency mechanical systems with web-based or computer controls, green roofs, cool roofs INDOOR AIR QUALITY: natural ventilation, solar chimneys, displacement ventilation, wind walls, use of low-VOC materials RECYCLED AND GREEN MATERIALS: construction site recycling, recycled content in building materials, certified green building materials TRANSPORTATION AND MULTIPURPOSE: accommodation of alternative transportation systems, adaptable school plans that can evolve with changing educational strategies, and schools that serve as community centers for after hours
Resources The Language of School Design, Design Patterns for the 21 st Century Schools by Prakash Nair & Randall Fielding http://www.mahlum.com/home/?intuition http://www.bassettiarch.com/index.htm http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/ http://www.blrb.com/ http://www.hoarch.com/welcome/ http://www.dlrgroup.com/#/1/ http://www.dkarch.com/ http://www.nbbj.com/ http://kierantimberlake.com/home/index.html http://www.mithun.com/ http://www.nacarchitecture.com